Method of obtaining mixed coagulant from mineral raw material
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Mixed coagulant from mineral raw material is obtained by dissolution of boehmite-kaolinite bauxide in autoclave with hydrochloric acid with concentration 220 g/l with ratio S:L=1:6 for 1-3 hours in interval of temperatures 150-180°C.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase coagulation ability of mixed coagulant - hydrooxichloride of aluminium and iron with concentration by Al2O3 2,32-6,87 and by Fe2O3 0,94-1,02 wt %, in water purification: by turbidity and colour.
2 dwg, 6 tbl
The invention relates to chemical industry and nonferrous metallurgy, can be applied upon receipt of the mixed coagulant on the basis of hydroochloride aluminum and iron which finds wide application in various industries, in particular for the treatment of drinking and industrial waters.
Known methods for the preparation of hydroochloride aluminum from various types of aluminum-containing raw materials: aluminum scrap, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum metal by reacting them with hydrochloric acid (Zapolsky A., Baran A. A. Coagulants and flocculants in the water treatment process. L.. Chemistry, 1987, pp. 89-96).
The main disadvantages of these methods are the low degree of extraction of aluminum in the solution, low coagulating properties of the product, a multistage process and the complexity of hardware design.
The closest to the proposed is a method of producing hydroxochloride aluminum from technical aluminum and hydrochloric acid (RU 2300499 claimed 27.12.2005) by the interaction of technical aluminum hydroxide with hydrochloric acid at atmospheric pressure.
The disadvantages of this method is the use as raw materials of technical aluminum hydroxide, expensive and scarce reagent compared with boehmite-kaolinite the bauxite and low koaguliruut�e ability.
The problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a method for producing the mixed coagulant from mineral raw materials.
The technical result of the invention is the use as raw material boehmite-kaolinite bauxite and increase the clotting ability of the coagulant in the purification of water: turbidity and color.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of producing the mixed coagulant from mineral raw materials according to the invention as a raw material is used boehmite-kaolinite bauxite, which is dissolved in an autoclave with hydrochloric acid with a concentration of 220 g/l at a ratio of T:W=1:6 for 1-3 hours in the temperature range 150-180°C to obtain a solution of hydroochloride aluminum and iron at a given concentration of Al2O32,32-6,87, Fe2O30,94-1,02 wt.%.
The amount of hydrochloric acid is taken as 125% of the stoichiometric required amount, the ratio of T:W in this case will be 1:6.
Increased the clotting ability is due to the use of boehmite-kaolinite bauxite, which in addition to aluminum compounds include iron compound when dissolved in the autoclave with hydrochloric acid these compounds also pass into the solution and improve the clotting ability of the product.
As mineral �raw materials was selected boehmite-kaolinite bauxite Ikenskoe field. The composition of the sample are presented in table 1.
Bauxite, crushed to a particle size of 0.1 mm, was dissolved in hydrochloric acid in a concentration of 220 g/l in the temperature range of 150-180°C. the Ratio of T:W was made 1:6 for all experiments. The process time was 1, 2 and 3 hours. Upon completion of the experience liquid phase was separated from nerastvorimogo residue by filtration. The resulting solutions, the solid residue (cake) and the washings were analyzed for the content of aluminum oxide and iron. These experiments are presented in table 2.
As can be seen from table 3, when the temperature increases from 150 to 180°C, the aluminum content (in terms of Al2O3) increases from 2,32 to 5.64%, and with increasing duration of dissolution from 1 to 3 hours content increases with 5,51 before 6,87%, the iron content (based on Fe2O3in all experiments is in the range of 0.94-1.02% and the temperature change and time dissolve a significant impact on the content of iron in the solution has not.
From these data it follows that the use of boehmite-kaolinite bauxite allows to obtain a solution concentration of 2.32-6,87% Al2O3and 0,94-1,02% Fe2O2that can be used as high-performance mixed coagulant.
Further conducted experiments to determine the effectiveness of coagulation. The main parameters were the flow of real�NTA (dose), turbidity, chromaticity. Doses of coagulants were expressed in mg/L.
As the experiment method used the Express method with short-term sedimentation. Turbidity was determined in the upper layer without filtering, color with filtration through a filter of "blue ribbon". Each experiment for each dose of coagulant was performed 3 times, and the result was taken as the average value.
In all the experiments, water is a surface water source - water river (Moscow, Moskvoretskaya water source). The tests were carried out at low temperatures, as the temperature increases, the processes of hydrolysis and coagulation go faster and the difference in results may be less clear. The data presented in table 3.
