Method of open development of deposits of solid mineral resources
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in stripping and mining operations at the fields, composed of dense and semi-hard rocks, with use of boom surface miners, spreaders and other mining machines. The method comprises continuous extraction and direct overburden waste disposal, continuous extraction, transportation, sorting of mineral resources. The front of mining operations is located along the short axis of the career field, the continuous working of overburden bench of high altitude is performed simultaneously on two sub-benches using boom surface miners. The overburden on the conveyors of the boom surface miners is fed through the receiving devices to the conveyors of the loading consoles of the spreader. The process of combining the conveyors of the boom surface miners with the receiving devices of the loading consoles and positioning of the spreader relative the boom surface miners is provided by the automatic control system. The mining operations are carried out with the use of excavating milling machine, the mineral resources are fed by the loader to the hopper of the mobile reloading unit with a conveyor and then to the mobile-sorting unit.
EFFECT: increase of the productivity of mining operations in the development of deep deposits of mineral resources composed of dense and semi-hard rocks.
The invention relates to mining and can be used when performing Stripping and mining at deposits composed of dense and semi-bedrocks, using jib career harvesters, spreaders and other mining machines.
Known method of mining an irrigated alluvial deposits, including the autopsy and the refinement of the mineral from the front of mining operations, followed by dumping overburden in the mined-out space .
The disadvantages of this method are the low productivity of mining operations in connection with the use of excavation equipment cyclic operation, the equipment used does not allow the development of deposits, composed of dense and semi rocks, without preliminary softening.
The known method development on the basis dvukhpolosnoi excavation scheme with the changing horizon of standing of stacker . In this scheme, a rotary excavator consistently fulfills two or three podlupa, wherein the stacker has consistently set on the roof and the soil deposits and predatore or intermediate overburden the horizon, the roof of the reservoir and predatore.
The disadvantages of this method are the need of the permutation rotary excavator and tvloop�friendly, lower the performance of complex mining equipment, and restricting develop rock strength.
The closest in technical and technological essence is a method of opencast coal deposits, including ongoing dredging and open-cast mine dumping overburden, excavation, moving, loading mineral directly by the excavator in the process of its continuous work, sorting and packing of the mineral .
This method is applicable for the development of shallow mineral deposits, composed of rocks of low strength.
The technical result is to increase the mining productivity in the development of deep deposits of minerals composed of dense and half-breeds.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of open pit mining of deposits of solid minerals, including ongoing dredging and open-cast mine dumping overburden in the mined-out space by means of a stacker, a continuous recess, moving, loading, supply of minerals at a mobile screening unit, the sorting of the mineral, the front of mining operations located along the short axis CT� - cluster fields continuous improvement of Stripping ledge high altitude is carried out simultaneously on two podstupah using the jib surface miner, and overburden rock on the conveyor jib surface miner served via receptors on the conveyors in the loading of consoles stacker, and then sequentially moves to overload the hopper, feeder and discharge through the console into the inner blade, wherein the boot console stacker have the possibility of independent movement in space, and the process of combining conveyors career jib combines with receptors boot consoles stacker and positioning of the stacker relative to jib surface miner is provided with an automatic control system comprising sensors mounted on the boot console, and the system unit process control, mounted on the frame of the stacker, with mining of minerals being carried out using excavation and milling machines and mineral is fed by a loader into the hopper of a mobile handling device with a conveyor and then by conveyor to a mobile screening unit that is installed on the surface.
The possibility of bulk� the required sequence of actions proposed means allows to solve the problem, defines novelty, industrial applicability and inventive step of the development.
The essence of the proposed method the open development of mineral deposits is illustrated by drawings.
Fig. 1 - scheme of development of deposits of solid minerals; Fig. 2 is a top view of Fig. 1.
Method open development of mineral deposits is as follows.
Is continuous recess and the open-cast mine dumping overburden 1 in the mined-out space 2 by means of stacker 3, continuous excavation, handling, loading, feed minerals 4 on the mobile screening unit 5, the sorting of the fossil. The front of mining 6 is located along the short axis 7 career fields 8. Continuous improvement of Stripping ledge 9 great height is carried out simultaneously on two podstupah 10 and 11 using the jib surface miner 12 and 13. Overburden rock 1 on the conveyors 14, 15 jib surface miner 12, 13 is fed through the receiving device 16, 17 for conveyors boot consoles 18, 19 of the stacker 3. Overburden rock is consistently moves to overload the hopper 20, the feeder 21 and discharge through the console 22 in the inner blade 23. Boot console 1, 19 stacker 3 have the possibility of independent movement in space. The process of alignment of the conveyors 14, 15 jib surface miner 12, 13 with receiving devices 16, 17 boot consoles 18, 19 of the stacker 3, and the positioning of stacker 3 with respect to jib surface miner 12, 13 is provided with an automatic control system 24, which includes the sensors 25 and 26 mounted on boot consoles 18, 19, and system control block process 27 mounted on the frame 28 of the stacker 3. Mining of minerals 4 is being carried out using excavation and milling machine 29. Destroyed minerals 4 is fed by the loader 30 in the hopper 31 mobile handling unit 32. By means of the conveyor 33 fossil arrives at the mobile screening unit 5 mounted on the surface 34.
The method improves the performance of overburden and mining of the mineral deposits composed of dense and semi-bedrocks, using jib surface miner, stacker, excavation and milling machines, trucks and other mining equipment.
Sources of information
1. RF patent №2011826 from 30.04.1994. Method of development of flooded alluvial deposits.
2. V. V. rzhevskii Open�s mining operations. Textbook for universities. In 2 parts. Part 2. Technology and complex mechanization. - 4-e Izd., revised and enlarged extra - M.: Nedra, 1985. - P. 235, Fig. 7.5.
3. RF patent №2078928 from 10.05.1997. Method of opencast coal deposits.
Method open pit mining of deposits of solid minerals, including ongoing dredging and open-cast mine dumping overburden in the mined-out space by means of a stacker, a continuous recess, moving, loading, supply of minerals at a mobile screening unit, sorting, mineral, characterized in that the front of mining operations located along the short axis of the career field, while continuous improvement of Stripping ledge high altitude is carried out simultaneously on two podstupah using the jib surface miner, and overburden rock on the conveyor jib surface miner served via receptors on the conveyors in the loading of consoles stacker, then sequentially moves to overload the hopper, feeder and discharge through the console into the inner blade, wherein the boot console stacker have the possibility of independent movement in space, and the process of combining conveyors jib surface miner with foster Ustra�boot properties of consoles stacker and positioning of the stacker relative to jib surface miner is provided with an automatic control system, including the sensors installed on the boot console, and the system unit process control, mounted on the frame of the stacker, with mining of minerals being carried out using excavation and milling machines and mineral is fed by a loader into the hopper of a mobile handling device with a conveyor and then by conveyor to a mobile screening unit that is installed on the surface.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: machine for impactite mining. The miner comprises a resonant motor transferring torque to an auger, a pickup unit pivotally attached to a carriage frame, and a pulley block to lift the auger. A rocker with a steam boiler being mounted on one arm and a compressed air cylinder - on the other, is suspended as the counterbalance to the auger.
EFFECT: improved design.
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geophysics and can be used for exploration of mineral deposits in a geologic environment. The invention relates to a sensor device and a method for geoelectric survey of a location, stratigraphic arrangement and range of mineral deposits and contiguous rocks delineating said deposits. The disclosed sensor device has a sensor head (51), an end surface which forms a sensor measurement surface (53) and at least one electrode. According to the invention, the sensor head (51) can be brought into contact with the surface of the geologic environment, and a centre electrode (54) and a plurality of external electrodes (55), arranged in a geometrically uniform manner around the centre electrode (54), are placed on the sensor measurement surface (53). The centre electrode (54) and external electrodes (55) are electroconductive and electrically insulated from each other.
EFFECT: high accuracy of survey data of a deposit directly in the development process thereof.
15 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in order to enlarge the range of simultaneous processing and versions of control of a cutting force in the processing zone, formation of destruction zones is performed considering strength characteristics of rock as to width of the processed surface at variation of functional and technological parameters and their rational combination under conditions of selective development of deposits with complex structures. Strength characteristics of rock are fixed by mine rock strength recording sensors connected through a system block to a control system of operation of hydraulic cylinders, and drum balance is provided by distributed offset of hydraulic cylinders. Pressure of working liquid in piston cavities of the hydraulic cylinders is designed for a force required for rotation of turning levers.
EFFECT: increasing productivity, improving reliability and enlarging technological efficiency of destruction of rocks of different strength and coherence degree by controlling a cutting force in a zone of processing and formation in a surface layer of the processed massif of destruction zones considering strength characteristics of rock at selective development of deposits with complex structures by means of open-pit surface miners.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to form a trajectory of excavator bucket motion is carried out with the help of an operation of putting a handle with the bucket into backward motion in the vertical plane in a system of coordinates connected to a boom. At the same time the axis of handle rocking in the specified system of coordinates is fixed. The operation of trajectory curvature control is carried out by change of the distance between the bucket and the axis of handle rocking. At the same time the handle rocking axis fixed in the system of coordinates connected to the boom is moved in the system of coordinates connected with the handle along the circumference arc, the centre of which is at the end of the handle. The proposed method is realised by working equipment comprising a boom, a handle with a bucket rigidly installed on it, a rope mechanism of bucket lift and a discharge mechanism. Besides, the discharge mechanism comprises a yoke, which forms rotating couples with the boom and the handle, and a hydraulic cylinder, the stem and body of which are connected hingedly with the yoke and handle accordingly.
EFFECT: simplified design of a discharge mechanism, at the same time possibility is provided to adjust bucket movement trajectory.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system includes bottom-hole, dumped and intermediate running fixed platforms connected by means of two running lines, two-sided bucket with V-bottom connected to each mast by means of hoisting-hauling line enveloping the corresponding sheave arranged between running lines with possibility of movement relative to each other together with running lines. Intermediate running fixed platform is equipped with two supporting sheaves of running lines and one supporting sheave of hoisting-hauling lines. Rotation axis of hoisting-hauling line sheave has the possibility of being moved along guide curves of running lines.
EFFECT: improving efficiency, reducing the wear of lines and improving environmental conditions owing to equipping the mast of intermediate running fixed platform with the most effective equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of underground survey and production and is intended for measurement of properties of specific resistance of earth formations as they are penetrated through well. Combined tool for measurement of specific resistance includes both antennas of induction/propagation and antennas of side specific resistance arranged in grooves on well pipe. At the same time antenna of side specific resistance includes insulating basic layer arranged in groove, toroidal antenna arranged over insulating basic layer and protective device arranged over groove.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of measurement of underground specific resistance due to provision of combined measurement of specific resistance, using side sensor and sensor of induction or propagation in one and the same area of bed in a single trip.
18 cl, 20 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at open development of mineral deposits by non-transport system in complicated mining and geological conditions. The stripping aggregate consists of face and dumping non-rotary carrier platforms with masts interconnected with two running cables, and of a double-sided bucket with a bottom of V-shape coupled with each mast by means of a lift-and-drag cable enveloping a corresponding block installed between the running cables. The block of the face non-rotary platform is rigidly tied with the first running cable and is connected to the second running cable; it travels along this cable relative to the block of the non-rotary dumping carrier platform together with the second running cable. The block of the dumping non-rotary platform is rigidly tied with the second running cable and is connected to the first running cable; it travels along this cable relative to the block of the non-rotary face carrier platform together with the first running cable.
EFFECT: raised efficiency of stripping aggregate and reduced wear of cables.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented in open pits of mineral deposits for transporting excavated mass. The method consists in communicating horizons with a carrying flexible link, in securing capacities to the flexible link; also these capacities can freely travel; in connecting the capacities with a flexible pulling link, in equipping it with a balloon, and in loading capacities at final horizons. Also unloading of capacities is performed at intermediary horizons situated between stations of loading of upper and lower horizons, notably, the distance between stations of loading and unloading of each horizon is uniform; the balloon is fastened to the capacity of the upper horizon; lifting of excavated mass is performed from the lower horizon by means of aerostatic force of the balloon, while lowering excavated mass from the upper horizon is performed by means of gravitation force of excavated mass of the upper horizon and empty lower capacity. Also there is suggested the device for implementation of the method.
EFFECT: facilitating transporting excavated mass from hard accessible places with narrow slopes.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, in particular, to navigation system of combined cutter-loader intended for operations in open-pit bench. This mining equipment includes a combined cutter-loader, a conveyor assembly, and a steering assembly, which joins said combined cutter-loader and conveyor assembly. In addition, this equipment includes a course sensor and a steering device, which is sensitive to signals from said course sensor. The first drive is located in combined cutter-loader, in conveyor assembly, or in steering assembly. The first drive is placed on one side of combined cutter-loader centreline. In addition, the second drive is located either in combined cutter-loader, or in conveyor assembly, or in steering assembly. The second drive is placed on another side of combined cutter-loader centreline. The first and the second drives are used to adjust angle of joint between combined cutter- loader and conveyor assembly on either side of parallel line in order to keep pre-defined direction of combined cutter-loader advancing.
EFFECT: precise driving of combined cutter-loader in order to increase coal cutting from mining zone.
22 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to excavator electrical drives and allows increasing the service life of traction motors. The transfer station electrical drive is designed to provide for transfer of excavators and drilling machines in open pits with the power supply cable disconnected from the supply circuit. The proposed device is a separate electrical drive per every traction motor configured as a "generator-motor" assembly controlled by the PPD-1.5V-type power magnetic amplifier.
EFFECT: longer life of the motor.
SUBSTANCE: method of development of solid mineral fields using the excavating milling machine and scrapers comprises the use of the excavating milling machine for rock loosening with placement of milled rock mass into the dug-out trench from which it is taken by the scraper which follows the excavating milling machine continuously without stopping. The scraper scoops the rock mass to the ladle by means of the loading tray which fills the front part of the ladle with rock mass and then moves using a rake wall, and the released front part of the ladle is filled with rock mass again. Hydraulic cylinders of the tray control mechanism lift the loading tray with rock mass for final filling of the ladle front part. The ladle is unloaded through the formed slot between the ladle bottom and the loading tray lifted in guides by means of the back wall which moves to the front part of the ladle with the rake wall.
EFFECT: method improves the operational reliability and productivity when performing stripping and mining works on the fields formed by dense and hard rocks using excavating milling machines and scrapers.
2 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: this process comprises open coal extraction by cut chambers, production of barrier posts and backfilling of said chambers. Drilling hardware represents a milling driller located on day surface with drilling tool inclination of 45-90 degrees from vertical line. Note here that coal removal from blocks is performed with the help of hydraulic drawing device at liquid-to-solid ratio equal to 1:3. There, coal pulp is directed to coal dewatering to 7-8 % while effluents are forced to desliming and circulation.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and safety of edge seams development.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the cleaning of coal bed or beds by striking by open mining operations and installation on a bed of a drilling unit, for coal drilling-out at an angle from 60° to 90°, with reference to the bed strike axis, and to the depth 100 meters and deeper. To increase a productivity of coal extraction, and also to decrease of load on the cutting working body in case of emergencies, a bucket auger is formed by two parts, namely the cutting working body and a lift cylindrical ladle connected to each other by the coupling device. Inside the bucket auger an auger-drill element for loading of minerals into the lifting cylindrical ladle is installed.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of development of steeply pitching coal beds and environmental safety of mining operations.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to open development of mineral fields, more exactly to open development of the long steep dipping fields with internal dumping. Method when borrow pit length is divided to turns, from them first turn is developed to design depth with external dumping, and second turn is developed using internal dumping, locating overburden to the developed space of the first turn with common formation of the dumping tiers with progress of mining towards end through full depth. At that the work zone through height is divided to two parts, bottom part opening and development are performed by longitudinal inclined layers with lifting 20-25% towards end using the wheel loaders and vehicles able to move over these steep grades, height of the bottom part is determined as per mathematical equation. The top part of the work zone is developed using the transverse development system and sliding access tracks, their width is accepted based on the condition of their use for dumping of the exploded rocks upon their widening and simultaneous assurance of two-way passage of vehicles ensuring the cargo movement between the bottom and top shelves, the longitudinal inclined layers of the bottom part of the work zone are developed by separate formed in series from top to bottom near-vertical-horizontal layers with maximum height, determined considering trajectory of the loader bucket movement, during development of each successive near-vertical-horizontal layer the rocks are preliminary loosened, the loader excavates it and loaded in vehicles located at horizontal sites at minimum distance to the mine working.
EFFECT: technical result is decreased additional sides spacing to arrange the opening mine working, and reduced distance of overburden transportation from the work zone of the borrow pit to the internal dumping.
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the construction of three artificial elements: impervious screen, a protective berm, a protective coating. And the impervious screen is created by drilling of inclined wells of large diameter in the winter period from the upper site of the ledge nonworking edge side most affected to thawing, parallel to the slope surface at its full height followed by filling them with ice rock stones, chilled fresh water and freezing with natural cold, and the protective berm is erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge of the tapered section of calculated height, using layered freezing of overburden rocks, which in the summer period, including the surface of the ledge slope, to prevent thawing, covered with the protective coating, which is made in the form of removable flexible moisture-heat- and light-reflecting mat, removed with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined based on the mathematics.
EFFECT: prevention of thawing of frozen rocks of non-working ledge edges of pits.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary loosening of a block of rocks and half-rocks by simultaneous massive drilling holes in it with the maximum density across the whole area of the block prepared for extraction, using a multibar drilling unit, followed by the extraction of rock by machine ways destroying the rock solid blocks between the holes.
EFFECT: complete elimination of harmful effects on the environment and the operational staff at drilling and blasting loosening rocks.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of open mining of mineral deposits with creation of a dump. The method includes separation of career space by zones, height and pit perimeter, cutting of ledges and horizons on which overburden and mining works with removal of rocks by truck or by rail into dumps and via ore chutes to reloading points are conducted, and dumps are built up using the cyclic action facilities. Meanwhile a convex form of a working edge is formed, gradually being fitted into the edge differentiated by steepness on a final contour which is built up in view of minimum disturbance of walls of slopes and a edge according to the technology with minimum consumption of explosives (E) with removal and dumping of rock into a main dump located near a zone of overburden works outside a contour of a steep edge of a pit of the 1st phase; initially temporary dumps are used with self-transportation of rocks outside a pit, and with their partial re excavation, provide the minimum shoulder of tramming of rocks and ore using the crushing reloading points and conveyors from inclined planes on the top horizons to the steep and vertical at completion of a pit. And with deepening of mining operations the overburden zone is divided into two sites and rock is moved by combined transport from two sides into a dump under construction parallel to a edge slope in view of deformation of its separate sites, and rock dumping on a dump after crushing is carried out by line transport facilities using the mobile console, the minimum shoulder of tramming of rock and ore and costs of development of mountain weight on the first and the subsequent stages (turns) are ensured, and the first two layers of a dump are dumped according to cyclic and line TsPT technologies using motor transport or loaders (at re-excavation of rocks) that provides stability and robustness of the dump front according the developed technology of dumping, at the final stage the third layer is dumped, and the fourth layer of dump if necessary, according to its calculated volume and height and limit depth of a pit.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of field development during construction of a dump with large volume and height at decrease of costs of stripping and improvement of safety of dumping.
SUBSTANCE: after performance of drilling and blasting operations in an overburden bench during layer-by-layer excavation of the blasted rock to an extended bench and a final blade circuit on the formation roof of the mineral deposit within excavation heading throughout the length of the slab there left is a layer of the rock with negative temperature. This allows developing a zone of stable freezing, warming it up and strengthening it by action of solar insolation during development of the upper part of the breakdown. The rest rock layer is excavated to a final blade circuit after disposal of the upper part of breakdown throughout the length of the excavation slab.
EFFECT: reduction of influence of repeated freezing on productivity of a drag line and provision of its stable operation during excavation of blasted rocks of an overburden slab.
3 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves positioning of an automated complex for deep development relative to the working face considering the direction of ore bodies settings. Control of mine rock parameters is performed by means of control sensors of physical and mechanical characteristics of mine rocks for adjustment of a mine rock cutting force considering rotation speed of a working element and movement speed of the working element in a vertical plane throughout the cutting depth and cutting direction by means of hydromechanisms of telescopic retraction and a turning mechanism of the head section. Width of capture of the ore body plane in a horizontal direction is provided by means of the positioning mechanism of the complex relative to guides; with that, information on circuits of destructed mine rock is sent from control sensors of mine rock circuits to a system control unit.
EFFECT: increasing productivity, improving reliability and enlarging technological efficiency of destruction of rocks of different strength and coherence degree by controlling a cutting force in a zone of processing and formation in a surface layer of the processed massif of destruction zones considering strength characteristics of rock.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving of permanent and working trenches, installation of downhole and main transport pipelines, extraction of a mineral deposit with wedge-shaped producing blocks. Driving of a working trench is performed by means of a parallel cut throughout the length of an open-pit field, and direction of a mine work front line is offset in a circumferential direction, the centre of which is a stationary rotary station of transport pipelines with radius R equal to maximum width of excavation cut to observe parallelism of the axis of transport pipelines to the mine work front line. The formed angle αi between radius R and the line of the main transport pipelines is determined from a mathematical expression.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of a fan development system.
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg