Energy-saving device of work equipment of boom machine
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the boom machines, namely to the single-bucket excavator and front loaders of cyclic operation. The energy-saving device of the boom machine is suggested: energy-saving cylinder, gas bottle, hydraulic distributor, stock cavity of the energy-saving cylinder. At that, the piston cavity of the compensating hydraulic cylinder is connected directly through the hole in the casing wall with the casing of the gas bottle, and stock cavity of the energy-saving cylinder is connected through the hydraulic distributor with the drain main. At that, the total volume of the gas cavity of the energy-saving cylinder and gas bottle exceeds two volume of the work stroke of the energy-saving cylinder.
EFFECT: simple design, exclusion of energy losses during rising of the gravity forces of the work equipment, reduction of the energy and fuel consumption by the internal combustion engine.
The invention relates to strelovym shovel construction machines, namely to shovel, front loaders cyclic operation.
Known energy saving working equipment excavator [patent No. 2190062, 27.09.2002, BI No. 27] , comprising a boom, bucket, main boom cylinders, balancing the hydraulic cylinder, gas cylinder, hydropneumatic accumulator, hydraulic valve, hydraulic pump. The device is designed to balance the forces of gravity of the boom, bucket, hydraulic cylinders to avoid energy losses.
The disadvantage of this device is a complex structure due to the use of the hydropneumatic accumulator, the use of which leads to an increase in volume of the working fluid of the hydraulic system, having a higher cost compared with the cost of air when used as the working fluid.
The closest to the proposed device to the technical nature of the known technical solutions is an energy-saving system of work equipment crane machine [RF patent №2299296, 20.05.2007, BI No. 14] , comprising a boom, bucket, boom cylinders, balancing cylinder, gas cylinder, dispenser. The system eliminates energy losses due to the lifting forces of gravity working equipment.
A disadvantage of the known device  is carried�perfect energy saving design of the cylinder and the gas cylinder; the lack of recommendations on the choice of the design parameters of the system.
The object of the invention is the creation of energy-saving devices operating equipment allows to simplify the design of the device eliminates the loss of energy when lifting forces of gravity working equipment, which allows to reduce the consumption of energy and fuel by an internal combustion engine.
The task is solved due to the fact that in the known device, including boom, bucket, main boom cylinders, power cylinder, gas cylinder, valve, piston rod cavity of the cylinder energy saving, which according to the invention a gas cylinder filled with compressed air under pressure more than 10 MPa, the piston cavity of the balancing cylinder is connected directly through the hole in the cylinder wall with the cavity of the gas cylinder; the rod cavity of the power saving of the cylinder is connected through the valve with a drain line; in this case, the total volume of the gas cavity energy saving cylinder and the gas cylinder is more than two volumes of the working stroke of cylinder energy saving.
The technical result is achieved by use of compressed air instead of expensive working fluid and the simplified design of the device. Energy�egenie is achieved by storing a volume of compressed air at recurring periodic cycles of lifting and lowering the boom. A single injection of compressed air in the gas tank ensures long working life of the device provides a reduction in the loading of the main cylinders during lifting of the boom and bucket with load.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 shows the use of energy-saving devices during the digging of the soil excavator "backhoe"; Fig. 2 shows the use of energy-saving devices on the front loader; Fig. 3 shows the connection of the energy-saving device to the hydraulic system of the crane machine; Fig. 4 presents the energy-saving device in the initial position when lowered the boom; Fig. 5 - the energy-saving device with a raised arm.
The energy-saving device operating equipment crane machine contains: arrow 1; bucket 2; main boom cylinders 3; energy saving 4 cylinder; gas cylinder 5; the brake hose 6; dispenser 7; hydrosaluric 8; a hydraulic pump 9; the building energy-saving cylinder 10, the piston rod 11; the eyelet of the rod 12; the eyelet of the housing 13; the nut 14; a lock nut 15; fitting 16; hole in the casing 17; discharge device 18; the charger 19; mount 20 of the gas cylinder on the cylinder surface.
Fig. 4, 5 additionally shows: - working stroke of the piston cylinder energy saving; VG- the volume of a gas cylinder; P- working volume of energy-saving cylinder; V1- the volume of the cavity of the rod and piston; V2- residual volume of energy-saving cylinder; V3- volume hydraulic rod ends hollow cylinder energy saving.
The essence of energy-saving device is as follows. To perform the operation of the lifting boom of the excavator of Fig. 1 of the loader of Fig. 2 includes a spool dispenser 8 down 7, the working fluid by the hydraulic pump 9 is fed into the piston cavity of the main cylinders 3, carrying a boom lift. At the same time without participation of the operator comes into operation the energy-saving device.
Energy saving 4 cylinder creates additional force on the rod, which reduces the power in the main boom cylinders and consequently reduces the load on the engine, saving energy and fuel. Spillover effects of energy-saving devices is to increase the life of the engine and pumps while increasing performance.
To lower the boom spool dispenser 8 include up, the working fluid from the hydraulic pump flows into the stem cavity of the main cylinders 3. The gravity of the boom, bucket, hydraulic cylinders allow movement of the piston and rod of energy-saving cylinder�RA down to the starting position, without consuming additional energy from the engine.
Fig. 4 initial volume of the gas chamber when lowered the boom is equal to the sum of volumes
where VG- the volume of a gas cylinder; V1- the volume of the cavity of the rod and piston; V2- residual volume of the balancing cylinder.
When lifting the boom, the volume of the gas cavity of the energy saving device increases by an amount of stroke of the piston.
where D, H - respectively, the diameter of the cylinder energy saving and stroke.
Efficient operation of energy-saving devices provided by the fact that when the piston moves from the bottom position (Fig. 4) in the upper position (Fig. 5) the pressure in the gas cylinder remains almost constant.
To ensure this condition requires that the total volume of the gas cavity was more than two volumes of the working stroke of cylinder energy saving.
To ensure the efficient operation of energy-saving devices is provided by a disposable injection device with compressed air at a pressure of about 10 MPa.
When raising / lowering the boom, the volume of the stem cavity V3changes, providing lubrication to the cylinder walls and piston working fluid.
The energy-saving device equipped working�I crane machine, containing boom, bucket, main boom cylinders, includes energy saving cylinder, gas cylinder, valve, piston rod cavity energy saving cylinder, wherein a gas cylinder filled with compressed air under pressure more than 10 MPa, the piston cavity of the balancing cylinder is connected directly through a hole in the wall of the body cavity with a gas cylinder, the rod cavity of the power saving of the cylinder is connected through the valve with a drain line, wherein the total volume of the gas cavity energy saving cylinder and the gas cylinder is more than two volumes of the working stroke of cylinder energy saving.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: operation of reduction of forces of gravity of working equipment with the rod of equalising cylinder is performed, the reduced force at the rod by gas pressure in the piston cavity is counterbalanced, and operation of stabilising of compressed gas pressure is performed. Meanwhile also the piston compressed gas cavity is sealed from atmosphere by means of connecting of variable volume of the rod hollow filled with greasing fluid, with the body of the deformed low pressure pneumocamera. The operation of pressure stabilising in the gas cavity is performed at the expense of increase of volume of high-pressure gas cavity. The device for counterbalancing of forces of gravity of working equipment of jib machines is offered which includes the equalising barrel and gas bottle. Meanwhile the equalising cylinder with a rod and piston are located inside the gas bottle body charged by compressed air. And the rod hollow of equalising cylinder is filled with lubricant fluid and is connected to the body, where the low pressure pneumocamera is installed. Meanwhile the piston and rod of equalising cylinder are made hollow.
EFFECT: lowering of load on the main hydraulic cylinders of the jib and on the engine shaft, and fuel consumption.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydraulic control units for agricultural or building machines. A valve cluster to control at least one consumer is proposed, the consumer comprises two connections (A, B) to the consumer sides, connection (P) to a pump and connection (T) to a tank as well as four slide control valves (C1-C4) which are hydraulically controlled by relevant control connection (c1-c4). The first slide control valve (C1) couples the connection (P) to the pump and the first connection (A) to the consumer side, the second slide control valve (C2) couples the connection (P) to the pump and the second connection (B) to the consumer side, the third slide control valve (C3) couples the first connection (A) to the consumer side and the connection (T) to the tank and the fourth slide control valve (C4) couples the second connection (B) to the consumer side and the connection (T) to the tank. Additionally two servovalves (Y1, Y2) are provided to control the control connections (c1-c4) respectively of each pair of slide control valves (C1-C4).
EFFECT: reduced inner pressure losses and higher efficiency of consumer operation.
15 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physics; control.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed group of inventions relates to a hydraulic control system for working machines. The hydraulic control system has a pump, a tool actuator, a tool control valve configured to control the flow of pressurised fluid fed to the tool actuator, and a controller. The controller includes a feed-forward control map which responds to the intended change in the required flow rate with the possibility of relating the tool movement request to the change in discharge flow rate of the pump, and operably connected to the tool control valve and the pump. The controller can further be configured to receive a tool movement request. The controller can further be configured to estimate changes in the required flow rate of the tool control valve associated with the tool movement request. The controller can also be configured to generate instructions for adjusting the discharge flow rate of the pump based on the intended change in the required flow rate to execute the tool movement request. Also disclosed are a method of controlling tool movement and a machine having said hydraulic system.
EFFECT: providing feed-forward control to change supply of a liquid before the need thereof arises.
19 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to operation of working machine hydraulic system. Proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Equipment configuration is retained at definite orientation to measure first pressure in hydraulic drive chamber (56, 58) connected with equipment at preset position. First signal is compared with first pressure magnitude. First functional relationship (71) is selected from multiple memorised functional relationship if said first signal is higher than first pressure magnitude. Second functional relationship is selected from multiple memorised functional relationships if said first signal is lower than first pressure magnitude. Hydraulic drive is controlled on the basis of selected functional relationship. Note here that each of multiple memorised functional relationships is associated with different category of equipment configuration.
EFFECT: possibility to modify relationship between hydraulic drive speed.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to machine-building hydraulics, and namely to hydraulic actuators of mobile machines and hydraulic plants of cyclic action with several actuating mechanisms. The invention proposes a channel of multiflow hydraulic actuator, which is intended for supply of a working liquid flow to pressure cavities and consists of several in-series connected double flow cavities having the possibility of disconnecting their inlets and outlets. Besides, on the flow inlet side, each double flow cavity is connected to the corresponding pressure cavity. Besides, in ties between pressure and overflow cavities there additionally installed are check valves directed with their outlets to pressure cavities. And outlets of double flow cavities are connected through inlets of check valves to the corresponding pressure cavities. Besides, the outlet of the last double flow cavity serves as an inlet for the other flow.
EFFECT: proposed invention allows supplying two independent flows via one hydraulic channel with several pressure cavities, as well as simplifying a hydraulic actuator and reducing dimensions of hydraulic equipment.
2 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ripper contains bidirectional liquid energy accumulator, underlying machine, framed suspension with hinged ripper tip mounted on it and elastic system. At that elastic system contains the main cylinder with piston at the rod mounted on the frame and power-operated rod passing through articulated rod and ripper tip. At that the main cylinder is divided by partition into two independent cylinders equipped with main and auxiliary cavity. In auxiliary cavities of cylinders there are installed pistons connected to hollow rods which interact with power-operated rods passing through the main cavities and fixed at inners walls of travelling barrel covering the main cylinder which is connected to ripping rack through a hinge. Auxiliary cavities of each cylinder are equipped with openings from rod side and free piston side, which interact with reversive hydro pump through bidirectional hydraulic locks and pipelines. Besides elastic system is equipped with auxiliary reversive hydro pump which outlet is connected though bidirectional hydraulic locks to openings in walls of the main cylinder cavities while its inlet is connected to pipeline with a tank for liquid storage.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency of soil ripping due to reduction of pulling force and dynamic loads acting on underlying machine and their transfer to the area of soil destruction within the wide range for forced oscillation frequencies of actuating device.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises control means and detection means. Control means serve to control engine output power for driving the machine. Detection means allow identification of reverse conditions, motion speed and preset gear ratio. In reverse, control means vary output power by control over engine shaft rpm.
EFFECT: fuel savings.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: loader boom hydraulic cylinder is proposed, comprising a body, lower and upper covers of the hydraulic cylinder, a braking device and a check valve. At the same time the check valve is made in the form of a cylindrical cap with a spring inside and an inlet nozzle installed in a separate body fixed on the hydraulic cylinder body. Besides, the specified valve communicates with the piston cavity of the hydraulic cylinder by means of an additional hole made in the hydraulic cylinder body.
EFFECT: elimination of piston strikes against a hydraulic cylinder cover as a loader boom is installed in a position of excavating start at the level of the support surface.
SUBSTANCE: collector of bulldozer equipment of an earth mover is proposed, which comprises a body with radial holes for supply and discharge of working fluid, connected as capable of rotation and axial displacement with a blade frame. Inside the body there is a part of a fixed core, installed with a gap into eyes of the blade frame and stopped by the other part against rotation in a lever of a blade lifting mechanism. Besides, the body is equipped with a leash element with a through slot. The fixed core is made with circular grooves for installation of seals and circular bores, communicated with radial holes of the body and channels of supply and discharge of working fluid in the lever of the blade lifting mechanism and axial channels for transfer of working fluid from the lever of the blade lifting mechanism to the blade frame. At the same time the specified axial channels are closed with plugs with seals at the end side of the core and are pressed with a flange on bolts. Connection of the body with the blade frame is carried out by means of a threaded element screwed into the blade frame and stretching via the central axial hole installed into a cut slot of the leash element, a stop made in the form of a four-face rod with a base in the form of a square, with a support site perpendicular to its faces. Between the leash element and the stop in the radial direction there is a gap, the value of which is more than the total value of gaps between the outer surface of the core and inner surfaces of the blade frame eyes. Height from the surface joined with the blade frame to the support site of the stop is more than the thickness of the leash element, and the width of the stop is less than the width of the slot of the leash element.
EFFECT: increased operational resource of a collector due to elimination of direct transfer of loads from a movable part of a machine towards a fixed one.
SUBSTANCE: working mechanism comprises basic mechanism, cab and cab manipulator articulated with basic mechanism designed to change the cab position relative to said basic mechanism. Note here that cab manipulator is equipped with at least one hydraulic actuator to turn the cab about horizontal axis relative to basic mechanism. Note here that said cab id coupled with said manipulator to allow the turns actuated by tilt control hydraulic drive. Besides, said working mechanism includes the cab emergent exit system incorporating one emergent tilt valve for cab tilt adjustment device designed to orient the cab in normal position in emergent exit.
EFFECT: reliable escape of engineman cab.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: earth-moving facilities; hydraulic drives of scraper working members.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic drive contains pressure spool installed in parallel with like spaces of two hydraulic cylinders, pressure main line connected between two check valves, free outlet of check valve being connected with inlet of pressure spool and one hydraulic cylinder. Free inlet is connected with outlet of pressure spool and other hydraulic cylinder, drum main line connects opposite spaces of hydraulic cylinders. Hydraulic drive is furnished with two series-connected pressure spools. Inlet of first pressure spool and outlet of second pressure spool are connected with outlet of first hydraulically controlled reversible spool. Their common line is connected with controllable space of second hydraulic cylinder and is separated by check valve from pressure main line. Inlets of first hydraulically controlled reversible spool are connected to outputs of second hydraulically controlled reversible spool and are connected with controllable spaces of first and second hydraulic cylinders. One inlet of second hydraulically controlled reversible spool is connected with inlet of pressure spool and is connected to pressure line through check valve, and second inlet is separated from pressure line by other check valve. Control spaces of two hydraulically controlled reversible spools are united and are connected to pressure main line through two-position spool.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of control of scraper blade system.
FIELD: handling machinery, particularly soil-shifting, mining, agricultural and loading cyclic machines.
SUBSTANCE: device includes implement, main hydraulic cylinders and balancing hydraulic cylinder, at least one gas cylinder and hydropneumatic accumulator, main and additional hydrodistributors, as well as safety valve. Gas cylinder communicates with gas chamber of hydropneumatic accumulator. Device made in the first embodiment has the second additional hydrodistributor connecting working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with pump. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder communicates with rod ends of the main ones. In the second embodiment additional hydraulic cylinder is arranged in main hydrodistributor case and connected to hydrolines of the main hydraulic cylinders through hydrolines. Additional hydrodistributor is installed so that additional hydrodistributor may connect working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with the pump when additional hydrodistributor is installed in the first position. Additional hydrodistributor being installed in the second position may connect working chambers of main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with drain. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder is connected with rod ends of main hydraulic cylinders.
EFFECT: increased machine productivity due to increased implement hoisting speed.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly hydraulically driven dredgers.
SUBSTANCE: drive comprises power plant with controlled power pumps having servo control taps, gear-box, hydraulic motors and hydraulic equipment. Hydraulic equipment has hydraulic distributor with address travel spool and its servo control taps, power hydraulic lines and servo control loop with hydraulic lines. The controlled power pumps may supply predetermined volume of working liquid at zero pressure in servo control lines thereof. Hydraulic lines for servo control of address travel spool have additional circuit including control unit, servo control lines and logical hydraulic OR valve with two inlet and one outlet taps. Hydraulic lines of servo control circuit included in additional loop are connected with inlet taps of hydraulic OR valve having outlet tap communicated with servo control taps of address travel spool.
EFFECT: provision of no-failure gear actuation in standing still dredger.
FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly hydraulic systems for mobile machines.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system comprises hydraulic reservoir, controllable hydraulic pump with load-sensitive control slide, power hydraulic line protected with safety valve, main hydraulic distributor with three-position slide having one pressure supply means, two discharge lines, two working outlet means and line, which provides connection of each working outlet means with LS line, attached to control slide. The hydraulic system is provided with pressure control valve and with controllable reducing valve installed in LS line. Input and output of reducing valve are connected to hydraulic distributor and control slide correspondingly. Control line of reducing valve is linked to pressure control valve outlet. Inlet and discharge line of the pressure control valve are connected with power hydraulic line and with hydraulic reservoir correspondingly.
EFFECT: increased operational efficiency and reliability.
7 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: earth-moving, mining, building machines and other wheeled and caterpillar handling periodically acting machines.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises working implement, main and balancing hydraulic cylinders, gas cylinder, main and additional working liquid distribution means. The piston cavity of balancing hydraulic cylinder is connected with gas cylinder. Additional distribution means may connect working cavities of main hydraulic cylinders one with another and with hydraulic pump during implement lifting.
EFFECT: increased working implement lifting speed without pump and system parameter change.
FIELD: mining industry, mechanical engineering, possible use in system for controlling caterpillar drive of mining machine.
SUBSTANCE: hydro-system contains pumps for caterpillar drive and pump, feeding system of working functions of machine, hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive, driving hydro-motors and working mains, two controllable check valves and hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions. Outlet channels of hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions are connected to inlet channels of controllable check valves, which are connected between each other. Outlet channels of these valves are connected to working mains of driving hydro-motors and hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive.
EFFECT: possible movement of mining machine in case of breakdown of driving pumps at the expense of influx of working liquid from pump driving system normally used for working functions of machine.
FIELD: earth moving machinery.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic drives of draw-booster gears of tractor-drawn scrapers. Proposed hydraulic drive contains pump, hydraulic tank, hydraulic cylinder, pressure valve connected in parallel with hydraulic cylinder, and hydraulic distributor. Hydraulic drive contains additionally hydraulic accumulator, time relay, check valve, pressure valve is provided with control line, and hydraulic cylinder has control arm engaging with two-position spool whose input is connected with pump and output, through time relay, with hydraulic accumulator and control line of pressure valve and with input of check valve whose output is connected to input of pressure valve.
EFFECT: provision of automatic continuous increase of adhesion weight of tractor of scraper when digging.
FIELD: earth-moving and transport machines, particularly blade assemblies having changeable width of cut.
SUBSTANCE: blade assembly comprises side sections and central section. The sections are provided with undercutting blades and are directly connected to bucket bottom. The central section is hinged to bucket bottom and is operated by rotation hydraulic cylinders through operation levers. Undercutting blades made as gussets are connected to inner edges of side sections from below. The gussets have supports to cooperate with central section in lower position thereof. Undercutting blades of central section are connected to outer side edges of central section. Undercutting gussets are provided with orifices to arrange fixers installed in lower parts of side sections so that they may cooperate with end switches. Position switches adapted to cooperate with operation levers of central section in central or extreme positions are mounted on bucket side walls. Hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation are linked in pairs to hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. Lifting and lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders are correspondingly communicated with raising and deepening cavities of hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation. Hydraulic drive for blade assembly includes hydraulically operated on-off three-way slide. The first outlet of the slide is united with the third one and is linked to raising cavity of hydraulic cylinder for central section rotation. Operational chamber and the first inlet of the slide are connected to outlet of pressure slide having output connected to lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. The second and the third inlets of on-off three-way slide are correspondingly connected to lifting cavities of hydraulic cylinders, which operate front bucket gate and lowering cavity of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation.
EFFECT: decreased load to be applied to blade system during earth cutting as central section is in central and extreme positions, provision of automatic installation of above section in side blade plane and in extreme positions.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: group of invention relates to boom earth-moving, mine, construction and loading lifting-and-transporting machines of cyclic action. Proposed balancing system contains working equipment, boom hydraulic cylinders and balancing cylinder including hydraulic rod space and gas piston space connected with gas bottle, and distributors. According to first design version, hydraulic rod space of balancing cylinder is connected by hydraulic line with drain into hydraulic tank, and distributor of hydraulic liquid is installed for connecting in one position of spool, of boom hydraulic cylinders working spaces to each other with hydraulic pump. According to second design version, distributor is installed in system for connecting working spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump. According to third design version, rod space of balancing cylinder is connected with distributor installed for connecting, in one position of spool, of rod space of balancing cylinder with into hydraulic tank, and in other position, with hydraulic pump. Distributor is installed in hydraulic line of boom hydraulic cylinders for connecting, in one position of spool, of spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump.
EFFECT: increased capacity of machine owing to higher speed of lifting and lowering of working equipment.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly earth-moving and construction equipment to be operated at low temperatures.
SUBSTANCE: device for hydraulic drive heating comprises heat engine and hydraulic pump kinematically connected with each other. Device also has liquid heat carrier circulation loop including heat accumulator. Heat pipe is connected to heat engine exhaust pipe through two-way valve. Heating member is arranged in tank and linked to heat engine generator.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and efficiency of hydraulic drive heating at negative ambient temperatures.