# Hydraulic machine impeller, hydraulic machine containing such impeller, and energy conversion plant equipped with such hydraulic machine

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the impeller of Francis impeller for the hydraulic machine through which the forced water flow shall pass. The Francis impeller for the hydraulic machine contains rim (1) with symmetrical rotation around the rotation axis (Z) of the impeller, ceiling (12) and multiple bent blades (21) secured with rim (1) and ceiling (12), each of them has peripherical edge (212). Edge (212) of at least one of the blades (21) is bent and its concavity looks outside the impeller. Distance measured between any point of the edge (212) and straight line passing from one side through first point of interface between the edge (212) and rim (1), and from the other side through the second point of interface between the edge (212) and ceiling (12) is maximum at level of the intermediate point of the edge (212). Radius of the intermediate point is strictly lower the radius of first interface point and radius of second interface point.

EFFECT: invention designs the impeller which geometry ensure stabilisation of the impeller rotation speed during transient start-up phases at relatively low fall heights.

15 cl, 10 dwg

The present invention relates to impeller type wheel Francis turbine for hydraulic machine through which must pass a forced flow of water. If the machine is a turbine, the flow causes the rotation of the impeller, and if the machine is a pump, the flow occurs as a result of this rotation. In addition, the present invention relates to a hydraulic machine equipped with such a wheel. On the other hand, the invention also relates to the installation of energy conversion, comprising a hydraulic machine.

Usually a classic setup converting hydraulic energy into electrical energy includes a hydraulic machine, which operates in turbine mode and through which a forced flow of water, the flow of which is controlled dispenser. The turbine wheel rotates a shaft connected to the alternator. To connect the generator to the mains power, the turbine speed should be stable, so that the frequency of the electrical signal at the output of the generator is equal to the frequency of the electrical network. The frequency of the power grid is 50 Hz in Europe, but this value may be equal to 60 Hz in other areas, for example in the United States. While the machine is not connected to the network, the torque of the impeller is zero. During re�single phase pressure fluctuations of the flow lead to instability therefore, the rotational speed of the turbine wheel is not stable, and the generator cannot be connected to the mains. In particular, during startup of the turbine distributor opens gradually, which causes fluctuations in the speed of rotation of the turbine wheel. Then when reaching the required degree of opening of the distributor, the generator is connected to the mains, as soon as the speed of rotation of the impeller is stable and reaches the speed of synchronization.

Fig.1 shows a known impeller 100 type of wheel Francis, which contains the crown 101 and the ceiling 112 opposite the crown 101. In addition, the wheel 100 includes nine blades 121 which is fixedly connected to the crown 101 and the ceiling 112 and located between the crown 101 and the ceiling 112. Each blade 121 has a straight front edge 221, through which first undergoes a forced water stream, if the wheel belongs to the hydraulic machine is operating in turbine mode.

On shown in Fig.4 graph, the abscissa shows a value called "reduced speed" is expressed in rpm and is proportional to the ratio of the speed of rotation of the turbine wheel to the square root of the drop height, and the ordinate is a value called "low torque", expr�nnaya in Nm and is proportional to the ratio of torque generated by the wheel to the height of the drop. Each curve C1-C6 graph shows the low torque of the impeller, depending on its reduced speed of rotation at a constant degree of opening of the distributor, located at the entrance to this wheel. The curves shown in solid lines C1, C3 and C5 correspond to the operation of the turbine, equipped with a known impeller 100, and the curves shown by dotted lines C2, C4 and C6 correspond to the operation of the turbine, equipped with an impeller in accordance with the invention.

Small values of the reduced speed of rotation of the turbine in the left side of the graph correspond to greater heights of incidence, whereas large values of the reduced speed of rotation of the turbine in the right side of the graph correspond to low heights of fall. Points P1 to P6 are respectively at the intersection between the curves C1-C6 and horizontal line corresponding to zero reduced torque. Thus, the points P1 to P6 show a reduced speed of rotation of the impeller, allowing you to connect the generator to the electrical network. It is known that on such a graph, the operating points at which the slope of the curve is negative, consistent with the sustainable operation of the turbine, i.e. a stable speed of rotation of the impeller. At the same time, the operating points at which the slope of the Cree�Oh is positive correspond to unstable speed of rotation of the impeller, which allows you to connect the generator to the network. Usually try to achieve operation of the turbine at the lowest altitudes of the fall, while maintaining a negative slope.

In the case of known wheel 100, it is noted that for the point P1, which corresponds to the first dispenser opening at a relatively high altitude falling, the slope of the curve C1 is negative, and the rotation speed is stable. As for the point P3, which corresponds to a lower drop height when the second dispenser opening, the curve C3 is a more or less vertical, the speed of rotation is known of the impeller 100 is not stable enough. Finally, the curve C5 is S-shaped, and its slope at the point P5 is positive, which corresponds to the unstable speed of rotation of the impeller 100.

Thus, the impeller 100 is not able to stabilize the speed of rotation at relatively low altitudes of the fall.

To stabilize the speed of rotation is known of the impeller is known to use a turbine with additional device connection, which is designed to desynchronization of the guide blades. These guide vanes distributed around the working stake�and made with the possibility of desynchronization, that is, they can be oriented differently relative to each other to change the flow around the wheel for the purpose of obtaining a curve with a negative slope on the graph shown in Fig.4. However, desynchronization guide blades requires, on the one hand, the installation of servomotor control designed for asynchronous vane and, on the other hand, the use of an appropriate programme of monitoring and control.

In document US-2005/013691 disclosed impeller type wheel Francis, containing the ceiling and the rim, between which are vanes having a curved leading edge, the convexity of which is the district. Thus, each of the front edges has an intermediate point in a concave curved shape of the front edge. This impeller has a geometry in which the radius of the first point of interface between the front edge and the ceiling is less than the radius of the intermediate point. This geometry does not allow to improve the stability of the rotational speed of the impeller during the phases of connection to the electricity network.

The object of the invention is to eliminate the above drawbacks and the development of the turbine wheel, the geometry of which allows to stabilize the wheel speed during transient phases starting from when�siteline low altitudes fall.

The problem is solved impeller according to the invention of the wheel type for Francis hydraulic machine through which must pass a forced flow of water containing:

- crown with symmetry of rotation around the axis of rotation of the wheel,

- ceiling with symmetry of rotation around the axis of rotation, opposite the crown,

- lots of curved vanes fixedly connected to the crown and the ceiling, and having, each, a Central edge near the axis of rotation and a peripheral edge, opposite the Central edge, which runs between the crown and the ceiling and through which the first flow, when the hydraulic machine operates in turbine mode. In other words, when the hydraulic machine operates in turbine mode, the flow passes from the peripheral edge to the Central edge.

The peripheral edge of at least one blade is curved and its concavity facing the outside of the impeller. First distance, measured between any point of the peripheral edge and the straight line passing from one side through the first point of interface between the peripheral edge and the crown and, on the other hand, via a second point of interface between the peripheral edge and the ceiling is a maximum at intermediate points of the peripheral edge. The radius of the intermediate points yavl�is strictly less than the radius of the first point mate. The radius of the intermediate points is strictly less than the radius of the second point of the pair.

Due to the shape in the form of a depression of the peripheral edges of the blades, which corresponds to the leading edge, when the hydraulic machine is operating in the mode of the turbine, the turbine can operate at lower altitudes the fall with preservation of negative slope at operating points that allows you to connect the generator to the electrical network. This allows to obtain stable rotation speed and quickly connect the turbine to the electrical network without adding additional devices connection, in particular, at low heights of fall.

According to a preferred but not restrictive embodiments of the invention, the impeller may have one or more of the following distinctive characteristics, taken in any possible technical combinations:

- The intermediate point is farthest from the straight line.

Orthogonal projection of the intermediate points on the line is in the zone, which runs along a straight line and the center of which is in the middle of the straight. The height of the zones is less than 80% of the height of each blade, measured from the first point of the mate and second mate, preferably less than 10%.

- Peripheral edge blades made in the form of a section of a circle, ellipse, parabola, and even any curve.

- Pere�first attitude, in which:

the denominator is the height of the blade measured between the first point of the mate and second mate,

- the numerator is the maximum distance between a straight line and a peripheral edge,

is from 0% to 200%, preferably from 30% to 80%.

- The intermediate point of the peripheral edges is half the distance between the interfaces.

- In a first plane parallel to the axis of rotation and perpendicular to the second plane, which passes through the intersection between the ceiling and the average surface of the blade located between the outer side and the inner side of the blade, and which continues this average surface, the outer side is convex, and the inner side is concave.

- In the first plane of the outer side and inner side are in the shape of a section of a circle, ellipse, parabola, and even any curve.

The second respect in which:

the denominator is the height of the blade measured between the first point of the mate and second mate,

- the numerator is the maximum distance measured parallel to the first plane, between a direct and a peripheral edge,

is from 0% to 200%, preferably from 10% to 40%.

- In the first plane of the intermediate point of the peripheral edges is half of the races�situation between interfaces.

- In the first plane of the peripheral edge is curved with the concavity facing in the same direction as the direction of rotation of the wheel in turbine mode.

- Second is the distance, measured parallel to the first plane, between any point of the peripheral edge and the line is maximal at an intermediate point.

The object of the invention is a hydraulic machine equipped with such impeller.

Preferably, when the machine is operating in turbine mode, the flow first goes to the outer side of the blades.

Finally, the object of the invention is the installation of energy conversion, comprising a hydraulic machine.

The invention and its advantages will be more apparent from the following descriptions of the impeller, part of the hydraulic machine, belonging to the installation of energy conversion, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig.1 depicts an isometric view of the known impeller of the hydraulic machine.

Fig.2 - view similar to Fig.1, the impeller of the hydraulic machine in accordance with the invention.

Fig.3 is a sectional view of the installation of energy conversion, equipped with a hydraulic machine containing the impeller shown in Fig.2.

Fig.4 is a graph showing the six curves of cat�mitted three solid curves show the speed of rotation of the impeller, shown in Fig.1, depending on its torque, and the three dotted curves show the speed of rotation of the impeller shown in Fig.2, depending on its torque.

Fig.5 is a partial isometric view of detail V of Fig.2 from a different angle and in a larger view.

Fig.6 - view of the blade belonging to the impeller shown in Fig.2, in the direction of the arrow F6 in Fig.5.

Fig.7 is an enlarged view of the blade shown in Fig.6, in the direction of the arrow F7 in Fig.5.

Fig.8 is isometric view of the impeller shown in Fig.2.

Fig.9 is a top view of the impeller shown in Fig.2, in section along the plane P8 of Fig.7 and the ceiling of the impeller is not shown.

Fig.10 is a top view of the impeller shown in Fig.2, in section along the plane P8 of Fig.7, wherein the rim of the impeller is not shown.

Installation I, shown in Fig.3, comprises a reversible hydraulic machine M, which is a turbine-pump type Francis turbine, wheel R which is fed with water from the spiral chamber 3 and which communicates with the channel 4 forced flow when the machine M operates in turbine mode. During operation, the wheel 200 rotates around the vertical rotation axis Z. When the machine M operates in turbine mode, the wheel 200 is rotated in the rotation direction R1 around the Z axis, which corresponds to the direction�ing clockwise if the wheel is R viewed from above. For the production of electricity in turbine mode, the machine M is connected to the generator 5 through the shaft 50 rotating around the z-axis Between the camera 3 and the wheel R are the static front guide vanes 6 and the rotary vanes 7, intended for the direction of the water flow E, coming from channel 4 and intended for passing through the wheel R, in the direction of the outlet channel 8. Guide vanes 7 also perform the function of a distributor, as they allow you to adjust the flow rate.

Fig.2 shows the impeller R in accordance with the invention, which comprises a crown 1 and the ceiling 12 opposite the crown 1. The crown 1 and the ceiling 12 have symmetry of rotation around the axis Z. the Crown 1 and the ceiling 12 have an outer peripheral edge, respectively 10 and 20, centered on the axis Z. the Surface of the crown 1 and the ceiling 12 have a curved shape formed by rotating the curve segment around and at a distance from the z axis.

In addition, the impeller R contains nine blades 21 which is fixedly connected to the crown 1 and the ceiling 12 and located between the crown 1 and the ceiling 12 around the axis Z. In Fig.2 of the connection zone between the blades 21, on the one hand, and the ceiling 2, on the other hand, is shown by dotted lines.

In this case, the object name is "Central", if� is close to the Z-axis, unlike the adjective "peripheral", which refers to the object located at a distance from the z axis.

Each blade 21 has a curved shape between the peripheral end 22 of the blade 21 and the Central end 23 of the blade 21. This curved shape forms a major curvature of the blade 21, is mostly in sections of the spiral. Each blade 21 has a peripheral edge 212, located on the periphery of the crown 1, and the Central edge 211, looking to the axis Z. Each blade 21 is limited to the outer side 213 outside the main curvature of the blade 21 and the inner side 214 inside the main curvature of the blade 21. Side 213 and 214 are connected to the Central edge 211 and the peripheral edge 212.

When the machine M operates in turbine mode, the flow E in the first place falls on the outer side 213 of the blades 21. As shown in Fig.9 and 10, in the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis Z, the outer face 213 of each blade 21 is convex, and the inner side 214 is concave.

When the machine M operates in turbine mode, the peripheral edge 212 of each blade 21 forms a front edge and a Central edge 211 forms the back edge. The front edge first meets the flow E, when the machine M operates in turbine mode. In other words, the fluid flows from the peripheral edge to the Central edge. In the following description, before�provided for the mode of the turbine, used the expressions "front edge" and "trailing edge"; it can be transposed to the case when the wheel works as a pump by swapping these expressions.

The position And the designated point of conjugation of the crown 1 and the leading edge 212 of each of the vanes 21. Letter To a designated point of conjugation of the crown 1 with the trailing edge 211 of each of the vanes 21. Similarly, denotes the point of pairing the ceiling 12 with the front edge 212 of each of the vanes 21, and D denotes the point of pairing the ceiling 12 with the trailing edge 211 of each of the vanes 21.

Ra, Rb, Rc or Rd are respectively the radius of the points A, b, C or D. Each radius Ra, Rb, Rc and Rd is the distance, measured in the radial direction between the Z axis and the point A, b, C or D.

The radius Rd is less than the radius Rb. The radii Ra and Rc are equal and strictly exceed the radii of Rb and Rd. In particular, the radius Rc is strictly greater than the radius Rb, which allows the M to work as a pump with sufficient efficiency. When the machine M operates in turbine mode, the flow pressure E level points more than at the point B.

Fig.5-7 shows in more detail the distal end 22 of one of the blades, this assumes that other blades 21 are similar.

S denotes the average surface of each of the vanes 21 extending between the outer 213 and 214 internal sides of the blade 21 at the same distance�anii from these parties. At the level of the peripheral end 22 of the blade 21, the average surface S coincides with the leading edge 212. The surface S shown in Fig.5 in the form of its trace at the level of the ceiling 12.

L denotes a straight line passing through point A and With the leading edge 212. Direct L parallel to the axis Z of rotation of the impeller R. RA denotes a plane that passes through the straight line L and which is in the mid-surface S at the level of its intersection with the ceiling 12. The plane RA passes through the left half of the tangent t from the peripheral end of the S1 trail middle surface S at the level of the ceiling 12.

Fig.6 shows a view in direction of arrow F6, perpendicular to the plane of the RA and directed to the outer side 213 of the blade 21.

The front edge 212 is curved and has no stutter. In other words, the hollow leading edge 212 is made in the direction of the trailing edge 211, and its form has no fractures. Thus, the concavity of the front edge 212 of the blade facing out wheels 21 and R, in particular, in the plane of the RA or in a plane parallel to the sides 213 or 214, near the leading edge 212.

In the plane RA curved shape of the front edge 212 in the form of a depression formed by the area of a circle, as shown in Fig.6. Position C21 denotes the center of the front edge 212 in the plane of the RA and the position R21 denotes its radius.

Front CRO�ka 212 is symmetrical relative to the plane P8, perpendicular to the line L, which passes through the intermediate point N of the front edge 212. Point N is the point on the leading edge 212 which is the most distant from the straight line L.

D21 denotes the distance between point N and the line L, and H denotes the height of the leading edge 212, measured between points A and C along the straight line L. the Distance D21 is the distance between the front edge 212 and direct L.

In the presented example, the distance D21 measured perpendicular to the straight line L. let us denote d1 the distance between the line L and any point P of the front edge 212, measured perpendicular to the straight line L. let us denote by G the orthogonal projection of point P on the line L. the Distance d1 measured between the points P and G. the Distance d1 is the projection of the vector

Thus, along the front edge 212 and between points A and C the distance d1, expressed as a function of the distance L1 between the point A and the point G has only one maximum and has no point of inflection.

The derivative of the distance 1 relative to the distance L1 is positive between points A and N, reset to zero at the point N and is negative between points N and S. the Second derivative of the distance d1 relative to the distance L1 is negative between points A and C.

Ratio, the numerator of which is the distance D21, and the denominator is the height H is in the range from 0% to 200%, preferably from 30% to 80%.

F denotes the point of intersection between the line L and the plane P8. The distance between point a and point F is equal to the distance between point F and point P. in other words, the plane P8 is half the distance between points A and C along the straight line L.

Rn denotes the radius of the point N, i.e. the distance, measured radially, between the Z axis and the point N. the Distance Rn is strictly less than the distance Ra and the distance Rc.

Fig.7 shows the outer end 22 of the blade 21 shown in Fig.5, in the direction of the arrow F7, contained in the plane of the RA is perpendicular to L. Thus, in Fig.7 shows a view in the plane Pb, perpendicular to the plane of the RA.

As shown in Fig.7, the body of the blade 21 is arched to the outside of the wheel R. in other words, in the plane Pb of the outer side 213 is convex, and the inner side 214 is concave. This secondary curvature of the blades 21 is continuous and has no breaks.

In particular, in the plane Pb of the outer surface 213, the inner surface 214 and an average surface area S, which coincides with the front� edge 212, formed, each, by the area of the circle. S denotes the center of the circle that defines the shape of the leading edge 212, and R212 represents its radius. Similarly, positions C and S marked center of the circles which define the shape of the outer surface 213 and the inner surface 214, and the positions of R213 and R214 are marked with their respective radii.

Given this secondary curvature, a straight line which passes through the points F and N, and along which the measured distance D21 is tilted relative to the plane of RA Fig.6.

D22 denotes the distance measured parallel to the plane Pb, between the point F and the point N. the Distance D22 is the maximum distance in the plane parallel to the plane Pb, between the line L and the leading edge 212. The distance D22 is the projection of the vector

The second ratio, the numerator of which is the distance D22, while the denominator is the height H of the blade 21, is from 0% to 200%, preferably from 10% to 40%.

In addition, in the plane Pb of the outer side 213 and the inner side 214 JW�safety symmetrical relative to the plane P8. In other words, in the plane Pb point N of the front edge 212 is located at half the height between the interfaces A and C.

In the presented example, the distance D22 measured perpendicular to the straight line L. let us denote the distance d2 between the line L and any point P of the front edge 212, measured parallel to the plane Pb and perpendicular to the straight line L. the Distance d2 is the projection of the vector

The distance d2 is zero at point a and increases between points A and N. the point N, the distance d2 is maximum and equal to the distance D22. Between points N and the distance d2 decreases. At point C the distance d2 is zero. Thus, along the front edge 212 and between points A and C the distance d2, expressed as a function of distance L1 has only one maximum and has no inflection points. The derivative of the distance d2 relative to the distance L1 is positive between points A and N, is reset to zero at the point N and is negative between points N and S. the Second derivative of the distance d2 relative to the distance L1 is negative between points A and C.

The secondary concavity of the curvature of the blades 21 is turned in the direction of rotation R of the wheel R, when the machine M operates in turbine mode. In other words, in a section perpendicular to the trace of the middle surface S on the ceiling 12, and as shown in Fig.7, the outer face 213 of the blades 21 is convex and facing opposite the direction of rotation R1, and the inner side 214 is concave and facing in the same direction as the direction of rotation R1.

Positions Rp, θp and denoted by Zp the cylindrical coordinates of any point P of each of the front edge 212.

Rp is the radius point R. Pz denote the orthogonal projection of point P on the z-axis, the Radius Rp is measured between the points Pz and P in the radial direction. At point a, the radius Rp is equal to the radius Ra. The radius Rp is reduced between the points a and N. the point N, the radius Rp is minimum and equal to the radius Rn. The radius Rp increases between points N and C. At point With radius Rp is equal to the radius Rc.

Zp is the height of the point R. Az denotes the orthogonal projection of point A on the z-axis Height Zp of the point P is the distance between point Az and the point Zp.

Cz denotes the orthogonal projection of point C on the z-axis Along the leading edge 212 and between the points a and With radius Rp, expressed as a function of height Zp, has only one minimum and has no inflection points. Derivative of radius Rp relative to the height Zp is positive between points A and N, equal to zero at the point N and is negative between points N and S. the WTO�th derivative of radius Rp relative to the distance Zp is positive between points A and C.

θp is the angle of the point P in the cylindrical coordinate system. The angle θp is positive direction identical to the rotation direction R1 of the wheel R when the machine M operates in turbine mode. Denote by Da the radial straight line passing through the point A and the z-axis For each blade 21 consider direct radial D0 passing through the Z axis, where the positive angle θ0 measured from the straight line D0 to the straight line Da, is equal to 45°.

In the cylindrical coordinate system, the angle θp of the point P is determined from the straight line D0 to Dp, passes through the points Pz and R.

As shown in Fig.9, the angle θp is maximum at point a and is equal to the angle θ. The angle θp is reduced between the points a and N. the point N, the angle θp is minimal and is equal to the angle θn. As shown in Fig.10, between the points N and the angle θp increases. At point C, the angle θp is maximum and is equal to the angle θ.

Thus, along the front edge 212 and between points A and C, the angle θp, expressed as a function of height Zp, has only one minimum and has no point of inflection.

The derivative of the angle θp relative to the height Zp is negative between points A and N, equal to zero at the point N and is positive between points N and S. the Second derivative of the angle θp relative to the height Zp is positive between points A and C.

During transient phases of operation I, for example during startup of the installation I,the generator 5 is not connected to the electrical network, as the speed of rotation of the impeller R is not stable and does not allow the generator 5 to issue an electrical signal whose frequency is equal to the frequency of the electrical network. For example, in Europe the frequency of the power grid is 50 Hz. Due to the shape in the form of a depression in the front edge 212 of the blades 21 stream E creates a little and even creates a lot of turbulence and instabilities, which allows the speed of rotation of the wheel R to stabilize for connecting the generator 5 to the network.

The stability of the speed of rotation of the impeller R in accordance with the invention can be observed in the graph of Fig.4. At relatively high altitude fall, the slope of the curve C1 at the point P1 is negative, and the slope of the curve C2 at the point P2, i.e. at the same height of the drop is sustainable for known wheel 100 and the wheel R in accordance with the invention. At the point P4 is the slope of the curve C4 is negative, whereas the curve C3 at the point P3 is vertical, that is, the speed of rotation of the claimed impeller is more stable than the known speed of the wheel. Finally, the curve C6 has a weakly negative slope at point P6, whereas the slope of the curve at point C5 R5 is positive, which means that the speed of rotation of the claimed wheel R is more stable than the rotation speed �known wheel 100 at a relatively low altitude drop.

Curve body shape of the blades 21, helps to strengthen the concavity of the front edges 212 and receive a relatively large distance D21 without excessive increase of the depression of the front edge 212 along the middle surface S in the direction of the trailing edge 211. This allows hydraulic machine M that works as a pump, not too lose effectiveness.

There is no need for any additional device to ensure satisfactory speed of rotation, because the shape of the blades 21 allows you to connect the generator 5 to the network.

In an embodiment, a direct L is not parallel to the axis of rotation Z of the impeller R. for Example, the point may be shifted to the trailing edge 211 relative to the point A.

In the embodiment, the concave shape of the front edge 212 is formed by a section of an ellipse or of a parabola and even any curve.

In another embodiment, curved outward shape of the front edge 212, the outer side 213 and the inner side 214 of the blade 21 is formed by a section of an ellipse or of a parabola and even any curve.

In an embodiment, only some of the vanes 21 have a concave front edge.

In an embodiment, the point N is not exactly at half the height between points A and C. In this case, the orthogonal projection of the intermediate point N on the line L is in the zone, which runs along the line L from the middle of the line L F on both sides of� mid F and has a center in the middle. The height H2 of the zone is less than 80% of the height H of the blade 21, preferably less than 10%.

In addition, the various described above versions and variants of execution can be combined completely or partially, for other embodiments of the invention.

1. The impeller (R) type of wheel Francis hydraulic machine (M), through which must pass a forced water flow (E) that contains:

- the crown (1) with symmetry of rotation around the axis of rotation (Z) of the wheel,

- the ceiling (12) with symmetry of rotation around the axis of rotation (Z), opposite the crown (1),

- lots of curved blades (21) fixedly connected to the crown (1) and a ceiling (12), each of which contains a Central edge (211) near the axis of rotation (Z) and the peripheral edge (212), opposite the Central edge (211), which runs between the crown (1) and a ceiling (12) and through which the first flow (E), when the hydraulic machine (M) operates in turbine mode,

the peripheral edge (212) of at least one blade (21) is curved and its concavity facing the outside of the impeller (R), the first distance (d1) measured between any point (P) of the peripheral edge (212) and a straight line (L) passing from one side through the first point of coupling (A) between the peripheral edge (212) and the crown (1) and, on the other hand, through the second t�the left coupling (C) between the peripheral edge (212) and a ceiling (12),
is maximum at intermediate point (N) of the peripheral edge (212), the radius (Rn) intermediate point (N) is strictly smaller radius (Ra) of the first point of the pair (A), characterized in that the radius (Rn) intermediate point (N) is strictly smaller radius (RC) the second point of the pair (S).

2. The wheel (200) according to claim 1, characterized in that the intermediate point (N) is the most remote from the straight line (L).

3. The wheel (200) according to claim 1, characterized in that the orthogonal projection of the intermediate point (N) on the line (L) is in the zone, which runs along a straight line (L) and the center of which is in the middle (F) straight (L) and height (H2) area is less than 80% of the height (H) of each blade (21), measured between the first point of the coupling (A) and the second point of conjugation (C), preferably less than 10%.

4. The wheel (R) according to claim 1, characterized in that the peripheral edge (212) of the blades (21) is made in the form of a section of a circle, ellipse, parabola, and even any curve.

5. The wheel (R) according to claim 1, characterized in that the first attitude, in which:

the denominator is the height (H) of the blade (21), measured between the first point of the coupling (A) and the second point of the pair (),

- the numerator is the maximum distance (D21) between the straight line (L) and the peripheral edge (212),

is from 0% to 200%, preferably from 30% to 80%.

6. The wheel (R) according to claim 1, Otley�aldeasa, that intermediate point (N) of the peripheral edge (212) is half the distance between the points of the pair (A, C).

7. The wheel (R) according to claim 1, characterized in that the first plane (Pb), parallel to the axis of rotation and perpendicular to the second plane (RA) which passes through the intersection between the ceiling (12) and the mean surface area (S) of the blade (21) located between the outer side (213) and the inner side (214) of the blade (21), and which continues this average surface, the outer part (213) is convex, and the inner side (214) is concave.

8. The wheel (R) according to claim 7, characterized in that the first plane (Pb) outer side (213) and the inner side (214) are in the shape of a section of a circle, ellipse, parabola and the curve of any kind.

9. Wheel according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that the second respect in which:

the denominator is the height (H) of the blade (21), measured between the first point of the coupling (A) and the second point of the pair (),

- the numerator is the maximum distance (D22), measured parallel to the first plane (Pb), between the straight line (L) and the peripheral edge (212),

is from 0% to 200%, preferably from 10% to 40%.

10. The wheel (R) according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that the first plane (Pb) intermediate point (N) of the peripheral edge (212) is half the distance between the points of sopryazheny� (A, C).

11. The wheel (R) according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that the first plane (Pb) of the peripheral flange (212) is curved with the concavity facing in the same direction as the direction (R1) of rotation of the wheel (200) in turbine mode.

12. The wheel (R) according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that the second distance (d2) measured parallel to the first plane (Pb), between any point (P) of the peripheral edge (212) and a straight line (L) is maximum at an intermediate point (N).

13. Hydraulic machine (M), equipped with impeller (R) according to one of the preceding paragraphs.

14. Hydraulic machine (M) according to claim 13, equipped with an impeller (R) according to claim 7, characterized in that, when it is in the turbine mode, the flow (F) in the first place falls on the outer side (213) of the blades (21).

15. Installation (I) energy conversion, characterized in that it comprises a hydraulic machine (M) according to one p. p. 13 and 14.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic machine comprises wheel fitted on shaft, both running about axis X_{5}. Hydrostatic or hydrodynamic bearing 100 with water lubrication is composed of shaft radial peripheral surface 52 on one side and on the opposite side by inner radial surface 102 of member 101 fixed relative to said axis. Said bearing is arranged between two edges 121 and 122 to make water film removal zones created in standard operation of bearing 100. Said fixed member 101 has cavity 130 exposed to its inner radial surface 102 nearby bearing first edge 121 of said first and second edges 121, 122. Said fixed member comprises means 131, 132, 133 to communicate said cavities with those outside the bearing 100, nearby second edge 122. Said cavity 130 and said means 131, 132, 133 can remove flow parts that form water film in case removal of water film at the level of said first edge is impossible.

EFFECT: reliable operation of the bearing.

14 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine comprises helical water intake case 1, mount ring 2 furnished with one row of guide vanes arranged in circle, impeller 12, straight convergent water discharge pipe 9 and lateral water discharge box 10. Said ring 2 is arranged at inner side of case 1. Ware outlet between guide vanes in ring 2 is communicated with water inlet formed between vanes 4 with curved surface. Water outlet formed between vanes 4 with curved surface is communicated with inlet of pipe 9. Outlet of said pipe is communicated with water inlet of box 10. seat 6 is arranged at impeller 12. Shaft 7 is fitted in seat 6. Blades of cooling fan are fitted directly on shaft 7. Unit designed rpm is defined by design equation and depends upon impeller water inlet diameter and water inlet pressure.

EFFECT: compact design, high efficiency and lower noise.

7 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: impeller of Francis type includes rim 1 with rotation symmetry about rotation axis Z of impeller and bent blades 21, 22, which are rigidly attached to rim 1, each of which includes external peripheral edge 212, 222 and internal central edge 211, 221. Connection points B_{21}, B_{22} of rim 1 with internal central edges 211, 221 of blades 21, 22 are located on one and the same circle C_{20} centred relative to above mentioned axis Z. Connection points A_{21}, A_{22} of rim 1 with external peripheral edges 212, 222 of blades 21, 22 are located at least on two different circles C_{21}, C_{22} centred relative to axis Z.

EFFECT: reduction of the cost of composite elements of devices owing to limiting their dimensions by reducing the action on them of radial stresses under unsteady conditions.

11 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic machine comprises an inner and an outer separating circular hydrodynamic seals 8 and 9, arranged into each or one of cavities around an impeller 2 - between the impeller 2 and a cover 5 and between the impeller 2 and a foundation ring 6. The outer separating seal 8 is located in the area of the peripheral zone of the impeller 2, and the inner one 9 - between the outer separating seal 8 and a seal 7, which limits leaks into a suction pipe. Two rings 10 and 11, which form the inner separating seal 9, have a Z-shaped or an angular profile in the cross section and are installed so that free shelves of their cross sections cover each other. Each cavity, where separating seals 8 and 9 are installed, is separated into two chambers 12 and 14. The external chamber 14 is equipped with an input 17 for compressed gas supply.

EFFECT: invention provides for squeezing out water from the peripheral zone of the impeller during operation of the hydraulic machine in the turbine or pump mode and reduction of energy losses for disc friction.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: blade system of impeller of radial axial hydraulic turbine includes rim 1, hub 2 and blades 3, each of which is connected to rim 1 and hub 2 and provided with inlet and outlet edges 4 and 5 of bent shape and smoothly changing thickness in the direction from inlet edge to outlet edge and from hub 2 to rim 1. Blades 3 of blade system have thickened part near inlet edge 4. Maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with hub 2 is more than maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with rim 1. Optimum intervals of values of parameters are determined: maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with hub 2, maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with rim 1, as well as their location places along straightened middle line of the appropriate section.

EFFECT: preventing flow separation after inlet edges of blades at operation of hydraulic turbine in modes with increased heads and modes with partial loads in the whole range of working heads.

10 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed Francis turbine wheel comprises at least two wheel segments 12, 14 that can be jointed together along their opposed surface sections 16, 16a, 18, 18a to make composite wheel with top rim 28, bottom rim 30 and multiple vanes 32 running between said rims and secured thereto. Said opposed surface sections 16, 16a, 18, 18a are arranged solely along top and bottom rim segments. Note that opposed surface sections 16, 16a, 18, 18a of wheel segments 12, 14 are arranged between apart from adjacent vanes. Proposed wheel has central axis. Top rim has central round bore. Opposed surface sections 16, 16a of top rim, if seen from above, run from central bore, radially offset from central axis.

EFFECT: higher reliability and longer life.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: turbine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: blade system comprises blades whose inlet and outlet edges are made so that the working section of the inlet blade edge adjacent to the hub prevents against cavitation.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use on hydroelectric power stations with insignificant fluctuation of lower pond level at high head and water flow ranges. According to invention, vertical shaft of set rest through lower end with cone-shaped working surface of frame-step bearing. Pan is hermetically attached to shaft and working wheel, and suction pipes are attached tangentially to pan. Jets from suction pipes are directed to blades of active wheel freely rotating on shaft and transmitting to shaft rotation through speed-up and direction-change reduction gear, parts of which being parts of hydraulic set. Number of pipes is equal to number of blades. Jet are directed to working surfaces of blades under constant effective angle of action. Seals of reaction wheel are made by elastic box-shaped rings contacting through convex side surfaces from opposite sides exposed to pressure of water. Delivery of water to seal from bottom to top prevents getting of solid particles between friction surfaces.

EFFECT: increased speed and efficiency.

5 dwg

FIELD: hydroelectric stations and hydraulic drives.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has blades with cylindrical surfaces arranged between rims. Generatrix of cylindrical surfaces is parallel to axis of hydraulic turbine and rises to axis of hydraulic turbine. Shape of blade of wheel is formed by angle of tilting of skeleton line of blade profile passing from larger part of blade profile changing according to linear dependence to constant profile on the rest of part and selection of parameters of wheel from the following relations: change of β according to linear dependence from β_{1} to β_{2} on larger part of blade profile at distance from D_{1} to 1.01D_{2}, β=const=β_{2} on the rest part from 1.01D_{2} to D_{2}, range of rise of generatrix of blade surfaces from (0.08-0.20)D_{1} at liquid inlet to wheel to (0.15-0.30)D_{1} at outlet from wheel, D_{2}/D_{1}=(0.6-0.73) where D_{1} is outer diameter of wheel; D_{2} is inner diameter of wheel; D_{2}/D_{1} is relative diameter of wheel; β is angle of tilting of skeleton line of blade profile; β_{1} is angle of tilting of inlet element of skeleton line of blade profile to circumferential direction; β_{2} is angle of tilting of outlet element of blade skeleton line.

EFFECT: enlarged range of operation of Francis turbine.

2 dwg

FIELD: hydroelectric stations.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of restoration of serviceability of hydraulic unit can be used at repairs of hydroelectric stations. According to proposed method, air gap is measured over circumference between outer plane of rotor pole and iron core of stator of generator, air gap between blades of working wheel and outer wall of chamber of turbine, air gap between guide bearing of turbine and its shaft are measured and distance from turbine support ring to generating belt of turbine working wheel is measured and value of deflection of hydraulic unit shaft axis from vertical position and degree of bending of shaft axis are determined and value of deflection of housing of turbine working wheel from horizontal position is found and alignment of generator stator in plan is carried out to provide equal of air gap between generator rotor poles and stator iron core and centering of generator stator in height is carried out to align magnetic axis of stator with magnetic axis of rotor of generator and then hydraulic unit is demounted, fixed and position of center of new vertical axis of hydraulic set is held and cold chamber of working wheel is replaced by new one installing it relative to new axis of hydraulic unit, and lower and upper rings of turbine guide assembly are installed in horizontal position with subsequent alignment of rings relative to new vertical axis of hydraulic unit, and then hydraulic unit is mounted in housing. Proposed method provides 2.5-3 times reduction of time taken for restoration as compared with traditional process and 1.5-2 times increase of service life of hydraulic unit after restoration. Moreover, method improves operating characteristics of hydraulic unit as a whole and materially increases degree of its repairability and serviceability at time between overhauls.

EFFECT: increase life, improved operating characteristics.

4 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of interconnected vessels with the liquid 1, floats 2i, i = 1, …, 2, connectors 3i, i = 1, …, 2, converters of mechanical energy into electric one 4i, i = 1, …, 2.

EFFECT: solution of the problem of simplification and increase of production efficiency of electric energy for low-power self-contained units installed on moving objects.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the shore facilities, ensuring the use of wave energy with its subsequent conversion, for example into electric energy. Ramp wave energy storage unit comprises a storage pool that has fences against the wave forming water area. Part of the fence from the wave forming water area is designed in the form of optimal height of water storage barrier, which has the upper edge integrated with ramp, bevelled to the pool. The ramp is submerged into the wave forming water area by the bottom part and has horizontally placed channels from the front side with respect to the water area, providing the opportunity to take water from waves in case of wave setup on the ramp. Horizontally disposed channels have tubular outlets, through which water flows into the storage pool. Ramp wave energy storage unit provides the water flow into the storage pool not only in stormy weather, but also at moderate wave setups and back drafts at coasts of seas, lakes and other wave forming water areas.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to ensure protection of onshore facilities and at the same time to accumulate the wave energy.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a floating element 10, which is placed onto the sea surface and connected to a pump, rigidly fixed to the sea bottom or to massive floatage 8. The pump is made in the form of a cylindrical pipe-shaped vertically arranged chamber 1 semi-submerged into the sea, which in its upper and lower parts is equipped accordingly with lower 3 and upper 6 nozzles. At the lower nozzle 3 there is a hose 4 with certain length arranged in water depth. In the chamber there is a piston in the form of an inlet check valve placed on the stem 9, which is made as capable of passing water in the chamber only in direction from the lower nozzle to the upper one and is connected by means of the stem 9 with a floating element 10. The piston may be made within a membrane 12 adjacent to the plane of a disc 11 made with through holes, axes of which are parallel to the axis of the disc.

EFFECT: simplified design, expanded area of application of a device for water lifting.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydro power engineering. Device utilising tidal flow energy includes rotor 1 consisting of spiral vanes with segmented profile, attached by cross-beams to the shaft, and generator mounted on a platform and connected to the rotor. Lower end of rotor 1 shaft and generator connected to it are placed in a sealed capsule 2. Sealed capsule 2 rests on two bearing beams 4 with the help pf two pins 3 protruding from opposite sides of outer capsule surface and can rotate around horizontal axis perpendicular to the flow direction. Bearing beams 4 are attached to cylindrical cases 5, the ends of which are interconnected by braces 7 with segment-shaped cross-section turned with its convexity down and forming α angle to the horizon to produce lifting power directed towards the bottom.

EFFECT: simplified design, extended application range covering water areas of large-capacity navigation and ice cover.

4 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydraulic power industry, particularly to wave and tidal power plants. Wave and tidal power plant includes buoyant tank 1 with at least one pulley 2 attached to it, at least one vertical underwater cylinder 3 connected by a flexible link 4 with anchor 5 set at the sea bottom, plunger 6 featuring at least one stem 8 and positioned inside the cylinder 3 with a possibility of reciprocal movement down under its own weight or spring or up along with buoyant tank 1 upheaval with a wave or tide, resulting in work medium suction and displacement from the cylinder 3 and transfer to an electric power generator or to the land. Cylinder 3 is buoyant and is located under water completely or partially, or is non-buoyant and is attached to levelled sea bottom. The cylinder 3 is connected to the plunger stem by flexible link 7 passing through the pulley 2 of buoyant tank 1, and thus the rising travel distance of the plunger 6 is approximately equal to two rising travel distances of the buoyant tank 1.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of the plant due to increased plunger travel amplitude.

8 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the power industry, namely to sea wave energy removal devices in a near-shore area. A combined wave energy converter is made in the form of a hollow reinforced-concrete mass 1 forming a pool having the front (facing to the sea) wall 4 with inlet plate-like valves 8 in the underwater part and an inlet valve in the upper part and a rear wall 6 with an outlet water line and low-pressure hydraulic turbine 11 in the underwater part. The upper valve of the front wall 4 is made in the form of a floating pontoon 9 on a hinged connection, which is inclined inside the pool. On the upper edge of the rear wall there attached by means of a hinge is a flap 12 elevated above the water surface and retained in a vertical position with elastic couplings 13, which is capable of being swung by crests of big waves and has an additional line power takeoff device 14.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at the improvement of the wave energy takeoff efficiency, automatic control and coordination of operation of a combination of different working elements of the device.

1 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydropower industry and can be applied in wave and tide power plants, and as shore protection structure. Wave power station includes vertical guide racks, cross-beam between them, bearing two turbine plants separated by space. Cross-beam can move in vertical direction on the racks to the turbine plant submersion depth depending on wave height. Additionally the wave power plant includes two dams between which waves pass, reflecting screens directing water stream to turbine plants and mounted on the cross-beam made in the form of metal frame, and one-side gate valves mounted on the dam ends. One turbine plant can be operated by a wave approaching the shore while the other plant can use retreating wave.

EFFECT: simplified device, expanded application scope and area for conversion of wave and tide energy to electric power.

3 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: run-of-river micro station comprises hydraulic turbine with blades 1, generator 7 fitted at pontoon 8 with anchor pole 9. Diverging blades 1 are curved in conical screw line or in conical logarithmic spiral. Front ends 2 of blades 1 bent through 90 degrees are secured inside hear case 3 at shaped bush 4. Rear ends 5 of blades 1 are secured to spider 6.

EFFECT: fast-assemble-disassemble portable run-of-river plant.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electrohydraulic system contains multi-step concrete pedestals placed in one or more rows where the pedestals in the second row and next rows are placed in gaps between the pedestals in the previous rows. On the steps of the pedestals there are installed wave electric power stations united in the common power generating system, and their floats are placed awash. The pedestals are made as multi-step polygonal prisms, e.g., hexagonal ones, installed around the wave generator. The wave generator is made as a motor 3 mounted on a polygonal, e.g., hexagonal, platform 2, the motor shaft is coupled to a cam gear 4, on which a rod 5 lies with a ball 6 fixed at its end. The second end of the rod is fixed to the platform. The wave electric power stations are installed around the wave generator on multilevel polygonal, e.g., hexagonal prisms with their floats floating awash. All wave electric power stations are coupled to the unit of electric energy accumulation and distribution and the latter is coupled to the motor. Neighbouring groups of polygonal prisms around the wave generator are placed in damped wave zones.

EFFECT: invention of additional electric energy generating sources due to wave properties use of different natural water bodies.

3 dwg

FIELD: energy industry.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic power system comprises multistage concrete pedestals located in two or more rows so that the pedestals of the second and subsequent rows are placed in the gaps between the pedestals of the preceding rows. On the steps of the pedestals the wave power plants are installed connected in the unified energy system, which floats float on the waves. The pedestals are made in the form of multistage polygonal prisms, such as hexagonal, and are arranged around the wave generator. The wave generator is made in the form of a column 2 installed on a concrete polyhedral, for example hexagonal, base 3, on which, above the water surface, the water reservoir 5 is placed with the cuffs 6 at its upper edge, and a conical nozzle 7 in the bottom, and a pump 8 for supplying water in the reservoir. Faces of the prism and the concrete base 2, which are in contact with water, have the shape of a parabola. All the wave power plants are connected to a unit of storage and distribution of the electric energy which is connected to the pump. The groups of adjacent polygonal prisms around the wave generator are located in areas of damped waves.

EFFECT: ability to create additional sources of electricity generation through the use of the wave properties of various natural water reservoirs.

3 dwg

FIELD: wave-energy-to-electric-power conversion.

SUBSTANCE: proposed wave energy plant has supporting frame with vertical guides, float installed for vertical reciprocation that accommodates ratchet gears provided with coaxial central holes, shaft passed though these holes and fixed in supporting frame to laminar screw section whose top and bottom parts are twisted in opposition and contact ratchet gears disposed in cylindrical casing with through holes; it also has electric generator. Float is mounted for displacement along vertical guides and has inertial member disposed inside for rotation and displacement together with float; inertial member contacts inner surface of float casing through rollers. Cylindrical casing is joined with inertial member; electric generator is disposed within supporting frame and kinematically coupled through extensible joint between inertial member and drum installed for joint rotation with the latter and with gear transmission.

EFFECT: enhanced power output of wave energy plant generator.

1 cl, 1 dwg