Cleaning of fouled surface run-off from motor road surface
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and environmental protection. For cleaning filtering system is erected and used on soil slope surfaces. Filtering system is composed of the slope soil top layer processed with aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex. The latter comprises the mix of hydrolysed polyarcylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine at the ratio of 1:3.5-1:4.5, wt %. Processed soil sorption capacity saturated, said soil is removed and disposed or recovered.
EFFECT: simplified cleaning, higher erosion resistance of run-off surfaces.
The invention relates to the field of environmental protection, namely to reduce pollution of water bodies by runoff from the surface of roads.
Known way to protect the water body (pond, stream) from pollution, including the device in the body of the array of the slope of the water body drainage elements in one or more tiers, consisting of workers and outlet parts, and technical facilities. With each technical grounds in the array of the slope below the outlet parts of the drainage elements arrange the collection bins with hinged lids to intercept a filtered ground water flow contaminated with harmful substances, which produce the pumping of contaminated prefiltermessage baseflow. The method provides improved protection of the water body (water body) from the ingress of contaminants from contaminated ground water (see RF patent №2392375, IPC E02B 3/04, publ. 2010).
The disadvantages of this method is the need for subsequent purification of contaminated wastewater and the need for expenditure on the construction and maintenance of prefabricated containers.
The known method, implemented in the system of drainage and treatment of surface runoff of rainwater, snow melt and sprinkling water from the surface of roads, Railways, zastron�x territories industrial areas, etc., adopted as a prototype. Method is to collect surface runoff with the waterproofing system, drainage reservoirs, with subsequent gross and subtle treatment of waste water by sedimentation in a settling chamber and additional filtration in the filtration chambers with the use of multilayer natural filter material, after which the cleaned runoff enters the shallow plateau (see RF patent №2200802, IPC E03F 1/00, publ. 2003). The method allows for the purification of runoff from large mechanical impurities, suspended particles and associated petroleum products.
The disadvantage of this method is the lack of clean runoff with dissolved metals and the complexity of the ongoing process of purification through the construction of complex hydraulic components of the cleaning system.
An object of the invention is to simplify the process of purification of surface runoff due to the construction and use of simpler filtration systems with high sorption capacity, as well as improving the quality of cleaning due to the treatment of surface runoff from dissolved metals while improving the erosion resistance of the surface slopes.
The solution of the technical problem set�under the implementation of the method of cleaning contaminated surface runoff from the roadway of highways, including creation and use of a filtering system on the surface of the ground slopes, according to the invention as filtering systems use the upper soil layer slope, treated with an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex containing a mixture of hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine in a weight ratio of 1:3.5-4.5, after saturation of the sorption capacity of the treated soil is removed and disposed of or regenerated.
The stated technical problem is solved by the use of the filter system of the soil of the slopes of the roadway, which does not require additional construction of slopes. In addition, the components of the aqueous solution, which handles the top layer of soil, are readily available substances. The process of preparation of polyelectrolyte complex is not particularly difficult. That is, compared with the prototype simplifies the process of purification of polluted surface runoff. The actual evaluation showed that the soil be soaked in a water solution, has a high sorption capacity for a considerable period of use. In addition, a layer of soil allows it to retain suspended solids and oil products contained in the wastewater, and, binding soil particles betwe�th, increases erosion resistance of slopes of roads.
Method for cleaning contaminated surface runoff from the roadway of highways includes the building and the use of filtering systems on the surface of the ground slopes. According to the invention as filtering systems use the upper soil layer slope, treated with an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex containing a mixture of hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine in a weight ratio of 1:3.5-4.5. After saturation of the sorption capacity of the treated soil is removed and disposed of or regenerated.
The method is implemented as follows.
Polluted runoff comes from surface roads in the warmer in a filtering system, i.e. on the clay slope, which is in advance with road equipment treated with an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex containing a mixture of hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine, maintaining their mass ratio of 1:3.5 to 4.5 depending on the soil type (table 1). Contained in surface runoff from roads heavy metal ions to form a particularly stable polyamine (chelate) compounds, making the heavy metal ions unavailable to plants. The oil and suspended �of exista delayed upper layer of the treated soil due to the buffering ability of the soil. In addition to its direct function of the applied polyelectrolyte complex also plays the role of dust precipitation of the binder, which has a positive effect on the erosion resistance
When the system is "polyelectrolyte complex+soil" is approaching its saturation sorption capacity, it must be removed from roadside slopes and to recycle or regenerate. Soil treatment may be performed in the following ways: disposal of contaminated soil; regeneration with the use of natural sorbents, the use of biological methods of cleaning; mixing contaminated soil with clean soil to obtain the necessary values for polluting component; the extraction of heavy metals using techniques based on electrochemical methods; the regeneration of the soil with chemical reagents, such as nitric acid, in the apparatus with fluidized bed.
In the following Table 2 shows the results of experiments to determine the quality treatment of surface runoff from a number of heavy metal ions, as well as the actual sorption capacity filtration system for each metal, depending on the soil type and its percentage saturation of per year.
It is assumed that the polyelectrolyte complex will coredata�n in the upper soil layer slope with a height of 2 cm. The consumption of polyelectrolyte complex on an area of 1 ha of slopes will be 50 kg.
For given in the table of soil types it can be concluded that the pollutants addressed by the system "polyelectrolyte complex+soil" is very effective, and the minimum period of service before reaching the saturation sorption capacity in the case of sand will be about 10 years, in the case of the most common types of soils - sandy loams and loams, this period of 20-25 years.
The quality of purification from oil products and suspended solids were determined depending on the buffer capacity of the soil and is of the order of 75-80% for petroleum products, 80-85% for suspensions, respectively.
The advantages of this invention lies in the simplicity of preparation of the filter composition and its use, availability of components of the polyelectrolyte complex, and in the absence of the necessity of the construction in the right of way engineering structures that require significant design and operational costs during construction and subsequent operation. Furthermore, the invention is characterized by a high ion exchange capacity, increase the efficiency of sorption of heavy metals, and treatment of surface runoff from oil and suspended solids due to the buffering properties of the soil.
Received polyelectro�litnym complex can be diluted with water, instead of salt solutions, thus avoiding soil salinity. In addition, the polyamine forms a particularly stable (chelate) complexes with heavy metal ions, making them unavailable to plants.
Also polyelectrolyte complex binds particles of the treated soil between them, increases erosion resistance of slopes of roads.
Thus, the invention allows to simplify the purification process of polluted surface runoff from road surfaces roads due to the construction and use of simpler filtration systems with high sorption capacity, as well as to improve the quality of treatment due to the treatment of surface runoff from dissolved metals, while improving the erosion resistance of the surface slopes.
Method for cleaning contaminated surface runoff from the roadway of highways, including construction and use of a filtering system on the surface of the ground slopes, characterized in that the filter systems use the upper soil layer slope, treated with an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex containing a mixture of hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine in a weight ratio of 1:3.5-4.5, after saturation of the sorption capacity of the treated �of soil removed and disposed of or regenerated.
SUBSTANCE: body of a water-diversion ditch comprises two substantially identically formed surface blocks, namely: a bottom block and a substantially identically formed cover block, which with the help of spacing elements are connected to each other at the mounting distance. Surface blocks are proposed to be made substantially as capable of engagement when laid into stacks, so that the mounting distance of the surface blocks is considerably more than their distance when laid into a stack. Spacing elements are substantially shaped in the form of a truncated cone or a truncated pyramid, with a limited surface of the cross section, which with increased distance from the surface blocks becomes less. The first alternative version may include placement of the spacing elements on the surface units so that bottom blocks and bottom covers are laid as overlapping each other according to the type of stonework tying. The second alternative version may provide for overlapping connection of the bottom blocks and the cover blocks to each other according to the type of stonework tying.
EFFECT: high stability simultaneously with the possibility to save area during storing and transportation.
14 cl, 23 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: shutoff valve control system for vacuum drainage system comprises case accommodating first valve changed by accumulated effluents head over from first position in second one, first chamber with pressure adjustment by said first valve confined by first membrane engaged with second valve where through rarefaction or atmospheric pressure gets to shutoff valve. It comprises first connector to communicate first chamber with rarefaction source. Said connector at no head or insufficient head is shut off by first valve at its first position. At sufficient head, it is opened by first valve at its second position. Second connector to allow barometric pressure is connected with first chamber of, preferably, adjustable cross-section. Note here that first membrane, at sufficient rarefaction of said first chamber, along with second valve can change from first position communicating it with barometric pressure over to second position whereat said valve is communicated with rarefaction. First valve at its second position opening the first connector between rarefaction source and first chamber shuts off the second connector tuning to first chamber and located with barometric pressure. Note here that said first valve comprises starting membrane to shut off first connector at first valve first position and connected via mid element with starting membrane second membrane to shut off second connector at first valve second position. Mid position between starting membrane and second membrane is loaded by dynamic head. In compliance with another version, this system comprises first element and second valve engaged therewith. Position of the latter controls the operation of shut off valve that sucks off accumulated effluents by drainage system. Note here that dynamic head developed by accumulated effluents acts on the first valve to load mid space between starting head membranes that make the first assembly and first valve.
EFFECT: simplified design.
13 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of surface water infusion into ground under the job site includes installation of a series of elongated pumping/draining channel elements to a series of wells continued to the ground. The pumping/draining channel elements have a series of prolonged longitudinal channel elements open outside. The pumping/draining channel elements are continued to the significant depth below the ground surface, and in result soil moisture enters the formed channels and flows down through water infusion channels to the ground around the lower ends of the channel elements. Infiltration rate of surface water deep to the surface is increased significantly thus allowing removal of wet environment formed by surface dead water or flooding by land drainage.
EFFECT: reducing land drainage and evaporation of surface water.
10 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tank is communicated with effluent intake line composed of a pipeline system equipped with check valve Note here that said valve is communicated with the pump Said effluent intake line is equipped with safety valve communicated via pipeline with standby measuring tank Said effluent intake line is connected with one end of coil rigidly secured in horizontal cylindrical casing Walls of the latter, at its top and bottom parts, have openings Second end of aforesaid coil is connected with nozzle located at gas flare plant flame zone Head of said plant is secured at the end of aforesaid cylindrical casing Effluents are accumulated in said tank to be, then, forced by pump via said intake line into coil to be finely sprayed and directed to spray nozzle Note here that said nozzle is located at gas flare plant flame zone.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, better environmental protection, lower costs.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: vacuum, i.e. pressure level, and efficiency of the system is maintained and controlled, whilst controlling the speed of rotation of a source/sources of vacuum measured by number of rotations per minute. The source of vacuum has a liquid-ring screw pump driven by an electric motor. Number of rotations per minute of each motor in the system is controlled by means of a programmable logical controller. The controller is programmed to maintain the one first source of vacuum as connected, until it reaches the specified maximum number of rotations per minute, with subsequent connection of the next, second, source of vacuum, if the vacuum system requires higher efficiency of pumping. The programmable logical controller may also be programmed to control the number of rotations per minute for each source so that sources operate with identical speed of rotation in the range from least or highest number of rotations per minute depending on the required vacuum, but with connection of the additional source of vacuum, when higher efficiency is required.
EFFECT: efficient method to control vacuum pumps or other sources of vacuum in a vacuum sewage system.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to elements of drainage systems. A drainage system element has a concrete body open on top, which surrounds a drainage channel. The drainage system element represents a gutter element with an extended body, which is U-shaped in the section across the axis of the gutter. The body comprises basalt fibres joined in bundles and arranged in the body along and/or across the gutter axis. Bundles are joined into a net. The net is arranged in the form of a U letter in the U-shaped body around the gutter channel in a vertical part. The body comprises spacers from basalt, stretching from a net to a gutter channel and/or at least to one external side of the body.
EFFECT: invention provides for high mechanical strength of a drainage system and lower susceptibility to corrosion.
SUBSTANCE: device to separate running water arriving from a drain pipe and divert this water into a pipe for contaminated water and a pipe for rain water, comprises the first channel of running water, having an overflow partition, limiting water flow arriving from the drain pipe and sending it into the pipe for contaminated pipe. The device also comprises the second channel sending water flowing over the overflow partition, into the pipe for rain water, a separating wall to block water going through the first channel, to form chambers of water diversion separated in the first channel and a throttling part formed in the separating wall. The method for separation of running water consists in using the device for its separation. At the same time, when running water flow arriving from the drain pipe is higher than the specified flow rate, it is sent into the pipe for contaminated water along the first channel. Water flow is throttled by means of the throttling part, and running water accumulated in chambers of water drain and flowing over the overflow partition, is sent into the pipe for rain water along the second channel. The waste water system comprises the first and second devices to separate running water arriving from the drain pipe. The second device is connected to the first one by means of the first pipe so that a part of water separated by the first device is sent to the second device along the first pipe to separate this part of water. The system also comprises a device to treat running water connected to the second device by means of the second pipe so that a part of this water separated by the second device is sent to the device for treatment along the second pipe, the device for water accumulation connected to the second device by means of the third pipe and connected to the device for water treatment by means of the fourth pipe so that a part of water separated by the second device is sent to the device for water accumulation along the third pipe for temporary water accumulation and its drainage into the device for treatment along the fourth pipe. Besides, the first device comprises the following components: the first channel with the overflow partition limiting water flow arriving from the drain pipe and sending water, which does not flow over the partition, into the first pipe; the second channel sending running water into the water area, arriving from the drain pipe and flowing over the partition; the separating wall for blocking of running water sending via the first channel, to form chambers of water drainage separated in the first channel, and the throttling part formed in the separating wall to throttle water flow passing from one drain chamber into the other one. The second device comprises the following components: the first channel including the overflow partition limiting water flow arriving from the first pipe and sending running water arriving from the first pipe and not flowing over the overflow partition, into the second pipe; the second channel sending water arriving from the first pipe and flowing over the partition, into the third pipe; the separating wall for blocking of water going through the first channel, to form chambers of water drain separated in the first channel, and the throttling part formed in the separating wall to throttle water flow passing from one drain chamber to the other chamber.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplification of design.
13 cl, 29 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex comprises a bath with a sink and a small oven on a foundation with a boiler built into it to heat water and a receiving hopper for used water, to which a sewage pipe is laid as inclined in the ground from the bath and the sink. The receiving hopper is located near the foundation for the small oven. At the same in the foundation in earth at the side of the receiving hopper there is a canopy deepened additionally by 0.5-1 m.
EFFECT: higher speed of drainage, lower leakage of water under a foundation and efficient earth use.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises rain gutters (2), water intake funnels (3), drain pipes (4), a storm water outfall (7), filtering wells (16) and a subsurface accumulating reservoir (18). Drain pipes (4) are equipped with discharge parts with mini-hydroturbines (6). Power generated by mini-hydroturbines is sent to accumulator batteries. The storm water outfall is arranged below the level of the earth surface and is an extension of discharge parts of drain pipes. The filtering material is an ash and slag sorbent.
EFFECT: design will make it possible to prevent gradual damage of building basement and foundation elements due to availability of a subsurface storm water outfall.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a toilet, a vacuum sewage pipeline connected to a toilet, a discharge valve, the first pump accessory, the second pump accessory. In the vacuum sewage pipeline there is a linear separation device. The vacuum sewage pipeline is connected to the toilet. The discharge valve is installed between the toilet and the vacuum sewage pipeline. The discharge valve is made as capable of opening in process of toilet usage. The first pump accessory and the second pump accessory are connected in parallel with the linear separation device. The linear separation device has a vacuum level between the specified high level and the specified low level. The first pump accessory is arranged as capable of removing air, and the second pump accessory is arranged as capable of pumping, mainly, sewage from a waste water flow leaking into the linear separation device. The vacuum sewage system comprises a pressure gauge. The pressure gauge is connected to the vacuum sewage pipeline. The method includes application of a vacuum sewage system.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of waste water transportation.
14 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises a base vehicle 1 with a platform and equipment installed on it. Equipment comprises a reservoir 2 charged with water, a hydraulic manipulator with an ejector pump 4, a facility of mechanical removal of contaminants 3 and a facility of cleaned material discharge 5 in the form of a scraper conveyor. The reservoir 2 is made with windows in the upper part and side compartments for collection of contaminants. In the bottom of the reservoir 2 there are facilities of mechanical cleaning 3 in the form of acoustic radiators, which are connected to a power generator. The generator is installed on the base vehicle 1. The scraper conveyor is installed in the cavity of the reservoir 2, having a window for discharge. On the platform of the base vehicle 1 there is an expansion tank 7 with water and a transfer pump 6. The base vehicle 1 is equipped with a subsystem of automatic control, which controls level of reservoir 2 filling with water. The transfer pump 6 connects the expansion tank 7 with the reservoir 2. The automatic control subsystem comprises water level sensors 8, an input device 9 connected to sensors, an output device 10 and a control unit 11. Level sensors 8 are installed in the reservoir 2. The input device 9 converts an analogue signal into a digital one. The control unit 11 is connected to the input device 9 and the output device 10. The output device 10 converts a digital signal into an analogue one and is connected to the transfer pump 6.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the process of soil cleaning from oil.
SUBSTANCE: : invention relates to environment protection, in particular to purification of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast from pollution with oil and can be used on rail transport. Siftings of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast are loaded into device for washing. Washing of ballast siftings is carried out by mechanical mixing with detergent solution. After washing ballast siftings and polluted detergent solution are removed together and separated. During separation ballast siftings are separated into fractions and removed in order to be used in proper way. Separated polluted detergent solution is supplied through nozzles into precipitation tank of centrifugal type for pollution by separating phases. From precipitation tank separated oil products, detergent and sludge are removed in separate flows. Sludge is dehydrated and after that neutralised using chemical reagents. Detergent solution is subjected to purification from heavy metal salts and residual oil products. Formed deposit of heavy metal salts is periodically removed to the stage of sludge neutralisation. Purified detergent solution is supplied again to the stage of mechanical washing of ballast siftings. Before supplying detergent solution to the stage of washing, technical detergent which does not require water heating is introduced into it.
EFFECT: high degree of ballast siftings purification is achieved with simultaneous efficient phase separation, reduction of dangerous wastes formation and energy consumption for the process.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environment protection, in particular to purification of rubble and/or asbestos rail ballast from pollution with oil and can be used on rail transport. Installation contains receiving reservoir for supply of polluted ballast siftings for processing, device for washing, connected with pipeline for detergent supply. Device for washing is made in form of closed tub, is equipped with worm, loading device and device for joined removal of ballast siftings and polluted detergent solution. Installation includes unit of vibration sieves for separation of polluted detergent solution from ballast siftings and for sieving it into fractions, precipitation tank of centrifugal type with nozzles for supply of polluted detergent solution, pipelines for separate removal from precipitation tank of separated oil products, detergent solution and sludge, belt filter-press for sludge dehydration, reactor for chemical sludge neutralisation, galvanic coagulator for removal of heavy metal salts and residual oil products from detergent solution. Galvanic coagulator is connected by pipelines to device for washing and pipeline with reactor for chemical sludge neutralisation.
EFFECT: high degree of ballast siftings purification is achieved with simultaneous efficient phase separation, reduction of dangerous wastes formation and energy consumption for the process.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Mixed coagulant from mineral raw material is obtained by dissolution of boehmite-kaolinite bauxide in autoclave with hydrochloric acid with concentration 220 g/l with ratio S:L=1:6 for 1-3 hours in interval of temperatures 150-180°C.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase coagulation ability of mixed coagulant - hydrooxichloride of aluminium and iron with concentration by Al2O3 2,32-6,87 and by Fe2O3 0,94-1,02 wt %, in water purification: by turbidity and colour.
2 dwg, 6 tbl
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum deaerator contains a branch pipe for supply of chemically purified deaerated water to the distributing header, the first jet plate fitted with a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet, the second jet plate having a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet. Fins of overflow edges of the first and second jet plates are made rectangular at an angle 30-60° to vertical line with inclination towards drain from overflow edges of flows of the deaerated water, the cross-flow plate with cross-flow and overflow edges, three punched pipelines for supply of heating water to the cross-flow plate, the bubbling sheet with overflow edge, the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least, two pipelines for discharge of non-evaporated heating water to the inlet of the bubbling sheet, the partition blocking discharge of non-evaporated heating water into the flow of deaerated water drained from the bubbling sheet, passing through the bubbling sheet at least two L-shaped boxes of heating vapour cross-flow, installed evenly along the deaerator housing in the space between the overflow edge of the bubbling sheet and the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least one branch pipe for discharge of vented steam and one branch pipe for discharge of deaerated water.
EFFECT: increase of overall performance of the vacuum deaerator.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of pressure test of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and can be used for degassing the working fluid in technical devices using in their constructive solutions the flowing hydraulic tanks of open type. The method comprises degassing the working fluid on the grid in the flowing hydraulic tanks, imparting the grid of low-frequency transverse vibration, and at the inlet of the grid by bubbling the gas liquid layer is created with a high-frequency pulsating low-intensity pressure. The flowing hydraulic tank of open type (1) comprises a lid (2), partitions (3, 4), a grid (5), the pipes of discharge (6) and intake (15) of the working fluid, a drain (7), intermediate (18), intake (14) cavities and involves the installation of a grid (5) on the elastic supports (8). Below the grid (5) on the side of the flow outlet into the cavity (18) a pneumatic dynamic vibrator (9) is mounted with the modulated phase of gas oscillation, the outlet nozzle (10) of which is mounted on the grid (5).
EFFECT: invention provides increased efficiency of degassing fluid, the degassing process intensification, which enables to improve and expand the indices of quality of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and their components.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer obtained via condensation polymerisation. The polymer is obtained from at least two monomers: acrylic monomer and alkylamine. Said polymer is modified such that it contains a dithiocarbamate salt group capable of cleaning one or more compositions containing one or more metals. The polymer has molecular weight of 500-200000.
EFFECT: obtaining polymers for various media as means of purification from metals, including waste water systems.
13 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to production of desalinated water and can be used for obtaining drinking water from sea and salt waters. Extraction of water from saline solution is carried out with application of selective solvent, containing carboxylic acid, which has carbon chain from 6 to 13 carbon atoms long. In order to realise the method saline solution emulsion in selective solvent is prepared, selective solvent is heated before and after contact with saline solution to obtain first phase, which includes selective solvent and water from saline solution, dissolved in selective solvent, and second phase, including highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution. After that, first phase is separated from second phase, first phase, including selective solvent and dissolved water, is extracted from highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution or highly-concentrated remaining part is extracted from saline solution from first phase. First phase is cooled after extraction to precipitate water from selective solvent and precipitated water is removed from selective solvent.
EFFECT: invention provides obtaining almost pure fresh water.
19 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex