Method and device for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: claimed is method and deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters. Deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters contains aeration tank and hydrocyclone for separation of sludge from aeration tank into relatively heavy fraction, which includes bacteria, performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and relatively light fraction. Hydrocyclone contain input, connected with aeration tank, for return of separated relatively heavy fraction into aeration tank and upper output, connected with aeration tank, for discharge of separated relatively light fraction from hydrocyclone. Hydrocyclone contains cylindrical segment and conic segment. Surface of internal walls of conic segment is rough on certain parts. Rough surface of internal walls of conic segment has higher degree of roughness than surface of internal walls of cylindrical segment. Method of purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters is realised in deammonifying installation.

EFFECT: simplification of ammonium and nitrite conversion into elementary nitrogen.

33 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method for the purification of ammonium wastewater in deammonification a plant comprising at least one aeration tank, in which the first through exercising aerobic oxidation bacteria (AOB) ammonia is converted to nitrite and then with the help of carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), in particular, by using Planctomyceten, ammonium and nitrite are converted to elemental nitrogen, and in which the sludge from the aeration tank is fed into the hydrocyclone and separated on a relatively heavy fraction, which contains mainly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) and the relatively light fraction and a relatively heavy fraction is returned to the aeration tank.

Furthermore, the invention relates to deammonification purification of ammonium wastewater containing at least one aeration tank and at least one hydrocyclone for separation of sludge from the aeration tank at a relatively heavy fraction, which contains mainly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) and a relatively light fraction, wherein the hydrocyclone is connected by fluid from the aeration tank, inlet for introduction of a Ile, connected by fluid from the aeration tank, bottom outlet for �of returning the separated relatively heavy fraction in the aeration tank and the top issue for discharging the separated relatively light fraction from the hydrocyclone.

Wastewater treatment activated sludge - a method for biological purification of wastewater in the wastewater. The municipal waste water through metabolic activity of aerobic chemoorganotrophic of microorganisms, so-called activated sludge, cleaned, thus, to the extent possible, from organic contaminants. The method is applied after separation or deposition of large particles, which is dewatered, separated, fermented and burned. For municipal wastewater, this method relates to classical intensive methods of wastewater treatment. Benefits it is a generally applicable and a good cleansing effect on the waste water to reduce the content of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and nitrogen-containing compounds (N).

In accordance with the method of wastewater treatment with activated sludge, the installation may operate continuously, i.e., in the continuous mode of operation (traditional waste-water treatment plant) and in batch mode (sequence batch setting). In addition, there are also the so-called membrane systems for wastewater treatment with activated sludge, in which purified water is separated from the sludge through the membrane. General DL� all options, what's in the water in the form of a suspension, the mass of bacteria or biomass, also called activated sludge, performs biological treatment of wastewater. To do this, each installation contains at least one aeration tank in which wastewater is mixed with activated sludge and, thus, are in intensive contact with activated sludge.

Activated sludge is called the biomass generated in the aeration tank for aerobic biological wastewater treatment by splitting contained in the wastewater substances. It consists mainly of bacteria, fungi, protozoa microorganisms, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and other component parts. Microscopic studies show that flakes of activated sludge, composed of bacteria and protozoa, "active". Therefore it is called activated sludge. Activated sludge with the technical application of the method of wastewater treatment with activated sludge, it is usually in the form of flakes, which, apart from living and dead biomass, contain adsorbed and naplastovany organic compounds and minerals.

In the method of wastewater treatment activated sludge after digestion of harmful substances in wastewater by using activated sludge will be the separation of the sludge from the purified water during the so-called secondary treatment. B�most of the separated sludge is returned to aeration tank as return sludge or sludge recirculation. Thereby maintaining a constant concentration of activated sludge in the aeration tank. Contained in the return active sludge flakes regenerate the purifying abilities of activated sludge. Not recycled, a small volume flow activated sludge is called surplus sludge. Excess sludge, therefore, is part of the active sludge, which is discharged to maintain the desired concentration of biomass and pumped into the device for processing sludge. This remote is an excess of biomass, usually served together with the primary sludge digested sludge and is then fed into the device for removing water from sludge.

In conventional wastewater is currently used almost exclusively by biological nitrification/denitrification for nitrogen removal. Under nitrogen removal refers to the biological conversion of nitrogen-containing compounds such as ammonium (NH4), nitrite (NO2- ) and nitrate (NO3) to elemental nitrogen (N2), which is released into the environment in the form of a harmless gas as the end product. During nitrification, ammonium is oxidized by oxygen via the intermediate product nitrite to nitrate. The subsequent denitrification in the first stage of restoration of the nitrate is reduced to nitrite, and the second stage of the restoration is to �zhota.

Biological nitrification/denitrification has the disadvantage that a high oxygen demand and the consequent high energy consumption. In addition, when denitrification organic carbon is consumed, which negatively affects the process of refinement and properties of the sludge.

Unlike nitrification/denitrification by deammonification requires only 40% oxygen, and/or power consumption for the removal of nitrogen is reduced by 60%. Deammonification is autotrophy the process by which organic carbon is not required. While the rest of the cleaning process becomes more stable.

Deammonification is an effective method for biological removal of nitrogen, for example, also for wastewater with high ammonium concentrations. When biological deammonification with suspended biomass involved two groups of bacteria, with one hand, carrying out aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB), which convert ammonium to nitrite, on the other hand, carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation and produce elemental nitrogen bacteria (Anammox), in particular, Planctomyceten who carry out this stage by using previously produced nitrite.

Performing aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB) in the metabolism produce ten times more bacteria than OS�westsyde anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox). The residence time of the sludge in the system with one sludge should be at least so long lasting that could increase the concentration of slow-growing performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox).

Method for single-stage or two-stage deammonification known for a long time, for example, from WO 2007/033393 A1 or EP 0327184 B1.

Among the shortcomings, it should be noted, in particular, considerably longer regeneration time carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), which is 10 times more than exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB). Thus, a stable system can be formed only if the residence time of the sludge, i.e. bacteria in the tank is large enough. This, in turn, requires a large reaction volume and the corresponding design of the tank.

In addition, a sufficiently high temperature waste water (>25°C) is the basis for existence, i.e. growth is carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox). However, for heating the wastewater is required to spend a lot of electricity, so the method cannot be executed effectively in the removal of water at low temperatures.

In addition, the presence of such groups of bacteria (NOB) that convert the formed nitrite under aerobic cond�tions in nitrate, is harmful. The regeneration of this group of bacteria is 10 times less than the regeneration time of carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox). To compensate for this difference in regeneration time was already thinking about how to aerated phase system with one sludge is carried out at a very low level of oxygen (<0.4 mg O2/l). Thus forming the nitrate bacteria (NOB) oxygen is not available or is insufficient for the conversion of nitrite the amount of oxygen that, in turn, is very favourable for carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox). However, the decrease of oxygen supply during the aerated phase has the disadvantage that when the aerobic conversion of ammonium to nitrite oxygen supply is also limited, and as a result, this conversion is very slow.

Slow-growing Planctomyceten, the regeneration time which is 10 times greater than that forming the nitrite bacteria (AOB) have such a property that a lot of individual bacteria form a spherical system, the so-called granules Planctomyceten. These granules Planctomyceten have a very high density (1010bacteria/ml).

The purified waste waters contain, in addition to split an ammonium, organic substances such as organic acids and other organic substances, which are described on�them the option of dissolved COD", and the content of which can reach several hundred mg/l (typically 100-2000 mg/l). These organic substances are decomposed very fast-growing heterotrophic bacteria. Heterotrophic bacteria are deposited often on the granules Planctomyceten and form them organic coating, i.e. a layer. This coating leads to a restriction of diffusion and, thereby, hinders the conversion of ammonium (NH4) and nitrite (NO2) to elemental nitrogen (N2) as the substrate (NH4and NO2) must first pass through this coating, before you reach for Planctomyceten to convert.

The purified waste water, wastewater often, which consist of digested sludge (anaerobic stabilization of sewage sludge) or mainly of wastewater with elevated concentrations of nitrogen, contain, in addition to ammonium (NH4and organically degradable substances inorganic substances such as calcium carbonate and/or struvite stone, which can also be deposited on the surface of the granules Plantomyceten. Also contained in the wastewater harmful substances, which can be several hundred mg/l (typically 50-1000 mg/l), form or increase the coating on the granules Planctomyceten.

The formation of the coating on the granules Planctomyceten leads, eventually, to massive interference when working deammonification installation. Compare�official measurement between free, without coating, the pellets Planctomyceten and granules with the coating showed that the share of the resulting nitrogen (mg N/g dry matter), you'll be 4-6 times.

Sediments, i.e., the layer on the granules Planctomyceten can be seen with the naked eye. Available without coating, the granules are bright red / rust color; covered with a layer of granules are, depending on the degree of coverage, from slightly reddish / brown to dark brown color.

From EP 2163524 B1 already discloses a method and diamondiferous installation of the prior art. In this method, to maintain a constant biomass concentration in the plant, it is sent to the digested sludge that is allocated excess sludge is not removed from it, and is fed into the hydrocyclone, and it is divided into a relatively heavy fraction (bottom outlet) and the relatively light fraction (top release). This uses the difference between the density contained in the excess sludge of both groups of bacteria (Anammox/AOB) to separate the heavy phase of excess sludge, which contains mainly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) and light phase (AOB). By returning to the aeration tank installation contained in the hard phase groups of bacteria (Anammox) is provided by the increase in the concentration in the aeration tank is a slow-growing groups of bacteria(Anammox).

Both partial fractions of silt, namely, a relatively light fraction and a relatively heavy fraction, strongly differ in density and biological characteristics. We are talking about completely different groups of bacteria. Consisting of many individual bacteria pellets Planctomyceten, in contrast, presents in the form of flakes exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB) have a significantly higher density. By means of the density difference of the two groups of bacteria can divide heavy, containing granules Planctomyceten, phase allotted excess sludge, and a light phase containing the flaky part of sludge. As a result of such differences in densities of the pellets Planctomyceten have significantly more weight than cereals.

The basis of the invention is to propose an improved method for the purification of ammonium wastewater. In addition, the basis of the invention is to offer a superior diamondiferous installation for the purification of ammonium wastewater.

The first of these tasks, according to the invention, is solved by using method, the distinctive features of which are contained in paragraph 1 of the claims. Additional embodiments of the invention described in the dependent paragraphs 2-7.

Thus, according to the invention, there is provided a method for PTS�tough ammonium wastewater in which activated sludge from the aeration tank at least periodically introduced into the hydrocyclone, and in which, after separation of the activated sludge in the hydrocyclone as a relatively heavy fraction and the light fraction, which contains mainly engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB), come back in at least one aeration tank installation, and during the separation of activated sludge in the hydrocyclone carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), which, unlike exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB), a higher density by means of centrifugal forces and forces of the flow in a hydrocyclone are deposited on the rough surface of the inner wall of the hydrocyclone, and through relative motion between moving quickly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) and stationary rough surface of the inner wall of the hydrocyclone are formed abrasive forces by which organic or inorganic layer, existing on carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), in particular, the granules Planctomyceten at least partially removed.

Thus, it is proposed an improved method for the purification of ammonium wastewater, because the conversion of ammonium and nitrite� to elemental nitrogen by carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) is facilitated by the fact that the limiting diffusion of an organic or inorganic layer on carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), is presented in the form of granules Planctomyceten, is removed. Wherein the layer is so carefully removed or washed off with granules is that the granules are not damaged by abrasive forces. The preservation of structure in the form of granules is the basic condition to produce nitrogen in the plant. Using the fact that, as a relatively heavy fraction and the light fraction after separation in the hydrocyclone are back in the same aeration tank, which was given to put into the activated sludge hydrocyclone, the ratio required for deammonification type of bacteria, namely, between carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), in particular, the granules Plantomyceten, and performing aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB), in particular, Nitrosomonas, in the installation, i.e. in a biological system, is maintained. At the same time, by removing the layer, increases the recovery of nitrogen. As presented in the form of flakes exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria, mainly found in relatively light fraction of the activated sludge to the process of deammonification running efficiently, and the recovery of nitrogen was good, necessary, Thu�, in addition to pellets Planctomyceten, in the aeration tank again also relatively light fraction.

Thus, a rough surface of the inner walls of the hydrocyclone are precipitated presented in the hydrocyclone in the form of a system of many individual bacteria pellets Planctomyceten because they have a higher density than is presented in the form of flakes exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation by bacteria. The roughened surface of the inner wall of the hydrocyclone, compared with the adjacent surface of the inner walls or in comparison with the surface of the inner wall of a conventional hydrocyclone, has a higher degree of roughness. The surface of the inner wall is rough or has a surface coating that has a roughness greater degree. Through contact with the rough surface of the inner walls to the granules are fed abrasive forces, which are formed so that the organic and inorganic coating on the granules carefully removed without damaging the system of individual bacteria or certain bacteria. After removal of the layer of granules is returned through the bottom outlet of the hydrocyclone in the aeration tank.

Presented in the form of flakes and available mainly in the light fraction osushestvlyaetsya ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB), as a result of the fact that they have a significantly lower density than pellets, derived from forming in the hydrocyclone and upward inner vortex flow through the upper output of the hydrocyclone. Thus, these bacteria (AOB) do not get into close contact with a rough surface of the inner wall of the hydrocyclone the hydrocyclone cone, so these bacteria in the form of flakes are not exposed to abrasive forces and are discharged from the hydrocyclone is essentially not damaged, and served in the aeration tank. The flocculent ability of bacteria to deposition can be maintained at least without deterioration. The damage to the structure of cereal, on the contrary, worsen the ability of the bacteria to the deposition so that the required for deammonification exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB) to be output together with the muddy water from the biological system, i.e. from the aeration tank.

Through the proposed in the invention method and removal of organic and inorganic layer on the granules Planctomyceten acting as a barrier to diffusion, the share of the resulting nitrogen (mg N/g dry matter) increased 4-6 times.

Moreover, in practice, particularly preferably to activated sludge in the hydrocyclone, were influenced by the centrifugal force, which in 30-180 times b�lshe, what is the acceleration of gravity. If the magnitude of centrifugal force corresponds to the values of this order, and, as a result, the rate of activated sludge, in particular, the heavy fraction increases to high values, the layer on the granules Planctomyceten is removed almost completely. At low velocity layer is not removed or is removed is very small, and at higher values consisting of individual bacteria pellets or choose individual bacteria are damaged.

In addition, preferably, separated in the hydrocyclone, the relatively heavy fraction and a relatively light fraction of the activated sludge, respectively, fully returned to the aeration tank. By returning provided that the introduced from the aeration tank in the activated sludge hydrocyclone fully back again in the same aeration tank, and thereby, between the different types of bacteria (Anammox, AOB) in the aeration tank installation install the balance.

A preferred form of implementation of the presented method is also achieved due to the fact that during the separation of activated sludge in the hydrocyclone containing mainly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria relatively heavy fraction located in contact with the conical segment of the hydrocyclone rough surface EXT�nih walls and then is discharged from the hydrocyclone through its bottom outlet, and containing mainly engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB) in relation to the light fraction located in contact with the cylindrical segment of the hydrocyclone smooth surface of the inner walls and then is discharged from the hydrocyclone through his top issue. Thus the abrasive forces are applied exclusively on pellets Planctomyceten and thereby remove organic or inorganic layer, while engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB) are in contact only with the smooth surface of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment. Thus, it is possible to prevent the damage presented in the form of flakes exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria. The selected degree of surface roughness of the inner walls depends on the diameter of the cylindrical segment of the hydrocyclone. The larger the diameter of the cylindrical segment, the greater must be chosen degree of roughness. Tests have shown that the surface of the grains have a size up to 100 microns.

Another, particularly preferred embodiment proposed in the invention method is provided by the fact that after the first pre-specified time interval, during which the activated sludge is introduced into the hydrocyclone, and during which about t�wanting a relatively light fraction and a fraction separated, and as the heavy fraction and the light fraction are returned to the aeration tank, a hydrocyclone is a second preset time interval, during which the hydrocyclone from the aeration tank instead of the active unit is allocated excess sludge and excess sludge is separated in the hydrocyclone into a relatively heavy fraction and a relatively light fraction, and only a relatively heavy fraction is returned to the aeration tank, or is captured and fed into the aeration tank during installation, while a relatively light fraction is removed.

During the first time interval is contained in a relatively heavy fraction granules Planctomyceten rinsed, i.e. the available granules of organic or inorganic layer is at least partially removed. During the second time interval, on the contrary, by removing the light fraction and returning the heavy fraction in the aeration tank installation slowly growing group is carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) is accumulated in a biological system, i.e. in the aeration tank. The share of performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) during the second time interval may be increased so that the reaction volume of the tank, respectively, decreasing, and stable processes in ustanavlivaente.

In this case, which often occurs in practice, it is established that the duration of the first time interval is greater than the length of the second time interval. In practice, it is preferable that the duration of the first time interval was approximately 1.5-4 times longer than the duration of the second time interval. Especially preferably, for 70% of the total time of operation of the hydrocyclone was injected activated sludge, and within 30% of the total time was introduced excess sludge. The duration of the corresponding time interval is set depending on the number corresponding to the size of the hydrocyclone and the size of the aeration tank, and the number of produced nitrogen.

In accordance with the invention, furthermore, provides that the hydrocyclone alternately and continuously during the first time interval is introduced activated sludge, and during the second time interval is introduced excess sludge. This means that after entering the excess sludge during the second time interval begins immediately after the first time interval, during which the hydrocyclone is injected activated sludge.

The second task according to the invention, is solved using deammonification system according to the features set forth in paragraph 8 of the claims. Additional Varian�s of the invention are described in the dependent paragraphs 9-15 of the claims.

In accordance with the invention, thus, provides diamondiferous installation for purification of ammonium wastewater, which is introduced into the hydrocyclone sludge is a sludge, while the upper output of the hydrocyclone to return the separated relatively light fraction, which contains mainly engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB), is connected by fluid from the aeration tank, and in which at least one hydrocyclone comprises a cylindrical segment and a conical segment, and the inner surface of the walls of the conical segment at least partially is rough, and the rough surface of the inner wall of the conical segment has a greater roughness than the surface of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment.

By such design of the hydrocyclone and the connection for fluid of the hydrocyclone with the aeration tank provides superior diamondiferous installation for purification of ammonium wastewater. Using the proposed in the invention of equipment available on the granules Planctomyceten organic and inorganic layers can be removed carefully, and it is particularly effective. By removing layers acting as a barrier for diffusion, conversion of ammonium and nitrite � elementary nitrogen using Planctomyceten much easier.

By the conical segment of the hydrocyclone has a higher degree of roughness than the cylindrical segment, provided that the necessary to remove the layer of abrasive forces are brought exclusively to a relatively heavy fraction. Because relatively light fraction, due to lower energy density, derived by upward inner vortex flow in the hydrocyclone through the top issue, a relatively small fraction of misses in direct contact with a rough surface of the inner wall of the hydrocyclone. Thus, the abrasive power is not supplied to the light fraction, so contained in the light fraction flake bacteria (AOB) are not damaged. This is a great advantage, since, in particular, this fraction of the sludge has a much worse ability to precipitation. Damage could lead to further deterioration in the ability to precipitation, resulting in these bacteria deduced from biological systems, i.e. from the aeration tank and are no longer reported to deammonification.

In practice, it is particularly important that the surface of the inner wall of the conical segment of the hydrocyclone at least in certain areas, had the roughness of grain to 100 μm. If the grain is larger, is represented in the system realizing�e anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria, namely, granules Planctomyceten, damaged. In some cases, the selected roughness depends, in part, on the selected diameter of the hydrocyclone. The larger the diameter of the cylindrical segment of the hydrocyclone, the greater must be chosen roughness.

An embodiment of the invention provides that the surface of the inner wall of the conical segment has a surface coating with a higher degree of roughness. However, surface coating and the surface of the inner wall of the conical segment may be in the form of a single whole, or surface treatment may be combined with the surface of the inner wall of the conical segment of the non-detachable connection, for example, with glue.

It is particularly preferable that the cyclone was at least partially resistant to change forms of plastic and/or surface coating of aluminum oxide. Such an embodiment of a hydrocyclone provides a simple and reproducible method for the manufacture of the hydrocyclone. The hydrocyclone can be manufactured by injection molding, and forming a surface coating of aluminium oxide is introduced in the form or applied to the rod before the introduction of plastics. Then, during the cooling process, the aluminum oxide �aeginetia with the surface of the inner wall of the hydrocyclone, and formed a single unit. Through the introduction of aluminium oxide in the surface of the hydrocyclone aluminum oxide is firmly fixed on the surface of the inner walls. Depending on the required granularity of the surface coating can be changed either the number or the size of grains of aluminum oxide.

A particularly simple possibility is achieved by the fact that surface treatment is performed in the form of a film or fabric. Then they can fix with a permanent connection to the respective surface of the hydrocyclone.

In addition, in accordance with the invention provides that a higher degree of surface roughness of the inner wall of the conical segment is achieved by mechanical and/or chemical treatment. In this case, the roughness can be created directly on the surface or in the surface of the inner wall of the hydrocyclone.

The preferred embodiment of the present invention provides that the surface of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment is made smooth. While in contact with the surface of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment prevents damage exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria.

The invention allows for various options for implementation. For further explanation, er� principle of performance one of them is shown in the drawings and described below.

Fig.1 - installation for the purification of ammonium wastewater in the form of a simplified schematic;

Fig.2 - the relation of the flows depicted in Fig.1 hydrocyclone in isometric projection;

Fig.3 is shown in Fig.1 hydrocyclone, side view.

Fig.1 shows diamondiferous installation 1 for the purification of ammonium wastewater 2. Installation 1 can be made in the form of a series-cyclic, in the form of a conventional treatment plant with secondary treatment, or also in the form of so-called membrane systems with membrane for refund of biomass. The installation 1 comprises at least one aeration tank 3, in which the wastewater is mixed with 2 suspended biomass, i.e., activated sludge, and are in intensive contact.

By pump 4 activated sludge consisting of a mixture of sludge and water, is fed from the aeration tank 3 in the hydrocyclone 5 (direction indicated by arrow 6). The hydrocyclone 5 comprises a cylindrical segment 7 and the conical segment 8. The cylindrical segment 7 has a diameter from 50 mm to 250 mm. by means of the pump 4 in the hydrocyclone 5 creates a predetermined pressure which, depending on the diameter of the cylindrical segment 7 of the hydrocyclone 5, is from 1.1 bar to 2.1 bar. Through the inlet 9 in the cylindrical segment 7 activated sludge is introduced into the hydrocyclone 5 and centrifuged to relatively heavy FR�the Ktsia, which contains mainly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), in particular, the granules Planctomyceten, and the relatively light fraction, which contains mainly engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB), in particular, Nitrosomonas. Relatively heavy fraction is discharged from the cyclone 5 via a conical segment 8, and through the bottom outlet 10 is returned to the aeration tank 3 (the direction indicated by arrow 11). Relatively light fraction is returned to the aeration tank 3 through the upper release 12 of the hydrocyclone 5 (direction indicated by arrow 13). Thus, the entire activated sludge, is introduced from the aeration tank 3 in the hydrocyclone 5, is back in the same aeration tank 3, only separated by a relatively heavy fraction and a relatively light fraction. While a relatively heavy fraction is approximately 80%, and a relatively light fraction is about 20% imposed at the inlet of the hydrocyclone 9 5 volume of the sludge.

Fig.2 illustrates the relation of the flows depicted in Fig.1 hydrocyclone 5, and Fig.3 shows a hydrocyclone 5 in side view. Activated sludge from the aeration tank 3 is introduced through the inlet 9 tangentially into the cylindrical segment 7 of the hydrocyclone 5. While activated sludge moves along a circular path and flows downwardly in a downward VN�SNEM the vortex flow 14. By narrowing in the conical segment 8 of the hydrocyclone 5 the displacement amount does occur and the formation of pressure in the lower zone of the conical segment 8, which leads to the formation of upward inner vortex flow 15, which is excreted through the top issue 12 of the hydrocyclone 5. Relatively heavy fraction is deposited on the surface of the inner walls 16 of the hydrocyclone 5 and is discharged from the cyclone 5 via a bottom outlet 10, while the relatively light fraction is discharged from the hydrocyclone through the top 5 issue 12. In the depicted hydrocyclone activated sludge is exposed to centrifugal forces, which in 30-180 times the gravitational acceleration.

Drawn into the inner space 17 of the hydrocyclone 5, the surface of the inner walls 16 of the conical segment 8 has a rough surface coating 18, the degree of roughness which is greater than also directed into the inner space 17 of the hydrocyclone 5 surface 19 of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment 7. Surface coating 18 has a grain size of 100 μm and made of, for example, by using aluminum oxide, which is connected in a single whole with a synthetic material of the hydrocyclone 5. The chosen degree of roughness of the surface 18 depends on the diameter selected hydrocyclone 5. The larger the diameter cyl�indicacao segment 7, the greater must be the surface roughness of the coating 18.

If deammonification ammonium wastewater 2 in the aeration tank 3 installation 1 ammonium primarily converted to nitrite by performing aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB). Then with the help of carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), in particular, by using Planctomyceten, ammonium and nitrite are converted to elemental nitrogen. Thus Planctomyceten are composed of several individual bacteria granules which, unlike presented in the form of flakes exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AOB) have a significantly higher density. The existing aeration tank 3 activated sludge, thus tangentially introduced into the cyclone 5 via the inlet 9. Then in the hydrocyclone 5 activated sludge as a result of centrifugal force is separated into a relatively heavy fraction, which contains having a higher density is carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (pellets Planctomyceten), and a relatively light fraction, which contains mainly engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation (flaky) bacteria. By contact and relative motion between moving quickly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) in a relatively heavy�Eloy fraction and stationary rough surface 16 of the inner wall of the hydrocyclone 5 at least partially removed located on the granules Planctomyceten organic and inorganic layer, before the heavy fraction will be withdrawn from the hydrocyclone 5 through a bottom outlet 10. Relatively light fraction, on the contrary, is discharged from the hydrocyclone 5 (indicated by the arrow 20 in the form of dotted lines in Fig.3) without any contact with a rough surface 16 of the inner wall of the conical segment 8 with emerging internal vortex flow 15 through the upper release 12. As a relatively heavy fraction and the light fraction of the activated sludge after separation in the hydrocyclone 5 again fully return to the aeration tank 3.

Abrasive forces, i.e., the abrasive effect can be optimally controlled by combining the size of the hydrocyclone 5, in particular, the diameter of the cylindrical segment 7, the roughness of the surface 16 of the inner wall of the conical segment 8 and the duration of the operation of the hydrocyclone 5, together with the size of the biological system, i.e. the volume of the aeration tank 3.

1. The method of purification of ammonium wastewater (2) in deammonification installation (1) containing at least one aeration tank (3), in which first through exercising aerobic oxidation bacteria (AOB) ammonia is converted to nitrite and then with the help of carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), in particular through Planctomyceten, ammonium and nitrite are converted to electric�entary nitrogen and in which the sludge from the aeration tank (3) is fed into the hydrocyclone (5) and centrifuged to a relatively heavy fraction, which contains mainly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) and a relatively light fraction and a relatively heavy fraction is recycled to the aeration tank (3), characterized in that the activated sludge from the aeration tank (3) at least periodically injected into the hydrocyclone (5), and the fact that after separation of the activated sludge in the hydrocyclone (5) as a relatively heavy fraction and the light fraction, which contains mainly engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria, again returned at least one aeration tank (3) installation (1), and during the separation of activated sludge in the hydrocyclone (5) carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox), which, unlike exercising aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria, higher density, by means of centrifugal forces and forces of the flow in a hydrocyclone are deposited on rough surfaces of the inner walls of the hydrocyclone (5), and by relative motion between moving quickly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) and stationary rough surface (16) of the inner wall of the hydrocyclone (5) formed abrasive forces by which organic or inorganic layer, existing on carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation� bacteria (Anammox) in particular granules Planctomyceten at least partially removed.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the separated in the hydrocyclone (5) a relatively heavy fraction and a relatively light fraction of the activated sludge, respectively, fully recycled back to the same aeration tank (3).

3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that during the separation of activated sludge in the hydrocyclone (5) containing mainly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria relatively heavy fraction located in contact with the conical segment (8) of the hydrocyclone rough surface (16) of the inner walls and then is discharged from the hydrocyclone (5) through its bottom outlet (10) and containing mainly engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria is relatively light fraction located in contact with the cylindrical segment (7) of the hydrocyclone (5) smooth surface (19) the inner walls and then is discharged from the hydrocyclone (5) through the top issue (12).

4. A method according to claim 2, characterized in that during the separation of activated sludge in the hydrocyclone (5) containing mainly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria relatively heavy fraction located in contact with the conical segment (8) of the hydrocyclone rough surface (16) of the inner wall of � then removed from the hydrocyclone (5) through its bottom outlet (10), and containing mainly engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria is relatively light fraction located in contact with the cylindrical segment (7) of the hydrocyclone (5) smooth surface (19) of the inner walls and then is discharged from the hydrocyclone (5) through the top issue (12).

5. A method according to any one of claims. 1-4, characterized in that after the first preset time interval, during which the activated sludge is introduced into the hydrocyclone (5) and centrifuged to a relatively heavy fraction and a relatively light fraction and heavy fraction and the light fraction is recycled to the aeration tank (3), hydrocyclone (5) is a second preset time interval, during which the hydrocyclone (5) of the aeration tank (3) instead of activated sludge serves allotted excess sludge and excess sludge is separated in the hydrocyclone (5) the relatively heavy fraction and a relatively light fraction, and only a relatively heavy fraction is recycled to the aeration tank (3) or catch and is supplied to the aeration tank during installation, while a relatively light fraction is removed.

6. A method according to claim 5, characterized in that the duration of the first time interval is greater than the length of the second time interval.

7. A method according to claim 5, characterized in that the longitudinal�the length of the first time interval, 1.5-4 times longer than the duration of the second time interval.

8. A method according to claim 5, characterized in that the hydrocyclone (5) alternately and continuously during the first time interval is introduced activated sludge, and during the second time interval is introduced excess sludge.

9. A method according to claim 6 or 7, characterized in that the hydrocyclone (5) alternately and continuously during the first time interval is introduced activated sludge, and during the second time interval is introduced excess sludge.

10. Diamondiferous installation (1) for the purification of ammonium wastewater (2) containing at least one aeration tank (3) and at least one hydrocyclone (5) for separation of the sludge from the aeration tank (3) on a relatively heavy fraction, which contains mainly carrying out anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (Anammox) and a relatively light fraction, wherein the hydrocyclone (5) contains connected in fluid from the aeration tank (3) inlet (9) for introducing the sludge, connected by fluid from the aeration tank bottom outlet (10) for returning the separated relatively heavy fraction in the aeration tank (3) and the upper release (12) for discharging the separated relatively light fraction from the hydrocyclone (5), characterized in that introduced into the hydrocyclone (5) Il is an activated sludge, the top issue (12) of the hydrocyclone (5) for returning the separated relatively laid�OYe faction which contains mainly engaged in aerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria in the aeration tank (3) is connected by fluid from the aeration tank (3) and that at least one hydrocyclone (5) comprises a cylindrical segment (7) and a conical segment (8) and the surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) at least on certain sections is rough and rough surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) has a greater roughness than the surface (19) the inner walls of the cylindrical segment (7).

11. Installation (1) according to claim 10, characterized in that the surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) of the hydrocyclone (5) at least on certain sections has a roughness of grain to 100 microns.

12. Installation (1) according to claim 10, characterized in that the surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) has a surface coating (18) having a roughness greater degree.

13. Installation (1) according to claim 11, characterized in that the surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) has a surface coating (18) having a roughness greater degree.

14. Installation (1) according to claim 12 or 13, characterized in that the surface coating (18) and the surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) is made in the form of a single whole.

15. I�climate (1) according to claim 12 or 13, characterized in that the surface coating (18) is connected to the surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) via a permanent connection.

16. Installation (1) according to claim 12 or 13, characterized in that the hydrocyclone (5) at least partially consists of resistant to change forms of plastic and/or surface coating (18) of aluminum oxide.

17. Installation (1) according to claim 14, characterized in that the hydrocyclone (5) at least partially consists of resistant to change forms of plastic and/or surface coating (18) of aluminum oxide.

18. Installation (1) according to claim 15, characterized in that the hydrocyclone (5) at least partially consists of resistant to change forms of plastic and/or surface coating (18) of aluminum oxide.

19. Installation (1) according to any one of claims. 12, 13 or 17, characterized in that the surface coating (18) is made in the form of a film or fabric.

20. Installation (1) according to claim 14, characterized in that the surface coating (18) is made in the form of a film or fabric.

21. Installation (1) according to claim 15, characterized in that the surface coating (18) is made in the form of a film or fabric.

22. Installation (1) according to claim 16, characterized in that the surface coating (18) is made in the form of a film or fabric.

23. Installation (1) according to any of claims. 10-13, 17, 18, 20, 21, characterized in that a higher degree of roughness on�arnosti (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) is achieved by mechanical and/or chemical treatment.

24. Installation (1) according to claim 14, characterized in that a higher degree of roughness of a surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) is achieved by mechanical and/or chemical treatment.

25. Installation (1) according to claim 15, characterized in that a higher degree of roughness of a surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) is achieved by mechanical and/or chemical treatment.

26. Installation (1) according to claim 16, characterized in that a higher degree of roughness of a surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) is achieved by mechanical and/or chemical treatment.

27. Installation (1) according to claim 19, characterized in that a higher degree of roughness of a surface (16) of the inner wall of the conical segment (8) is achieved by mechanical and/or chemical treatment.

28. Installation (1) according to any of claims. 10-13, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, characterized in that the surface (19) of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment (7) is made smooth.

29. Installation (1) according to claim 14, characterized in that the surface (19) of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment (7) is made smooth.

30. Installation (1) according to claim 15, characterized in that the surface (19) of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment (7) is made smooth.

31. Installation (1) according to claim 16, characterized in that the surface� (19) of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment (7) is made smooth.

32. Installation (1) according to claim 19, characterized in that the surface (19) of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment (7) is made smooth.

33. Installation (1) according to claim 23, characterized in that the surface (19) of the inner wall of the cylindrical segment (7) is made smooth.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for biological purification of household and close to them in composition industrial sewage waters from organic compounds and nitrogen of ammonium salts. Initial sewage water is processed in alternating zones with reduced oxygen regime and aerobic regime with further settling biologically purified water and recirculation of active silt. First, sewage water is processed in two zones with reduced oxygen regime, where growth of attached microorganisms is performed on planar inert material with specific area of its surface in first zone 17 m2/m3 and in second- 21 m2/m3 and hydraulic load in first zone not higher than 1.38 m3/m2 of carrier and in second - 0.43 m3/m2 of carrier. After that, processing is carried out in two aerobic zones with specific surface of inert charge material 24 m3/m2 and hydraulic load 0.32 m3/m2 of carrier in each. Recirculated mixture of sewage water and active silt from last aerobic zone is supplied to beginning of first zone in amount 120-150% of volume of supplied sewage water. Concentration of oxygen in zones with reduced oxygen regime is supported in amount 0.5 mg/l, and in aerobic zones - 4-5 mg/l. Settling of purified water is realised for 1-1.5 hours.

EFFECT: method provides increased stability of purification processes, reduction of energy consumption for air supply, twofold reduction of volume of secondary settling tanks.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 cl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biological treatment of domestic and industrial effluents. Proposed device comprises tank divided by webs and partitions into separate sections and compartments, air feed system lines, effluents distribution and discharge lines and system of silt mixes distribution and biological filter. Said tank is composed of cylindrical outer wall 2 fitted coaxially at bed 1, mid cylindrical wall 3 and settler composed by lower conical part 4, lower cylindrical part 5, upper cylindrical part 6 and upper cylindrical part 7. Space between walls 2 and 3 is separated by different-height webs. Every compartment has separate web with bore at its bottom part. Space between mid wall 3 and settler is divided by vertical different-height webs with cutouts 51 into separate cascade-overflow sections. Settler bottom part has slotted valves and wastes trap 33 arranged at the bottom.

EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning, simplified process.

5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to purification of household and industrial sewage water. The method of sewage water purification includes balancing a water flow and biological purification with active sludge. Initial sewage water is supplied through a self-cleaning filter device for straining, and mechanically purified sewage water is discharged into a balance tank and supplied into a tank of biological purification. Separation of purified water and active sludge is carried out by means of submergible membrane cassettes with membrane modules. Separation of permeate is realised by the action of a weak vacuum. Permeate is supplied into a pure water tank and further by a gravity flow to an installation of ultraviolet disinfection. Disinfected water is discharged into a water body. Continuous aeration of the membrane cassettes with membrane modules is realised by means of a group of membrane unit blast blowers. The membrane modules are periodically washed and alternated with relaxation modes. Also realised is the periodic prophylactic cleaning of the membrane cassettes and periodic restoring cleaning.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve the quality of purified water discharges and provide the relaxation of applied devices.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for purifying waste water comprises hydraulically series-connected settling and balancing tank (C1), an anaerobic unit (C2.1), an anoxic unit (C2.2), an oxide unit (C3), a membrane filter unit (C4) and auxiliary equipment. The settling and balancing tank (C1) comprises a device for receiving starting waste water; an anaerobic unit (C2.1) adapted to feed therein activated return sludge together with waste water from the oxide unit (C3); the oxide unit (C3) is adapted to feed therein return sludge from the membrane unit (C4) is provided with an aerating device (C0); and the membrane filter unit (C4) is provided with an aerating device (C0) and a vacuum device for removing purified water (H2.1) for discharge.

EFFECT: high efficiency of purifying waste water, achieving maximum allowable concentration of contaminants on BOD5, COD, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorus, while ensuring small dimensions, mobility and universality of the apparatus, high reliability of the apparatus in conditions of a non-uniform qualitative and quantitative composition of the starting waste water.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. Disclosed are fed methods of producing high-molecular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in biomass (versions). The method comprises directing biomass into a reactor having at least one stimulating zone with a high average substrate concentration and at least one maintenance zone with a lower average substrate concentration; intermittently and repeatedly feeding an organic carbon-containing substrate into the biomass in the at least one stimulating zone; wherein substrate concentration in the stimulating zone lies between 10 and 1000 mg-COD/l; monitoring the respiration rate of the biomass and determining substrate concentration in the maintenance zone; circulating the biomass back and forth between the stimulating zone and the maintenance zone, so that the respiration rate of the biomass in the maintenance zone does not fall by more than 70% of the extant achievable maximum respiration rate of the biomass. When the biomass accumulates the required level of PHA or when PHA saturation level is achieved, the biomass is collected from the reactor. Another version of the method uses a sludge mixture containing biomass.

EFFECT: methods enable to obtain PHA with average molecular weight of at least 400000 g/mol.

18 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of a vertical sealed housing. In the housing there is a cavity with an anaerobic zone provided with means of gas-dynamic stirring, and a cavity with an aerobic zone provided with gas means of gas-dynamic stirring and aeration, one above the other separated by a horizontal partition. The workspace of the zones is filled with the immobilising and is equipped with pipes for input and output of liquid and discharge of gaseous products with the ability to recycle them. The immobilising cap is made in the form of a combination of hollow vertical rods filled with low-boiling liquid. The outer surface of each of the rods at least in the anaerobic zone is provided with finning.

EFFECT: increasing cleaning efficiency with the possibility of adjusting the degree of removal of contaminants in the anaerobic and aerobic zones depending on the type of liquid, energy security of manufacturing and requirements to depth of cleaning.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to field of biotechnology. Acidic leaching liquid is obtained by enrichment of leaching aerobic sulphur-acidifying microorganisms by their cultivation in water-containing initial material, which contains polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms, subjected to action of anaerobic conditions. Processing of solid material which contains heavy metals and phosphates is performed with leaching liquid, with release of heavy metals and phosphates from said solid material and absorption of released phosphates by polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms. Enriched with phosphorus biomass is separated. Also claimed is microbial composition, obtained by enrichment of leaching aerobic sulphur-oxidising microorganisms in water-containing initial material, containing polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms, subjected to action of anaerobic conditions. Initial material is cultivated with addition of source of oxidised sulphur in aerobic conditions at temperature from 15 to 37°C until pH value 4.0 or lower is achieved. Obtained phosphorus-enriched biomass is applied as nutrition source for plants.

EFFECT: claimed is method of selective extraction of phosphorus in form of biomass from solid materials, which contain heavy metals and phosphates.

13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for biological purification of ammonium-containing waste water, including at temperature of 7-25°C. The waste water is fed into an aeration tank (3) in which ammonium contained in the waste water is converted at a given oxygen concentration to elementary nitrogen. The formed excess sludge is fed for fermentation (13) which is accompanied by gas release. The sludge is then fed for drying, and the muddy water separated from the sludge, which contains 500-2000 mg/l nitrogen at 25-39°C, is fed into a deammonification reservoir (18), where nitrogen compounds contained in the muddy water are converted to elementary nitrogen. The excess sludge formed in the reservoir (18) is fed into an aeration tank (3), in which oxygen concentration is maintained below 1.0 mg/l. The ammonium contained in the waste water is first converted by anaerobically oxidising bacteria to nitrite. The ammonium and nitrite are then converted to elementary nitrogen by aerobically oxidising bacteria (ANAMMOX), particularly planctomycetes. Before feeding for fermentation, the excess sludge formed during deammonification in the aeration tank (3) is divided into a heavy phase containing anaerobically ammonium oxidising bacteria (ANAMMOX) and a light phase. The sludge heavy phase is fed into the aeration tank (3) and the light phase in form of excess sludge is fed for fermentation (13).

EFFECT: method provides energy-efficient biological purification of cold waste water containing ammonium with low content of organic carbon.

22 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recycling of organic substrates having no value as a starting material for making commodity products, especially organic fertilisers. For implementing the method, the starting substrate is subjected sequentially to the anaerobic processing with obtaining biogas, the aerobic processing with obtaining easily precipitating biosludge and the oxygen-containing gas, the separation into fractions with obtaining a liquid and a solid fraction, followed by thermal recycling of the solid fraction to obtain ash content and gaseous products. The biosludge thermal energy is used to control temperature mode of the anaerobic processing after its contact with the gaseous products of thermal recycling. The thermal recycling is carried out in the mode of gasification using oxygen-containing gas and to obtain gaseous products in the form of the generator gas. The temperature mode of the anaerobic processing and humidity of the solid fraction is controlled by the thermal energy of the biosludge liquid fraction. The biosludge liquid fraction is then sequentially subjected to additional anaerobic processing and stripping. The resulting ammonia water is used for preparing organic fertilisers.

EFFECT: method provides increase in energy efficiency of the recycling process, reduction of the cost, and improving the operational performance of the main anaerobic process.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of industrial effluents. Treatment of effluents containing organic compounds comprises pre-treatment step whereat effluents 11 with organic compounds are fed into oxygen-free tank 1. Compounds 12 containing nitrogen and phosphorus are added thereto to execute anaerobic biological treatment. Treated water is fed into tank 2 for anaerobic biological treatment. At second step, water is fed into tank 3 for anaerobic biological treatment to discharge thus treated water through solid-liquid phase separator as reprocessed water. At third step, reprocessed water is fed to separator 4 of membrane separation by reverse osmosis to divided pre-processed water into water 16 forced through reverse osmosis membrane and concentrated brine 17. At least a portion of concentrated brine 17 is forced back into oxygen-free tank 1.

EFFECT: lower costs.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and environmental protection. For cleaning filtering system is erected and used on soil slope surfaces. Filtering system is composed of the slope soil top layer processed with aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex. The latter comprises the mix of hydrolysed polyarcylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine at the ratio of 1:3.5-1:4.5, wt %. Processed soil sorption capacity saturated, said soil is removed and disposed or recovered.

EFFECT: simplified cleaning, higher erosion resistance of run-off surfaces.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Mixed coagulant from mineral raw material is obtained by dissolution of boehmite-kaolinite bauxide in autoclave with hydrochloric acid with concentration 220 g/l with ratio S:L=1:6 for 1-3 hours in interval of temperatures 150-180°C.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase coagulation ability of mixed coagulant - hydrooxichloride of aluminium and iron with concentration by Al2O3 2,32-6,87 and by Fe2O3 0,94-1,02 wt %, in water purification: by turbidity and colour.

2 dwg, 6 tbl

Vacuum deaerator // 2558109

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: vacuum deaerator contains a branch pipe for supply of chemically purified deaerated water to the distributing header, the first jet plate fitted with a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet, the second jet plate having a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet. Fins of overflow edges of the first and second jet plates are made rectangular at an angle 30-60° to vertical line with inclination towards drain from overflow edges of flows of the deaerated water, the cross-flow plate with cross-flow and overflow edges, three punched pipelines for supply of heating water to the cross-flow plate, the bubbling sheet with overflow edge, the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least, two pipelines for discharge of non-evaporated heating water to the inlet of the bubbling sheet, the partition blocking discharge of non-evaporated heating water into the flow of deaerated water drained from the bubbling sheet, passing through the bubbling sheet at least two L-shaped boxes of heating vapour cross-flow, installed evenly along the deaerator housing in the space between the overflow edge of the bubbling sheet and the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least one branch pipe for discharge of vented steam and one branch pipe for discharge of deaerated water.

EFFECT: increase of overall performance of the vacuum deaerator.

3 dwg

FIELD: testing equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of pressure test of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and can be used for degassing the working fluid in technical devices using in their constructive solutions the flowing hydraulic tanks of open type. The method comprises degassing the working fluid on the grid in the flowing hydraulic tanks, imparting the grid of low-frequency transverse vibration, and at the inlet of the grid by bubbling the gas liquid layer is created with a high-frequency pulsating low-intensity pressure. The flowing hydraulic tank of open type (1) comprises a lid (2), partitions (3, 4), a grid (5), the pipes of discharge (6) and intake (15) of the working fluid, a drain (7), intermediate (18), intake (14) cavities and involves the installation of a grid (5) on the elastic supports (8). Below the grid (5) on the side of the flow outlet into the cavity (18) a pneumatic dynamic vibrator (9) is mounted with the modulated phase of gas oscillation, the outlet nozzle (10) of which is mounted on the grid (5).

EFFECT: invention provides increased efficiency of degassing fluid, the degassing process intensification, which enables to improve and expand the indices of quality of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and their components.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer obtained via condensation polymerisation. The polymer is obtained from at least two monomers: acrylic monomer and alkylamine. Said polymer is modified such that it contains a dithiocarbamate salt group capable of cleaning one or more compositions containing one or more metals. The polymer has molecular weight of 500-200000.

EFFECT: obtaining polymers for various media as means of purification from metals, including waste water systems.

13 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to production of desalinated water and can be used for obtaining drinking water from sea and salt waters. Extraction of water from saline solution is carried out with application of selective solvent, containing carboxylic acid, which has carbon chain from 6 to 13 carbon atoms long. In order to realise the method saline solution emulsion in selective solvent is prepared, selective solvent is heated before and after contact with saline solution to obtain first phase, which includes selective solvent and water from saline solution, dissolved in selective solvent, and second phase, including highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution. After that, first phase is separated from second phase, first phase, including selective solvent and dissolved water, is extracted from highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution or highly-concentrated remaining part is extracted from saline solution from first phase. First phase is cooled after extraction to precipitate water from selective solvent and precipitated water is removed from selective solvent.

EFFECT: invention provides obtaining almost pure fresh water.

19 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for desalting of sea, hard and/or contaminated water by direct osmosis desalting. To this end, contaminated feed solution with water at first osmosis pressure is forced through semi-permeable diaphragm to discharge side that has the flow of carrier solution with second osmosis pressure on discharge side of semi-permeable diaphragm. Diluted discharge solution is heated to agglomerate discharged diluted substance to two-phase flow containing liquid phase of agglomerated dissolved substance and liquid water phase. Then, agglomerated dissolved substance is separated to get enriched flow to be cooled to obtain cooled single-phase water-rich flow to be subjected to removal of residual dissolved substance to produce purified water.

EFFECT: higher quality and desalting and purification.

23 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of purification of phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk includes preliminary desiliconisation of phenol-containing sewage waters by their processing with hydrochloric acid with precipitation of solid and separation from solution of silicon-containing product and electrochemical oxidation in presence of chloride ions in electrolytic cell with application of direct current. Process of electrochemical oxidation is carried out with concentration of chloride ions 0.10-0.11 mol/l in non-diaphragm electrolytic cell with application of ruthenium-titanium oxide anode and titanium cathode for 70-90 min with current density 100-150 mA/cm2 with constant mixing. Required concentration of chloride ions is provided by dilution with water of phenol-containing sewage waters after their desiliconisation.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase degree of purification of polydisperse concentrated phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk from phenol and other organic pollutants.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a flotation device, a frame, a hydraulic drive. On the frame the longitudinal rods are pivotally mounted, and on their cantilever portion the linkage for attachment of the drum is mounted with the ability of movement in a vertical plane. The drum is mounted with the ability of replacement of the drum holder, at that the drum is rotated by the hydraulic motor through the belt drive in the direction opposite of the flotation device movement.

EFFECT: improvement of quality of the implementation of the technological process of cleaning the water reservoirs from blue-green algae and reduction of energy intensity.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for biological purification of household and close to them in composition industrial sewage waters from organic compounds and nitrogen of ammonium salts. Initial sewage water is processed in alternating zones with reduced oxygen regime and aerobic regime with further settling biologically purified water and recirculation of active silt. First, sewage water is processed in two zones with reduced oxygen regime, where growth of attached microorganisms is performed on planar inert material with specific area of its surface in first zone 17 m2/m3 and in second- 21 m2/m3 and hydraulic load in first zone not higher than 1.38 m3/m2 of carrier and in second - 0.43 m3/m2 of carrier. After that, processing is carried out in two aerobic zones with specific surface of inert charge material 24 m3/m2 and hydraulic load 0.32 m3/m2 of carrier in each. Recirculated mixture of sewage water and active silt from last aerobic zone is supplied to beginning of first zone in amount 120-150% of volume of supplied sewage water. Concentration of oxygen in zones with reduced oxygen regime is supported in amount 0.5 mg/l, and in aerobic zones - 4-5 mg/l. Settling of purified water is realised for 1-1.5 hours.

EFFECT: method provides increased stability of purification processes, reduction of energy consumption for air supply, twofold reduction of volume of secondary settling tanks.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 cl

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

Up!