The test results of coagulants are presented in table 4 (standard coagulant. derived from technical aluminum hydroxide) and tables 5, 6 (mixed coagulant). Doses of coagulants were taken in the range of 3.0 to 15.0 g/l, so as to Moskvoretskaya water with specified indicators of optimal dosage found in this area.
According to the obtained results the dependences of the turbidity and color from the input dose of coagulant. The dependence of residual turbidity of water from the coagulant dose is presented in figure 1. The optimal dose of coagulant is 9.0 mg/l, which is being�tion residual reduction in turbidity compared with a standard coagulant. Figure 2 shows the dependence of the residual color of the treated water from the coagulant dosage. When using a coagulant dose of 9.0 mg/l there is a significant decrease in chroma of water compared to using the standard coagulant.
Thus, the proposed method significantly improves the clotting ability of the product by the main parameters for water treatment: colour and turbidity.
A method of producing the mixed coagulant from mineral raw materials, wherein the raw materials used boehmite-kaolinite bauxite, which is dissolved in an autoclave with hydrochloric acid with a concentration of 220 g/l at a ratio of T:W=1:6 for 1-3 hours in the temperature range 150-180°C to obtain a solution of hydroochloride aluminum and iron at a given concentration of Al2O32,32-6,87, Fe2O30,94-1,02 wt.%.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum deaerator contains a branch pipe for supply of chemically purified deaerated water to the distributing header, the first jet plate fitted with a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet, the second jet plate having a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet. Fins of overflow edges of the first and second jet plates are made rectangular at an angle 30-60° to vertical line with inclination towards drain from overflow edges of flows of the deaerated water, the cross-flow plate with cross-flow and overflow edges, three punched pipelines for supply of heating water to the cross-flow plate, the bubbling sheet with overflow edge, the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least, two pipelines for discharge of non-evaporated heating water to the inlet of the bubbling sheet, the partition blocking discharge of non-evaporated heating water into the flow of deaerated water drained from the bubbling sheet, passing through the bubbling sheet at least two L-shaped boxes of heating vapour cross-flow, installed evenly along the deaerator housing in the space between the overflow edge of the bubbling sheet and the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least one branch pipe for discharge of vented steam and one branch pipe for discharge of deaerated water.
EFFECT: increase of overall performance of the vacuum deaerator.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of pressure test of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and can be used for degassing the working fluid in technical devices using in their constructive solutions the flowing hydraulic tanks of open type. The method comprises degassing the working fluid on the grid in the flowing hydraulic tanks, imparting the grid of low-frequency transverse vibration, and at the inlet of the grid by bubbling the gas liquid layer is created with a high-frequency pulsating low-intensity pressure. The flowing hydraulic tank of open type (1) comprises a lid (2), partitions (3, 4), a grid (5), the pipes of discharge (6) and intake (15) of the working fluid, a drain (7), intermediate (18), intake (14) cavities and involves the installation of a grid (5) on the elastic supports (8). Below the grid (5) on the side of the flow outlet into the cavity (18) a pneumatic dynamic vibrator (9) is mounted with the modulated phase of gas oscillation, the outlet nozzle (10) of which is mounted on the grid (5).
EFFECT: invention provides increased efficiency of degassing fluid, the degassing process intensification, which enables to improve and expand the indices of quality of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and their components.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer obtained via condensation polymerisation. The polymer is obtained from at least two monomers: acrylic monomer and alkylamine. Said polymer is modified such that it contains a dithiocarbamate salt group capable of cleaning one or more compositions containing one or more metals. The polymer has molecular weight of 500-200000.
EFFECT: obtaining polymers for various media as means of purification from metals, including waste water systems.
13 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to production of desalinated water and can be used for obtaining drinking water from sea and salt waters. Extraction of water from saline solution is carried out with application of selective solvent, containing carboxylic acid, which has carbon chain from 6 to 13 carbon atoms long. In order to realise the method saline solution emulsion in selective solvent is prepared, selective solvent is heated before and after contact with saline solution to obtain first phase, which includes selective solvent and water from saline solution, dissolved in selective solvent, and second phase, including highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution. After that, first phase is separated from second phase, first phase, including selective solvent and dissolved water, is extracted from highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution or highly-concentrated remaining part is extracted from saline solution from first phase. First phase is cooled after extraction to precipitate water from selective solvent and precipitated water is removed from selective solvent.
EFFECT: invention provides obtaining almost pure fresh water.
