Device for generation of energy from fluid medium and blade used in it

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to a device for generation of energy from fluid medium and to a blade used in it, and can be used in particular in wind generators. A blade for the device for energy generation from fluid medium includes a guide surface inside which fluid medium shall move to rotate the blade about rotation axis Xo that together with axes Yo, Zo forms an orthogonal system of coordinates Xo, Yo, Zo. The above blade is restricted with front edge (4) and rear edge (5), constricted between front edge (4) and rear edge (5) and passes along midline (10). Projection of midline (10) onto plane Xo, Yo has the first curvature. Plane Xo, Yo is formed with a possibility of containing midline (10) at front edge (4).

EFFECT: group of inventions is aimed at improvement of output power of an energy generation device.

15 cl, 8 dwg

 

The present invention relates to blades for generating energy from the flow of the fluid which may be air or water.

In recent years, environmental concerns and the increasing cost sources of fossil fuels has caused a renewed interest in alternative forms of energy, particularly in the area of wind turbines.

The most recent decisions affect wind turbine comprising a rotor on a horizontal axis, continuing perpendicular to the wind direction and installed on the mast.

This solution is often used for large installations.

It was also suggested solutions to the smaller size, particularly for plants near the buildings that consume electrical energy. Document And FR 28728 67 falls under this category, and discloses a device that generates energy from wind, consisting of a wind generator rotor, which blades have the shape of a half cone and almost parallel to its axis of rotation. The device for generating energy of this type, in principle used with a horizontal axis of rotation, is small enough to be compatible with many sites to install, especially on the roofs of buildings.

Although the efficiency of wind generators are usually quite high, any increase in their power output would be very willing�individual.

The invention seeks to increase the power output of the device for generating energy of a given type.

To this end, the invention provides a blade for generating energy from a fluid medium containing the guide surface, inside which needs to move fluid to actuate the rotary blade around the axisXoof rotation, which together with the axisYo,Zoforms an orthogonal coordinate systemXo,Yo,Zo. The blade is limited to the front edge and rear edge and narrows between the front edge and rear edge. She continues along the middle line, the projection of which on the plane ofX o,Zohas a first curvature, and the planeXo,Yoformed with the possibility of keeping the middle line near the leading edge.

Thus, the invention provides a very specific shape of the blade, allowing it to take a significant portion of fluid energy. Thus, the invention helps to significantly improve the output power of the devices generating energy from fluid flow.

If desired, the invention may have at least one of the following:

the first bend is made so that in the planeXo,Yothe middle line is removed from the axisXorotation about� the leading edge to the trailing edge. In another embodiment, the first bend is made so that in the planeXo,Yothe middle line is approaching the axisXoof rotation from the leading edge to the trailing edge,

preferably, the blade comprises a first part which extends from the leading edge to the trailing edge and substantially parallel to the axisXorotation. It contains the second part, which extends from the first portion to the trailing edge and which has a bend. This bending tends to depart from or in accordance with an alternative and especially preferred embodiment of the implementation, closer to the rear edge of the axisXo.

The direction of this bending is essentially perpendicular to the plane ofXo ,Yo,

projection of the middle line on the plane ofZo,Xohas a second bend,

- the middle line is in the plane P, at an angle d relative to the planeXo,Yo,

the angle d is in the range from 50° to 100° and preferably 60° to 90°,

preferably, the angle d is in the range from 55° to 65°,

the plane P is essentially parallel to the axisXo,

- in the plane P, the middle line has a uniform primary bending,

- referred to the primary curve has a radius Rp of curvature in the range from L/2 to 10L and, preferably, from 0.7 L to L, where L is the length of the middle line,

- the intersection of planes P andX o,Yothe front edge forms a point As belonging to the middle line,

- the middle line contains the point And the front edge, point b, located in the plane ofXo,Yoand the point C on the trailing edge, so that the sections AB and BC of the middle line, respectively, bounded by points A and b and points b and C are located on both sides of the planeXo,Yo,

- the curvature of the middle line forms a cavity, which is in the range from 1% to 20% and preferably from 10% to 15%,

- the tangent to the middle line at point a and forms an angle of approximately 13°, with the planeXo,Y ,

- the length of a segment AB is equal to approximately one-third the length of the section AC, the guide surface is wrapped around the middle line,

the twist angle is constant along at least part of the blade, the guide surface is wrapped around the middle line along a section of the armed forces and twists along the section AB,

- the angle of twist of the plot MO is in the range from 40° to 80° and preferably is about 60°,

the twist angle phase BC is constant,

- land AV essentially no twist angle,

- directing surface includes a hole that continues essentially parallel to the middle line,

- at each point pi of the middle line of the cross section of the guide surfaces in the plane ofyi,xiperpendicular to the plane P, is symmetric about a planezi,xi moreover, the plane ofyi,ziandzixidefine an orthogonal coordinate systemxi,yi,zithe center of which coincides with this point, axisxi, which coincides with the tangent to the middle line (10) at the point pi and directed towards the rear edge (5), and the axisyi,x which mentioned correspond to the twist angle,

- cross section of the guide surface essentially has the shape of sector of a circle,

- the center of the circle is on the Central line,

- with a diameter of Dbeforesection of the guide surface, measured along the front edge, the diameter Dbeforesection of the guide surface, measured along the trailing edge, is such that: Dbefore/3,5≤Drear≤Dbefore/2,5,

- the length L of the middle line between the leading edge and the trailing edge is such that Dbefore·A 3.5≤L≤Dbefore·4,5,

- at each point pi of the middle line, planezi,xiis essentially equidistant from the two edges bounding a hole in the planeyi,zi.

In addition, the invention provides a rotor for generating �power from a fluid medium, containing at least one blade corresponding to any of the above characteristics.

The invention also provides a device for generating energy from a fluid medium containing a generator connected with the rotor.

The rotor is mounted on a vertical mast, made in such a way that it orients itself towards the fluid. Preferably, the automatic orientation does not require an external system or attached in addition to the resistance caused by the fluid flow.

Other characteristics, objectives and advantages of the present invention will become apparent after studying the detailed description below together with the accompanying drawings, which are presented as non-limiting examples. In these drawings:

Fig. 1 is a two-dimensional view of the blade along the planeXo,Yoin accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

Fig. 2 - dimensional view of the blade shown in Fig. 1, in the plane ofZo ,Xo.

Fig.3 - three-dimensional view of the blade shown in Fig. 1, in the orthogonal coordinate systemXo,Yo,Zo.

Fig. 4 - three-dimensional view of the formation of the blade in accordance with another variant implementation of the invention.

Fig. 5 is a longitudinal view of an example of a rotor with three blades in accordance with the example shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6 - view along the axisXoof the rotor shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7 and 8 depict two types of embodiment of a rotor with blades in accordance with an alternative embodiment of the invention.

Referring to Fig. 1-8, below, examples will be provided of the blade in accordance with the invention. The drawings show the blade 2, is made with possibility of rotation under the action of the fluid flow around the axis Xorotation. AxisXoof rotation formed by the axis 1, with which the blade 2 must be connected for rotation in cases when it is inserted in the device generate energy. Blade 2 shown in Fig. 1-8, made with the possibility of rotation around the axisXorotation in the clockwise direction, which is defined orthogonal coordinate systemXo,Yo,Zo. The orientation and direction of fluid flow indicated by the arrows in Fig. 1-3.

The blades contain 2 guide surface 3, limited ahead of the front edge 4 and behind the trailing edge 5. The guide surface 3 forms an internal volume along which to move fluid to Pref�dit in the movement of the blade 2 with the possibility of rotation during operation.

The guide surface 3 continues along the middle line 10. The middle line 10 continue mainly in a direction that is essentially parallel to the axisXoof rotation, and therefore in a direction essentially parallel to the direction of the wind. Thus, the blade 2, which is the subject of the present application, is different from many of the blades intended for the equipment of the rotors where they continue perpendicular to the axis of the rotor.

At any point pi of the middle line 10 can be used to form an orthogonal coordinate systemxi,yi,ziof which the centre coincides with the point pi and the axisxicoincides with the tangent to the middle line 10 at point pi and is directed to the trailing edge 5. Thus, at each point pi to the plane ofyi,mover accent="true"> ziforms section of the guide surface 3.

The dimensions of the cross sections of the guide surface 3 is reduced from the leading edge 4 to the trailing edge 5. This decrease may be continuous or intermittent. In the examples shown in the drawings, the size of the cross sections of the guide surface decreases continuously and linearly from the leading edge 4 to the trailing edge 5. The reduction in cross section contributes to the acceleration of the fluid when it moves inside the guide surface.

The middle line 10 is located such that its projection on the plane ofXo,Yohas a first curvature.

At the rear edge 4 of the middle line 10 cuts the planeXo,Yoalong the axisZo.

This curvature provides improved energy absorption of the fluid when it moves along the guide surface 3, befor� just by tracking fluid which tends to aspire to those sites that have less resistance.

The middle line 10 is accordingly so that its projection on the plane ofZo,Xohas a second curvature.

Thus, the kinetic energy of the fluid can be collected more efficiently, thereby providing a significant increase in power output compared to the known blades, which continue mainly along the direction parallel to the axis of rotation.

The guide surface includes a hole 6 is essentially parallel to the middle line.

In the example shown, the hole 6 extends from the front edge 4 to the trailing edge 5. This hole 6 forms two edges that also continues essentially parallel to the middle line 10. Thus, each section of the guide surfaces in the plane ofyi,ziforms a profile having first and second extreme point associated, respectively, with one of the mentioned�x edges.

The guide surface 3 is made so that the average line 10 essentially coincides with the line formed by the set of centers of segments connecting the first mentioned extreme point with said second end point.

In the illustrated embodiments, in each of the sections of the middle line 10 of the mentioned profile is essentially symmetrical about an axis of symmetry parallel to the axisziand passing through the center of the segment connecting the first mentioned and second mentioned extreme points.

Preferably, the profile forms section of the circle. More specifically, in the illustrated examples, the profile has the shape of a semicircle. Thus, the guide surface 3 has the shape of a half cone with a curved axis.

Preferably, the guide surface 3 is wrapped around the middle line 10. This obviously twisting on the blade in accordance with a variant implementation, shown in Fig. 1-6. The guide surface 3 is made so that the rear edge 5 has an angular offset relative to the leading edge 4 in the clockwise direction, when the blade 2 is made to rotate clockwise. This twist made the same� way that guide surface 3 tracks the flows of the fluid to increase the energy transfer between the fluid and the guide surface 3.

This twisting can be continuous or intermittent. It can also be continued throughout the middle line 10, or only on the last part. In the example shown, the first portion of the blade 2, continuing from the front edge 4 to the section containing point b, has no twist angle relative to the segment connecting the two extreme points of the front section 4. Preferably, this last segment almost coincides with the axisYo. The second part of the blade 2, continuing from the first part to the trailing edge 5, twisted. Preferably, the first portion of the blade 2 extends over approximately one third of the length of the blade.

The concave shape of the blade forms a cavity, which can range from 0% to 20% along the length of the blade and preferably from 10% to 15%.

This form helps to create a recess on the rear side of the blade, which causes the first aerodynamic force, which provides a torque on the rotor.

Continuous reduction of the cross section of the blade accelerates the fluid, wherein the curvature of the middle line strives�I give more angle of attack of the fluid medium, which is directed to the outer surface, with the ability to capture the fluid that goes in this direction and rushes to those areas that have less resistance.

This specific guide surface 3 forces moving fluid medium to the optimized impact energy. Consequently, this provides a very significant increase in the output power of the blades, the ongoing mainly parallel to the axis of rotation.

In short, the configuration of the blade provides for two types of aerodynamic forces:

The first is the result of compression of the inner side and outer side recesses, and the force caused by the curvature of the blade, leading to the formation of the concavity (which can be suited to the speed of the fluid in the place where the machine is installed). Fluid is directed such blades has a variable angle of attack. For each angle of attack the blade will always have a concavity, which creates an aerodynamic force, which eventually will be the result of all forces of this type, which will create each of the individual concavities forming the blade.

- The second force is the result of the Bernoulli effect, whereby fluid is accelerated when decreases�arachnae section of the channel, in which she moves. Thus, the reduction in cross section, the curvature and angle of twist selects the energy resulting from this effect.

The end result is the combination of these effects.

Below will be described in more detail an example of the blade 2 shown in Fig. 4-6.

Such blade 2 uses characteristics of the blades described above. It is made in such a way that its middle line 10 is in the plane R.

AxisYois such that the intersection of the middle line 10 with the plane ofXo,Yoit forms a point on the middle line 10, located essentially on the front edge 4.

The plane P is at an angle d relative to the planeXo,Yo.

The angle d is preferably is in the range from 50° to 90° and preferably from 55° to 65°. More preferably, it is essentially RA�Yeon 60°.

Further, the curvature of the middle line 10 in the plane P will be called a principal curvature. Preferably, the main curvature is essentially constant. This main curvature has a radius of curvature RP, in the range from L/2 to 10L and preferably from 0.7 L to L.

Thus, for this example, the blade 2, as with the examples illustrated in Fig. 1-3 and 7-8, the projection of the middle line on the plane ofXo,Yohas a first curvature and projection of the middle line on the plane ofZo,Xohas a second curvature.

As shown in a variant implementation, shown in Fig. 1-6, the main curvature is made so that the average line 10 is deflected from the axisXoof rotation from the leading edge 4 to the trailing edge 5. In accordance with another variant implementation, shown in Fig. 7 and 8, the main curvature is designed so as Thu� middle line is approaching the axis Xoof rotation from the leading edge to the trailing edge. This implementation option is especially preferred from the standpoint of power output.

Preferably, the point a is located on the axisYoand the plane P is essentially parallel to the axisXo.

In the example shown in Fig. 1-6, between the front edge 4 and the trailing edge 5, the middle line 10 contains the point b, which is in the planeXo,Yo. In addition, the average line 10 forms a point at the rear edge 5. Thus, the middle line 10 contains two plots, respectively bounded by points A and b and points b and C respectively and referred to as the section AB and the plot of the armed forces.

The blade 2 is formed so that the segments AB and BC are located on both sides of the planeXo,Yo. In the example shown, the coordinates of point A on the axisYopositive. The coordinates of the points on the middle line, forming the section AB on the axisZonegative, and the coordinates of the points of the middle line, forming the plot of the armed forces on the axisZopositive.

The tangent to the middle line 10 at a point And forming an angle of approximately 13°, with the planeXo,Yo.

Preferably, the length of a segment AB is equal to approximately one-third the length of the area AC.

The guide surface 3 is wrapped around the middle line 10. This twisting occurs in the clockwise direction from the leading edge 4 to the trailing edge 5.

Preferably, the guide surface 3 is wrapped around the middle line 10 along the section of the aircraft and not twisted along the section AB.

Preferably, the twist angle is constant along the section of the aircraft. It is in the range from 40° to 80° and preferably is about 60°.

Thus, the blade is able, inter alia, to combine the aerodynamic force resulting from the compression and recesses formed along the blade 2, and the acceleration of the fluid generated by the Bernoulli effect. Furthermore, the effects caused by the blade 2, are created in three dimensions, in contrast to known blades which direct the fluid in two-dimensional space.

Aerodynamic effects associated with portions AB and BC, are essentially the same effects, respectively, associated with the first and second parts of the blade described previously with reference to Fig. 1-3.

As in the case of the blades shown in Fig. 1-3 and 7-8, the guide surface 3 contains the hole 6, continuing essentially parallel to the middle line 10, in this section of the guide surface 3 essentially have the shape of a semicircle.

The guide surface 3 may be formed integrally. Fig. 4 shows the geometrical shaping of the blade. It is used to create a form from which the blade is received.

It turns out that the blade 2 in accordance with the invention, the dimensions of which meet the following relationship, has a very high power output:

Dbefore/4≤Drear≤Dbefore/2 and Dbefore·3≤L≤Dbefore·5

More specifically,

Dbefore/3,5≤Drear≤Dbefore/2.5 and Dbefore·A 3.5≤L≤Dbefore·4,5

More specifically,

Drear=Dbefore/3 and L=4 Dbefore,

where

Dbeforethe characteristic size of the cross section of the guide surface at the leading edge. For a semi-circular cross-section Forward corresponds to the diameter of said cross section at the leading edge.

Drearthe characteristic size of the cross section of the guide surface at the rear edge. For a semicircular cross section Drearcorresponds to the diameter of said cross section at the rear edge.

L chord length of the middle line 10 between the front and rear edges.

As an example, the blade 2 shown in Fig. 4-6, has the following dimensions:

- the length of the middle line, L=2 m; Dbefore=0.50 m; Drear=0,17 m; the radius of principal curvature, RP=1.60 m; angle d=60°; the angle of intersection with the arc of the middle line, O=72°.

The length of the middle line is adapted to generate the energy required, and this remains valid even for large amounts of energy, measured in megawatts.

As indicated above, another C�Lew of the invention is a rotor device for generating energy from fluid flow.

This rotor contains axis 1 shown in Fig. 1 and 2, and at least one blade 2. As shown in Fig. 5 and 6, the rotor comprises three blades arranged around the axis and spaced from each other at an angle of 120°. Number of blades may be lower or higher.

The blade 2 includes a means of attachment, not shown, for connecting the guide surface 3 with the axis 1 of the rotor. The connecting means well known to the specialist, such as illustrated in document FR 2172867.

When the blades are installed on the axis, a forward edge, with the axisXo, form an angle α, known as the angle of attack, in the plane ofZo,Xo. It should be noted that the axisXoaround which should rotate the blade 2, essentially parallel to the direction of the wind.

The angle of attack α is in the range from -20° to 40° and, more preferably, from -15° to 30°. Even more preferably, the angle is in the range from -15° to 10°.

The rotor is formed with who�agnosto restrictions to the extent possible, the distance between the axis 1 and the guide surface 3 to reduce mechanical strain on the parts forming the rotor. Thus, as shown in Fig. 5 and 6, the guide surface 3 is located near the axis.

The plane projection of P on the XY-plane is a straight line that is parallel to the X axis, but which may also form with the given axis angle β is known as the angle.

The angle β of inclination is in the range from 0° to 30° and, more preferably, from 0° to 20°. Even more preferably, the angle β of inclination is in the range from 0° to 12°.

Preferably, the connecting means are formed so that the angle of attack α and/or the angle β of inclination depend on the wind speed. Thus, it is possible to adjust the attack angle α so that the rotational speed of the rotor remains substantially constant regardless of wind speed.

In the alternative implementation shown in Fig. 7 and 8, the rotor contains 4 blades. The middle line of each of these blades is in the plane P, and two corresponding edges formed by hole 6, are also located in this plane. This last characteristic is evident in the two blades shown in Fig. 7. This blade contains characteristics of the blades described previously with reference to Fig. 1-6. About�however, it is not necessarily centered around the middle line. The middle line is curved. This curvature tends to bring the rear edge 5 and the axisXorotation with each other.

The invention also relates to an apparatus of generating energy, comprising a fairing that is equipped with a rotor rotating around an axisXoand a power generator coupled to the rotor.

Preferably, the device comprises a means of rotation for the orientation of the axis 1 of the rotor is essentially parallel to the direction of the wind.

The fairing can be mounted rotatably on the mast, continuing essentially vertically when the direction of the fluid is horizontal. In addition, the device can also be designed so that the air resistance system directs the fluid towards the environment without the need for additional means of rotation.

The blades, which are the purposes of the present invention, are used to create devices power generation capacity which is much higher than the capacity of the known devices of energy generation.

The blade in accordance with the invention can be �also made one of the methods which can be used for its production. This method consists in the use of the blade containing the guide surface, inside which needs to move fluid to rotate the blade around the axisXoof rotation, wherein the blade is limited to the front edge and a rear edge, and a guide surface tapers between the front edge and rear edge. In addition, this method includes a stage on which the blade is made in such a way that the guide surface continues along the middle line, located in the plane p. in addition, the guide surface is made in such a way that the plane P is at an angle d relative to the orthogonal planeXo,Yoand the planeXo,Yois such that the front edge� middle line intersects the given plane.

May also be provided an additional step, in which the middle line is bent in the plane of R.

This curve may be such that the rear edge has a tendency to deviate from the axisXoas shown in Fig. 1-6. In an alternate embodiment, the implementation of this bending is such that the rear edge has a tendency to converge with the axisXorotation. This version of the implementation significantly increases the capacity of the wind turbine.

The guide surface may also allow for the twisting around the Central line.

In accordance with another variant implementation, the guide surface has a first curvature, direction of curvature of which is designated as the first direction of curvature, essentially perpendicular to the axisXoof rotation, and the second bend, the direction of curvature of which is designated as the second direction of curvature, essentially, is angled relative to the first direction of curvature. Preferably, the second upravleniekrovlia essentially perpendicular to the first direction of curvature. More specifically, it essentially perpendicular to the plane ofZo,Xo.

Preferably, the blade comprises a first portion that extends from the leading edge to the trailing edge, the curvature of which is essentially zero along a first direction of curvature. It contains the second part, which extends from the first portion to the trailing edge and the curvature of which corresponds to the first direction of curvature. This first bend is such that the rear edge and the axisXorotation tend to converge.

This double curvature helps to improve the energy transfer between the fluid and the blade. This increases the power output of the latter.

The direction of curvature is the direction of the axis or axes parallel to each other, around which the blade is deformed with the ability to obtain the required curvature. The same part of the blade can have several directions of curvature.

The blade may have a constant curvature (one axis, one radius) along one direction of curvature of the Il� curvature, the radius of which varies and/or has multiple axes of curvature parallel to this same direction of curvature.

Preferably, each of the first and second curvature is constant along the curved part of the blade.

The blade in accordance with the previous variant of implementation may also be formed one way to obtain it. This method consists in the use of the blade containing the guide surface, inside which needs to move fluid to cause movement of the blade with the possibility of rotation around the axisXorotation, and the blade is limited to the front edge and a rear edge, and a guide surface tapers between the front edge and rear edge. For example, the blade may be in the form of a half cone.

A stage which consists in the bending of the blade at least along part that extends from the rear edge to the front edge, along a first direction of curvature.

There is also another phase, which consists in the bending of the blade at least along this one side, along the second direction of curvature, essentially located at an angle relative to the first direction of curvature. Second direction� of curvature may be substantially perpendicular to the first direction of curvature.

Preferably, the first direction of curvature essentially perpendicular to the plane ofXo,Yoand the second direction of curvature essentially perpendicular to the plane ofZo,Xo.

These two stages of bending of the blade can be performed so that the average line remains in the plane P, located at the angle d relative to the orthogonal planeXo,Yoas mentioned above.

There may be a stage of tightening the guide surface around the middle line.

The present invention is not limited to the above variants of implementation and applies to all versions of the implementation corresponding to its purpose.

In addition, you can re�to wirawati profile of the front edge 4 and trailing edges 5, even if the middle line is not along a substantial portion of its length above characteristics.

Furthermore, the blade of this type can be used with any type of fluid medium and, in particular, with air or water.

Reference position

1. Axis

2. The blade

3. Guide surface

4. The leading edge

5. Rear edge

6. Hole

7. DBEFORE

8. DREAR

9. Chord length

10. The middle line

1. The blade (2) device for generating energy from a fluid medium containing the guide surface (3),
- inside which needs to move fluid to cause movement of the blade (2) rotatably around the axisXoof rotation, which together with the axisYo,Zoforms an orthogonal coordinate systemXo,Yo ,Zo
- limited front lip (4) and rear edge (5),
- a narrowing between the front edge (4) and rear edge (5),
- continuing along the middle line (10),
characterized in that the projection of the middle line (10) on the plane ofXo,Yohas a first curvature configured such that in the planeXo,Yothe middle line is shifted from or to the axisXoof rotation from the leading edge to the trailing edge, and the planeXo,Yoformed with the possibility�spine to contain the middle line (10) along the front edge (4).

2. The blade (2) according to claim 1, in which the projection of the middle line (10) on the plane ofZo,Xohas a second curvature.

3. The blade (2) according to claim 1 or 2, in which the middle line (10) is in the plane P, at an angle d relative to the planeXo,Yo.

4. The blade (2) according to claim 3, in which the angle d is in the range from 50° to 90° and preferably from 55° to 65°.

5. The blade (2) according to claim 3, in which the plane P is essentially parallel to the axisXo.

6. The blade (2) according to claim 3, in which the middle line is in the plane p of the main curvature having a constant radius.

7. The blade (2) according to any one of claims. 1, 2, 4, 5 or 6, in which the middle line (10) contains a point A on the leading edge, point b, located in the plane ofXo, Yoand the point C on the trailing edge (5), so that the sections AB and BC of the middle line, respectively bounded by points A and b and points b and C are located on both sides of the planeXo,Yowith section AB of the middle line (10) forms, with respect to a planeXo,Yothe cavity being in the range from 10% to 15%.

8. The blade (2) according to any one of claims. 1, 2, 4, 5 or 6, in which the guide surface (3) is wrapped around the middle line (10).

9. The blade (2) according to claim 8, in which the guide surface (3) has a stretch of sun the twist angle around the center line (10) being in the range from 40° to 80° and preferably of approximately 60° and twist angle along the section AB.

10. The blade (2) according to any of claims. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 or 9, in which the guide surface (3) comprises a hole (6), continued for creatures� parallel to the middle line (10).

11. The blade (2) according to claim 8, in which at any point pi of the middle line (10) a section of the guide surface (3) located in the plane ofyi,ziperpendicular to the plane P, is symmetric about a planezi,xiand the planeyi,ziandzi,xidefine an orthogonal coordinate systemxi,yi,ziof which the centre coincides with the point pi, axisx iwhich coincides with the tangent to the middle line (10) at the point pi and directed towards the rear edge (5), and the axisyi,ziwhich mentioned correspond to the twist angle.

12. The blade (2) according to claim 11, in which the cross section of the guide surface (3) has the shape of sector of a circle.

13. The blade (2) according to claim 12, in which when the diameter Dbefore(7) the sections of the guide surface (3), taken from the leading edge (4), the diameter Drear(8) the sections of the guide surface (3), taken from the trailing edge, is such that Dbefore/3,5≤Drear≤Dbefore/The 2.5.

14. The blade (2) according to claim 12 or 13, in which at diameter Dbefore(7) the sections of the guide surface (3), taken from the leading edge (4), the chord between the leading edge (4) and rear edge (5) has length L (9), such that:
Dbefore·A 3.5≤L≤Dbefore·4,5.

15. The device for generating energy from a fluid medium, comprising a rotor with at least one blade (2) according to any one of the preceding claims.



 

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3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: universal rotor is referred to machine building, in particular, to the production of rotors for windmills, hydroturbines, screw propellers, fans and aircrafts. A universal rotor comprises at least two bow-shaped blades which are set around the rotor rotation axis 3 and each of them is connected to a fastener installed along the rotor rotation axis 3. The generatrix of the cambered side surface 1 of the bow-shaped blade is located close to the plane parallel to the rotor rotation axis 3. The upper edge of the cambered side surface 1 of the bow-shaped blade is connected with the edge of the concave side surface 2 of the bow-shaped blade. The concave surface 2 of the bow-shaped blade without sharp bends and corners is inclined from the rotor rotation axis in the direction to the base of this blade. The edge of the concave side surface 2 of the bow-shaped blade is connected with the upper edge of the cambered side surface 1 of the bow-shaped blade at an angle. The opposite edge of the concave side surface 2 of the bow-shaped blade is connected with the cambered side surface 1 of the adjoining bow-shaped blade at an angle.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at the reduction of energy flow's energy losses.

2 dwg

Wind wheel // 2549008

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: wind wheel comprising a hub and blades from a bent resilient strip connected to the hub is proposed. Every blade is made by single-sided joint of the opposite ends of a bent resilient strip. Additionally its blades are set with the designed incidence angle at their end and at the units of their connection to the hub.

EFFECT: use of the invention will allow for the increase of wind turbine efficiency.

2 dwg

Windwheel // 2542161

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to wind power industry, particularly to windwheels of wind power and wind electric power plants with horizontal rotation axis, designed mainly for operation in segmented-type power generators. The effect is achieved by equipping the main blade of windwheel with a joint where L-shaped arm is attached, with tensioning gear with a cable fixed at one side and rocker system at the other side. Sail fins are made in the form of band loops with band ends attached to the rockers, and the loop put on the cable.

EFFECT: simplified and more cost-effective structure, twist enabled.

4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to wind-power engineering and can be used for conversion of wind power. The rotor blade (200) consists of a body (206) with aerodynamic structure (204) with a pressure side (204.2) and suction side (204.1), base on the first end of the body (206) and tip (100) on the second end of the body, besides, for connection with the tip (100) the bode (206) has the second components of the connecting mechanism, which contain mating with the first guides (110) of the tip (100) the second guides (210), and also the second blocking devices (220) interacting with the first blocking devices (120) of the tip (100). The tip (100) of the rotor blade (200) is designed as an independent detail, connected with the blade (200), and has the first connecting surface (102), facing towards the connected blade. To make the connection with the blade (200) on the connecting surface (102) the first guides (110) with the direction (FR) of input and first blocking devices (120) are provisioned as the first components of the connecting mechanism for fastening the tip (100) on the blade (200).

EFFECT: inventions allow to simplify the unit operation and reliability of its transportation.

16 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering and wind energetics. Rotor of the segmental electric generator includes shaft, hub, rim and magnetic cores in form of two angle connections of straps, one is inside the other one. The straps have fixtures for securing on the rim. Technical result is improvement of the generator efficiency upon minimisation of its price as the rotor is magnetically interacts with the stator via two air gaps: outside and inside, thus reducing magnetic dispersion. Additional electromotive force increasing is due to additional rotor elements only, at that the magnetic field source is the same.

EFFECT: use of strap elements increases produceability.

1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: wind wheel of the segment type electric generator, containing a hub, blades with the stringers designed as a sailing fin assembly, according to the invention, has fastening of stringers to the rim connected to the hub by means of spokes which are designed as flat-topped brackets on vertical sides of which the pairwise cuts are made which contact to the rim. Flat-topped brackets are connected to the rim fasteners, and stringers are fixed on horizontal shelves of flat-topped brackets.

EFFECT: possibility of use of stringers of the blade both as structural elements and magnetic conductors of the segment generator that provides simplification and reduction in cost of the design due to the use of the sailing fin assembly.

5 dwg

Wind motor // 2508468

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: wind motor includes a horizontal shaft with a wheel with blades, which is installed on it. In addition, the wind wheel includes a conical air flow guide fixed on a wheel hub shell and an external shell. Blades of the second level are uniformly arranged on the external shell. Blades of the first level are attached to the wheel hub shell and to the conical guide. Generatrixes of blades of the first and the second levels are curved and have an ascending air flow attack angle.

EFFECT: improving efficiency.

5 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: universal rotor is referred to machine building, in particular, to the production of rotors for windmills, hydroturbines, screw propellers, fans and aircrafts. A universal rotor comprises at least two bow-shaped blades which are set around the rotor rotation axis 3 and each of them is connected to a fastener installed along the rotor rotation axis 3. The generatrix of the cambered side surface 1 of the bow-shaped blade is located close to the plane parallel to the rotor rotation axis 3. The upper edge of the cambered side surface 1 of the bow-shaped blade is connected with the edge of the concave side surface 2 of the bow-shaped blade. The concave surface 2 of the bow-shaped blade without sharp bends and corners is inclined from the rotor rotation axis in the direction to the base of this blade. The edge of the concave side surface 2 of the bow-shaped blade is connected with the upper edge of the cambered side surface 1 of the bow-shaped blade at an angle. The opposite edge of the concave side surface 2 of the bow-shaped blade is connected with the cambered side surface 1 of the adjoining bow-shaped blade at an angle.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at the reduction of energy flow's energy losses.

2 dwg

Rotor device // 2531159

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technologies and devices of conversion and generation of kinetic energy of gas and fluid flows into mechanical and formation of flows from energy mechanism driving. The rotary device contains a barrel 4, rigidly fastened on the power takeoff shaft, vanes 8-11, in pairs fixed on the shafts 5, 6. The shafts 5, 6 are designed with a possibility of independent from each other rotation around of own longitudinal axes. The drum 4 is placed in the body 1, containing a spheric ring part and end surfaces containing a section, made as a truncated cone fixed with a wide base with edges of spheric parts of the body 1. The narrow base is placed in a cavity of the spheric part of the body 1 and is equipped with a round plate placed in parallel to ends of the drum 4, with a hole, through which the power takeoff shaft passes with a possibility of rotation. Vanes 8-11 have the axisymmetric shape. The cross-section of the cavity of the body 1 is overlapped with a partition fastened with an internal spheric surface of the body 1 and side conic surfaces of its end parts. The partition with a transversal slot is designed with a possibility for the vane 8-11 to pass through it, which is unfolded in a diameter plain of the spherical part of the body 1.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at increase of completeness of flow conversion into mechanical energy.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of hydroelectric generation of power. A spherical turbine 96 is made for rotation in transverse direction in a cylindrical pipe under action of a working substance flowing through the pipe in any direction. The turbine 96 is in working condition connected with a rotary machine or generator for power generation. In one example of realisation the blades 112, 114, 116, 118 of the spherical turbine 96 are arched approximately by 180 degrees in the plane, which is inclined at the angle relative to the axis of rotation of a central shaft 64. In the other example of realisation inside the cylindrical pipe there is a deflector along the upstream of the spherical turbine 96 to control the flow via the spherical turbine 96 by screening of the part of this flow.

EFFECT: blades 112, 114, 116, 118 of the spherical turbine 96 have in cross section an aerodynamic profile for optimisation of hydrodynamic flow, to minimise cavitation and to maximise axial energy conversion into rotation energy.

28 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic machine Francis-type wheel 1 has outer rim with symmetrical rotation about wheel central axis, inner rim 4 with symmetrical rotation about said axis and multiple vanes arranged between said rims. Wheel 1 comprises at least two elements to define, at least partially, outer rim 6 and/or two elements to define, at least partially, said inner rim 4. At least one edge of vane 2 is fitted between two said elements.

EFFECT: improved manufacturability, sufficient quality.

9 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: turbine plant comprises a blading 11, which includes curved blades, an inner end of each one is closed in a cavity 14, open at one side; and a generator 20, arranged in the cavity 14 and connected with the blading 11. Each curved blade has a dynamic structure and is made as capable of increase in size under action of hydrostatic pressure and with the capability of compression under action of counterpressure.

EFFECT: simplified design and efficient operation.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an impeller for a directly connected low-speed small hydraulic turbine of diagonal type, used in a hydrodynamic power-saving cooling tower, which comprises an upper crown, a lower ring and blades with bent surface, installed between the upper crown and the lower ring. The ratio of the height h of the edge 4 of water inlet of each blade to the diameter D1, corresponding to the edge 4 of water inlet makes 0.18-0.22. The ratio of the total height of blades H to the diameter D1 makes 0.35-0.42. The ratio of the diameter D2, corresponding to the point A of crossing of each edge 4 of the water outlet and the lower ring, to the diameter D1 makes 0.4-0.6. The ratio of the diameter D3, corresponding to the point B of crossing of each edge 4 of water inlet and the upper crown to the diameter D1 makes 0.3-0.45. The ratio of the diameter D4 in the position of the round platform of water drainage on the upper crown to the diameter D1 makes 0.1-0.2. The diameter D1 and frequency of rotation of cooling fan blades are related according to certain dependence.

EFFECT: provision of simple design, convenience in development and installation and high efficiency of energy conversion.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: impeller of Francis type includes rim 1 with rotation symmetry about rotation axis Z of impeller and bent blades 21, 22, which are rigidly attached to rim 1, each of which includes external peripheral edge 212, 222 and internal central edge 211, 221. Connection points B21, B22 of rim 1 with internal central edges 211, 221 of blades 21, 22 are located on one and the same circle C20 centred relative to above mentioned axis Z. Connection points A21, A22 of rim 1 with external peripheral edges 212, 222 of blades 21, 22 are located at least on two different circles C21, C22 centred relative to axis Z.

EFFECT: reduction of the cost of composite elements of devices owing to limiting their dimensions by reducing the action on them of radial stresses under unsteady conditions.

11 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: store of energy created with wind force includes sufficient amount of energy to meet the demands of the whole mankind. The invention represents effective device supplying this energy store for practical use. On rotating drive shaft 3 there installed is a pair of shaped parts 1, 2 of convex and concave profile, open V-shaped profile with rounded top, which reverses its orientation through 180 degrees, i.e. it is rotated from convex state to concave state. Drive shaft is rotated through 180 degrees. Circular movement of water, which takes place in the wave, effectively brings into operation such turbine, while the wave dies away. Pair of concave and convex shaped parts 1, 2 is spirally spread about drive shaft 3, by means of which the streams in all directions, which come into contact with pair of shaped parts, create the torque moment.

EFFECT: improving the use efficiency of streams and multidirectional oscillatory movements occurring in waves.

25 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic turbine of immersion type includes rotor 20, housing-stator that is integrated into rotor 20 and electricity generating means. Rotor 20 has outer rim 22 that encircles the blades 21. There is one or more floating chambers 60 located in outer rim.

EFFECT: rotor weight reduction for floating obtaining.

6 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to devices wherein flow of liquid rotates big rotor of screw type or rotor wheel having external circular rim positioned inside big circular case. A hydro-electric turbine consists of rotor 20 positioned inside case 30 with external circular rim 22 located in channel 32 made in case 30. The turbine is improved due to making at least one exit channel 50 for removal of foreign particles. Foreign objects caught between rotor 20 and case 30 are removed through exit channel 50.

EFFECT: avoiding or minimisation of foreign objects accumulation in channel of case.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydropower engineering, namely to hydroelectric power plants. A run-of-river hydroelectric power plant 2 is installed on a basement 26 and contains several rigid, water-tight housings 6 with an elliptic cross section fitted with turbine modules 8 arranged with a possibility of transmission of rotation from shafts 13 enclosed by a ring 27, turbines 12 through free-wheeling clutches 14 to the common shaft 15 passing through an onshore well 21 with the ground river water circulating in it through a reducer 16 to the rotor shaft of an electric generator 17 installed on the shore 3. In each turbine module 8 the plane of rotation of the turbine 12 blades is inclined at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the flow 1, in the zone of the hub 18 of the turbine 12 to which blades are fastened. On a guiding lattice 11 located upstream the turbine 12 a cone-shaped body 25 is installed with the top oriented upstream. From the back side on the hub 18 of the turbine 12 a hemispherical body 19 is installed. Upstream and downstream the turbine module 8 a shutoff device 7 is installed.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at providing of extraction of the maximum possible part of kinetic energy of water, which freely flows in the river, for its conversion into electric power.

21 cl, 9 dwg

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