19 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for desalting of sea, hard and/or contaminated water by direct osmosis desalting. To this end, contaminated feed solution with water at first osmosis pressure is forced through semi-permeable diaphragm to discharge side that has the flow of carrier solution with second osmosis pressure on discharge side of semi-permeable diaphragm. Diluted discharge solution is heated to agglomerate discharged diluted substance to two-phase flow containing liquid phase of agglomerated dissolved substance and liquid water phase. Then, agglomerated dissolved substance is separated to get enriched flow to be cooled to obtain cooled single-phase water-rich flow to be subjected to removal of residual dissolved substance to produce purified water.
EFFECT: higher quality and desalting and purification.
23 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of purification of phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk includes preliminary desiliconisation of phenol-containing sewage waters by their processing with hydrochloric acid with precipitation of solid and separation from solution of silicon-containing product and electrochemical oxidation in presence of chloride ions in electrolytic cell with application of direct current. Process of electrochemical oxidation is carried out with concentration of chloride ions 0.10-0.11 mol/l in non-diaphragm electrolytic cell with application of ruthenium-titanium oxide anode and titanium cathode for 70-90 min with current density 100-150 mA/cm2 with constant mixing. Required concentration of chloride ions is provided by dilution with water of phenol-containing sewage waters after their desiliconisation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase degree of purification of polydisperse concentrated phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk from phenol and other organic pollutants.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a flotation device, a frame, a hydraulic drive. On the frame the longitudinal rods are pivotally mounted, and on their cantilever portion the linkage for attachment of the drum is mounted with the ability of movement in a vertical plane. The drum is mounted with the ability of replacement of the drum holder, at that the drum is rotated by the hydraulic motor through the belt drive in the direction opposite of the flotation device movement.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of the implementation of the technological process of cleaning the water reservoirs from blue-green algae and reduction of energy intensity.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for biological purification of household and close to them in composition industrial sewage waters from organic compounds and nitrogen of ammonium salts. Initial sewage water is processed in alternating zones with reduced oxygen regime and aerobic regime with further settling biologically purified water and recirculation of active silt. First, sewage water is processed in two zones with reduced oxygen regime, where growth of attached microorganisms is performed on planar inert material with specific area of its surface in first zone 17 m2/m3 and in second- 21 m2/m3 and hydraulic load in first zone not higher than 1.38 m3/m2 of carrier and in second - 0.43 m3/m2 of carrier. After that, processing is carried out in two aerobic zones with specific surface of inert charge material 24 m3/m2 and hydraulic load 0.32 m3/m2 of carrier in each. Recirculated mixture of sewage water and active silt from last aerobic zone is supplied to beginning of first zone in amount 120-150% of volume of supplied sewage water. Concentration of oxygen in zones with reduced oxygen regime is supported in amount 0.5 mg/l, and in aerobic zones - 4-5 mg/l. Settling of purified water is realised for 1-1.5 hours.
EFFECT: method provides increased stability of purification processes, reduction of energy consumption for air supply, twofold reduction of volume of secondary settling tanks.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 cl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, namely the preparation of wastewaters in irrigated agriculture for irrigation and fertilising of plants. The biological stabilisation storage pond comprises a closed water intake water reservoir area in the form of a storage pond 1, having a water-supply tube 2 with the fed collector 21, and a water distribution device at the inlet of the discharge pipeline 4. The water distribution device has two concentrically arranged rings, the inner 5 of which is connected to the pipeline of the outlet, and the outer 6 - to the pipeline of inlet and is located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inlet opening of the ring 5 is provided with an air pipe 9 with a valve 10, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline 4, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. The source of pressurised air and gas emitted from the wastewaters is made in the form of a mixing chamber 11 with the mesh cloth 12 at the upper part, sequentially arranged on the discharge pipeline 4 below its input. The chamber 11 is connected by the tube 13 with the perforated tubes 14 located in the cavity of the inner ring 5. In the side walls of the inner rings 5 there are air-gas slotted openings 16. In order to regulate the conditions of discharge of the wastewaters into the pond and their removal from the side of the grid 8 at filling the pond 1 a shield 19 can be mounted with an inclination towards the bottom of the pond. The shield 19 can be mounted on a horizontal axis of rotation 20 and is connected by the rods with the drive of vertical movement. According to the second embodiment the storage pond comprises successive water reservoirs with inclined bottoms and water distribution devices. The water distribution devices are formed as two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected with the discharge pipeline and the outer - with the pipeline of feeding of flows, located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inner ring is provided with an air pipe with a vent, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. In the side walls of the inner ring there are air-gas outlet openings. The water distribution devices are connected on the discharge pipeline with the mixing chambers.
EFFECT: device improves the efficiency of protection of intake of wastewaters from entering floating debris and simultaneous contributes to decontamination when feeding wastewaters for irrigation The design of the device enables to mix the air due to the organisation of the process of air-gas connection and discharging it from the chamber, which is in the gaseous state.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes anaerobic fermentation of organic substances in a methane tank with electrical activation of the medium with dc voltage of 0.2-36 V while stirring and bubbling the mass with the released biogas. The organic substances are fed into the methane tank with moisture content of 40-95%. Monitoring is carried out by measuring the value of current in the electrical circuit, calculating conductivity of the system, measuring the volume flow rate of the formed biogas and determining the current content of carbon dioxide gas in the biogas in the upper part of the methane tank. Electrical activation of methanogenesis is controlled by controlling current by setting a new value of current at the level of the sum of the present and calculated maximum current.
EFFECT: high content of methane in biogas, intensification of the process of producing biogas, high process stability and obtaining an end product with accurately defined parameters.
4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in producing magnetic powders, permanent magnets, resin-bonded magnets, magnetic liquids and high-density magnetic recording devices. The method of producing barium hexaferrite includes preparing a barium hexaferrite suspension, depositing said suspension in a neutral or weakly alkaline medium and drying. The barium hexaferrite suspension is obtained using an electrochemical method by dissolving electrodes made of steel St3, the distance between which is 5-15 mm, in an electroconductive solution of barium hydroxide and sodium chloride. The process is carried out with concentration of Ba(OH)2 7-10 mg/dm3, NaCl 3-5 mg/dm3, voltage 8-10 V, temperature 85-90°C, current density 0.11 A/cm2.
EFFECT: invention simplifies production of fine barium hexaferrite powder.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: in order to extract iron (III) from water solutions diphenylguanidine (DPG) is applied as the first organic reagent. As the second organic reagent, salicylic acid (SA) is applied, and as solvent of organic phase chloroform is applied. In organic phase complex with molar component ratio DPG: Fe3+:SA, equal 1:1:1, is extracted. Process of iron (III) extraction is carried out at medium acidity pH=1.5-2.5 with the following detection of iron (III) by trimetric method.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase selectivity and simplify process of extraction and detection of iron from water solutions.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: bionanoconjugate comprises a nano-sized superparamagnetic particle of cobalt ferrite spinel CoxFe3-xO4, where 0.6≤x≤0.98, obtained by mechanochemical synthesis. To isolate the nucleic acid containing oligo- or poly-A/dA sequence the synthetic single stranded oligonucleotide 5'-dGndTm is used, where n=5-30, m=10-35, one portion of which, consisting of guanine nucleotides in the presence of phosphate anions in the solution is specifically associated with the surface of the nanoparticle and the other - consisting of thymine nucleotides is able to enter into hybridisation with oligo- or poly-A/dA nucleotide sequences. For isolation from the solution in the presence of phosphate anions of specific hetero-nucleotide sequence additionally create a molecule of oligonucleotide-adapter containing the sequence of oligo-dAx at the 3'-end, hybridised with thymine nucleotides of a complex 5'-dGndTm, where n=5-30, m=10-35, and a portion at the 5'-end complementary to a specific hetero-nucleotide sequence in the solution.
EFFECT: invention enables to detect effectively and to isolate the single-stranded nucleic acids.
3 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining ultradispersive powders of carbonates includes carbonisation of an initial raw material water suspension under conditions of an increase of carbon dioxide pressure with the simultaneous suspension homogenisation. As the initial raw material used are coarsely dispersive powders of respective carbonates of iron, or calcium, or magnesium, or calcium-magnesium, or calcium-iron-magnesium. The carbonisation process is carried out at a temperature of 6-20°C and a short-term to 1 s increase of pressure from 2.6 to 3.0 MPa. A solution of unstable hydrocarbonates is discharged, filtered and subjected to thermal processing at a temperature of 105°C.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify obtaining ultradispersive carbonates.
1 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining the solid magnesium material Sm2Fe17Nx includes mixing Sm and Fe powders, their mechanical activation and the following nitration. First, mechanical activation in a high-energy-voltage grinder is carried out in the inert atmosphere without content of moisture for 2-3 hours. For nitration in the grinder reactor introduced is ammonia and hydrogen in a ratio of NH3 - 85-95%, H2 - 5-15% and mechanical activation is continued for 5-7 hours. After that, a highly-molecular compound polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) is introduced in a quantity of 2-4% of the weight of the initial powder mixture and the process of mechanical activation is continued for than 10-15 minutes.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce the time of obtaining the solid magnesium material and increase its coercive force.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to particles of zinc oxide, increasing heat conductivity or electric conductivity. The particles are represented by the following formula (1): ZnMn+ xO1+nx/2 · aH2O (1), where Mn+ stands for a trivalent or tetravalent metal, x and a satisfy the ratio 0.002<x<0.05 and 0≤a<0.5, respectively, n stands for metal valence. The particles are characterised by a content of columnar particles 80% or higher. Also claimed are: method of obtaining the zinc oxide particles, burnt particles (A) and (B), resin compositions (A) and (B).
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain the zinc oxide particles, used for an improvement of electric conductivity or heat conductivity of resins.
13 cl, 12 dwg, 5 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing iron (III) orthophosphate of general formula FePO4·nH2O, where n≤2.5, the iron (III) orthophosphate obtained using said method and to use thereof to produce lithium ferrophosphate (LiFePO4) as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The method of producing iron (III) orthophosphate includes a) preparing an aqueous solution containing Fe2+ ions by introducing iron (II), iron (III) or mixed iron (II, III) oxide compounds selected from hydroxides, oxides, oxide hydroxides, oxide hydrates, carbonates and hydroxide carbonates, together with elementary iron, into a phosphoric acid-conataining aqueous medium, to dissolve Fe2+ ions and to react Fe3+ with elementary Fe in a comproportionation reaction to give Fe2+, b) separating solids from the phosphoric-acid aqueous Fe2+ solution, and c) adding an oxidation agent to the phosphoric-acid aqueous Fe2+ solution to oxidise iron (II) in the solution to precipitate iron (III) orthophosphate.
EFFECT: obtained iron (III) orthophosphate has high degree of purity.
16 cl, 4 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for laboratory and industrial production of monocrystalline materials. A method of synthesising tetragonal iron monoselenide includes heating a hermetic vial with a charge from selenium and iron placed in one of its ends and filled with a salt melt. The vial heating is performed with the temperature gradient from a value of 450°C-350°C from the side of the charge location to a temperature, reduced by 30°C-100°C from the opposite side. As the salt melt used are mixtures of eutectic composition, which includes aluminium chloride. Heating is performed for the time necessary for the transfer of the selenium and iron charge into the opposite end of the vial.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase coarseness of FeSe crystals with reduction of their synthesis temperature.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to using mixed metal compounds for preparing a drug preparation for neutralisation of gastric acid or buffer action thereon, as well as for treatment of a condition or a disease related to high gastric levels of acid. The mixed metal compound is a compound of formula (I): MII 1-aMIII aObAn- c.zH2O (I), wherein MII and MIII mean a two-valence and three-valence metal respectively, An- means an n-valence anion, 0.2≤a≤0.4, 0.2≤b≤1.5, 2+a is equal to 2b+Σcn, Σcn<0.9a, and z is equal to 2 or less. According to the invention, the mixed metal compound is presented in the form of a granulated material, wherein a diametre of 50 wt % of the granules makes 106 to 1180 mcm with the material comprising 50 wt % of the mixed metal compound, 3 to 12 wt % of noncovalent water and no more than 47 wt % of an excipient on granulated material weight basis. The mixed metal compound in the form of the granulated material represents a compound of formula (I) or a compound of formula (III): MII 1-xMIII x(OH)2An- y·mH2O (III) ; wherein MII and MIII mean a two-valence and three-valence metal respectively, An- means an n-valence anion, x=Σyn, 0<x≤0.4, 0<y≤1, and 0≤m≤10.
EFFECT: invention provides the buffer action on gastric acid, causing no effect of rebound acid hypersecretion.
46 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in chemical industry, metallurgy and purification of industrial and domestic sewages. Extraction of iron with vegetable oils is realised from water solution with ratio water (W) to organic (O) phase W:O≥3 for Fe (III) and W:O= 3-6 for Fe(II); at pH 2-3 for Fe (III) and 9-11 for Fe (II) and Fe (III). Time of extraction for Fe (III) is 1-3 min and not more than 60 min for Fe (II).
EFFECT: method ensures high degree of efficiency of iron extraction from water solutions with simultaneous efficiency and safety of the process.
2 cl, 10 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining aluminium oxychlorides includes processing of thermochemically activated aluminium hydroxide with water solution of hydrochloric acid with heating. Thermochemically activated aluminium hydroxide is preliminarily subjected to hydration with acid solution with oxygen-containing anion: nitric, sulphuric, formic, acetic oxalic, with acidity modulus 0.01-0.50 at temperature 50-95°C. After hydration sediment is separated, hydrochloric acid solution is added to it with supporting pH from 4 to 6 and temperature 50-98°C. Obtained aluminium oxychlorides are separated in form of solutions or solid substances.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify obtaining highly basic aluminium oxychlorides, eliminating aluminium hydrochloride milling.
7 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex