Method of deep loosening of drained soils

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques of drainage of agricultural land of nonchernozem belt with closed drainage and the techniques of use of these lands. The method comprises loosening the drained soils to a depth of at least 60 m. In order to ensure the required by the plants of soil humidity conditions, preventing the possible damage to the pipes of closed drainage and providing industrial applicability of deep loosening, the deep loosening is carried out to a depth of hl, determined in each case from the condition of compliance with the following requirements: (hr)min ≤ hl ≤ (hr)max; (1), hl ≤ (hr)min - D - ΣΔhi , (2), where ΣΔhi = Δh1 + Δh2 + Δh3 + Δh4; (3), 60 ≤ hl ≤ ht , (4) where (hr)min and (hr)max are the minimum and maximum depth of penetration into the trench backfill of the closed drainage of the root system of cultivated culture, respectively, cm; (hd)min is the minimum depth of placement of closed drainage pipes of the project at the site where deep loosening is planned to be carried out, cm; D is the outer diameter of the closed drainage pipes at the site (cm); ΣΔhi is the sum of corrections (cm), including: the correction which depends on the accuracy of the topographic altitude survey of soil surface of the drained site, Δh1; the corrections taking into account the technogenic erosion of the soil surface during carrying out crop-engineering and land planning Δh2 and during ploughing Δh3; correction taking into account the depth of the gauge made by the tractor on the soil surface during deep loosening, Δh4; ht is the maximum possible depth of loosening soil due of the technology level and characterising the industrial feasibility of the inventive method; at that in each point of the drainage trench the thickness of the powdering layer of the drainage pipe over the bottom of the trench mp > hd - hl, where hd is the depth of placement of the closed drainage pipe. Prior to loosening the soil on the drained part the value of the set depth of deep loosening is set on the mechanism of the ripper when setting up, preparing it for work.

EFFECT: positive result is to obtain by a landholder of closed drainage durable and reliable in operation, providing design humidity conditions of soil during its operation for at least a normative term of service.

2 cl

 

The invention relates to techniques for drying of agricultural land non-Chernozem zone, as private drains and private collectors, and technology of the use of these lands.

It is known that deep ripping is effective only on the background draining soils of closed drainage. Ripping depth determines its quality and is one of its basic parameters. Its value is measured vertically from the soil surface to the lower plane of the depth of the loosened soil, and depth of subsurface drainage before the Foundation laid in the soils of the drainage pipe, the bottom of the mole or the bottom slit drains. When conducting deep loosening drained soils there is a risk of damage to subsurface drainage. It is therefore important to properly install and accept the depth of deep loosening in conjunction with the drainage depth.

By B. S. Maslov (Maslov B. S. Experience drainage of heavy soils and objectives of science. - In sat: "Drainage of heavy soils, ed. by B. S. Maslova. - M.: Kolos, 1981. - S. 13) to avoid damage to drains Ripper drain depth should exceed the depth of loosening at least 10...20 cm For the reliability of this value is assumed to be 20 cm

Known and the proposal that "ripping depth should be 20...30 cm less than the minimum depth of drains (Chernook V. J., Brusilovsky S. I. Deep richline� drained heavy soils. - M.: Kolos, 1983. - S. 15). The author team of VNIIMS believes that "maximum ripping depth should be 20...30 cm less than the minimum depth of drains" (the Use of soil-conservation activities on drained mineral soils: Technological regulations / Mitrophanov, Y. I., V. A. Kotelnikov, etc. - Kalinin: VNIIMS, 1989. - P. 20). In the literature, there is the assertion that "always loosening should provide at least 20...25 cm above the calculated depth of drains" (Zaidelman F. R. Genesis and ecological basis of land reclamation of soils and landscapes. - Moscow: KDU - MSU, 2009. - P. 310).

It is also known offer that ripping depth can be 5...20 cm less than the depth of mole drains (Patent RF №2371541 C1, CL. EV 11/00, 2009): hoeing is carried out to a depth of 0.30 0.35 m...and mole drains with a diameter of 75...100 mm is cut at a depth of 0.4...0.5 m.

When assigning the depth of loosening not take into account hydraulic connection loosened soils with drainage pipe - docking loosened soil with the powder drainage pipes.

As you can see, the authors use different terms: ripping depth and the maximum depth of tillage, minimum and estimated depth of drains. Calculation of the depth of drains with respect to the bottom of the trench does not allow to take into account the diameter of the pipe used. On the bottom of the same trench can from UCLA�manifest pipes of different diameter. Naturally, the difference in the level of the bottom plane depth of the loosened soil and mark the top of the pipe will vary. When using larger diameter it will be less likelihood of damage to the pipe of larger diameter when conducting deep ripping will be higher.

When using the above different sizes and are not always comparable tolerances when carrying out deep loosening is damaged drains Ripper. And often this takes place when large largest diameters of the pipes. Due to this and the next one.

The original topographic base for the drainage of waterlogged mineral soils is usually a plan at a scale of 1:2000 with contour lines at 0.5 m and papersonline using 0.25 m with a mark of depressions deeper than 10 cm Can be used and plan on another scale. According to the relevant regulations (manual on surveying in scale 1:5000, 1:2000, 1:1000 and 1:500. - M.: Nedra, 1973, p.1.17; Guidance on engineering surveys for reclamation construction. Vol.2. Topographic and geodetic works. - M.: Ministry of water resources of the USSR, 1973, p.2.30) allowable average error shooting of the relief depends on the slope and zakostrennost (forest coverage rate) of the area. For objects that require dehumidification, its value ranges from ±12.5 to ±25 cm.

For processed agricultural engineering�coy drained soils of humid zones given accuracy is almost not achievable. Mark the soil surface at a specific point depending on the method of processing of the soil fluctuates during the year, and from year to year. In the case if the reduction provided stubbing bushes and small trees, be aware of the need to increase by 0.2 m deep depressions defined on the topographic map, and on the plains depressions are formed of the same depth (Handbook P 1-98 to SNiP 2.06.03-85, p.4.4.2 and 8.12.1. - Minsk: Ministry of architecture and construction of Belarus, 1999. - 85 C).

Changes the level of the surface of the soil and as a result of building and operating plan the soil surface during the use of drained land.

Varies by area and depth of the ruts left by heavy wheeled equipment used for deep loosening of soil by pre-tilled soil, the previous, usually, deep loosening. At the same time it is known that the depth of the loosening set relative to the supporting surface of the tractor by means of the depth Adjuster on the Ripper. Varies in size and depth of deep loosening, and in particular because of the complex micro-relief.

The depth of the deep loosening of the soil test probe and ruler given the magnitude of expansion of the soil above the natural level surface� of the soil.

When assigning the depth of loosening not take into account the penetration depth in loosened soils the root system of the plant and, of course, required the plant to the base of soil humidity and the possibility of damage to drainage to the roots of plants. However, given the level of technological development, it is necessary to ensure the industrial applicability of deep loosening.

It is known that the method of deep loosening drained soil involves tilling to a depth of at least 0.6 m (Manual P1-98 to SNiP 2.06.03-85, p.8.16; a prototype). Failure to comply with the design depth of drainage, if the difference is usually in the direction of its reduction, deep ripping to a depth of 0.6...0.8 m to fulfil during construction is not possible, therefore, some authors (for example, G. H. Guluk, etc. Guide reclamation fields. - SPb: Publishing house of the Polytechnic. University press, 2007. - 238 S. - S. 188 189..., p. 16.2) recommend to implement smaller agronomic tilling to a depth of 0.4 m, not explaining in this hydraulic connection razryhlenija soil from the drainage pipe. Naturally, in this case, there can be no question of achieving the project dry mode.

The task is to assign a depth of loosening drained soil that improves the desired specific plant mode of soil moisture, while ensuring the required intensity of OS�solutions and reducing the need for plants irrigation excluding also the possibility of damage to the drainage, as the Ripper when conducting deep loosening of the soil and root system of the plant, and ensuring the implementation of industrial depth of loosening.

The technical result consists in obtaining a landholder durable and reliable in action subsurface drainage, providing design and mode of soil moisture in the process of its operation for at least the regulatory period.

Put in the invention the task is solved by that method deep loosening drained soil involves tilling to a depth of at least 60 cm to ensure the required plants the moisture regime of soils, prevent possible damage to the subsurface drainage pipes and industrial applicability of deep ripping deep ripping is carried out to a depth of hpmounted in each case provided the following requirements are met:

where

(hk)minand (hk)maxrespectively the minimum and the maximum penetration depth in backfilling subsurface drainage of the root system of cultivated crops, cm;

(hd)sub> min- the minimum depth of the subsurface drainage pipes according to the project on the site on which you plan to conduct deep tillage, cm;

D - external diameter of pipes for subsurface drainage at the site, cm;

ΣΔhi- the amount of amendments (cm), including: the amendment that depends on the accuracy of the topographic high-rise shooting the surface of the soil drained plot, Δh1amendments, taking into account anthropogenic erosion of the surface soil when conducting technical and planning works Δh2and during ploughing Δh3; the amendment, taking into account the depth of the ruts left by the tractor on the soil surface when conducting deep loosening, Δh4;

ht- the maximum possible depth of loosening of the soil, due to the level of technological development and characterizing the industrial feasibility of the claimed method, cm;

thus at each point of the drainage trench the thickness of the layer of powder of the drain pipe above the bottom of the trench

where

hd- depth of the subsurface drainage pipe.

The inventive method is deep loosening drained soil comprises the following steps:

- establishment of project and Executive documentation put into operation drainage system and transferred to the landholder minimum depth of �ukrytego drainage (private collectors and drains) h d, mp, (hd)minand D scheduled for deep loosening drained site; in the absence of as-built documentation establishing these values is possible on the basis of instrumental examination in kind scheduled for deep loosening of the drained plot;

- subject to the conditions of the deep loosening at a specific site at the scheduled time of the determination by the formula (3) value ΣΔhi;

- establishment of objects-analogues minimum (hK)minand maximum (hK)maxdepths of penetration in backfilling subsurface drains and collectors of the root system of crops planned for cultivation on drained land;

- establishing maximum possible depth of loosening soil htdue to the level of technological development and characterizing the industrial applicability of the claimed method;

- deciding on the amount of depth deep ripping of soils on drained land, which should satisfy the requirements (1), (2) and (4);

- verification of performance requirements (5);

- establishing control of the depth of the Ripper when setting up, preparing for work accepted depth deep loosening of soil (see, for example, p. 19...20 in the above V. I. Chernenko� and I. sh. Brusilovsky);

- the markup in the nature of foreign loosening;

- conducting deep loosening of soil on the plot.

Outer diameter used for drains and private collectors ceramic pipes ranges from 72 to 130 mm, and corrugated plastic pipes from 50 to 75 mm.

According to the accepted prototype depth deep ripping should be 20...30 cm less than the minimum depth of drains. For drainage ceramic pipes of their external diameter 72 mm permissible to exceed the lower plane of the loosened soil above the top suligoi pipe is 13...23 cm, and for pipes with an outside diameter of 130 mm - 7...17 cm

The claimed method for pipes with an outside diameter of 72 mm, and for pipes with a diameter of 130 mm considered allowable excess equal to at least 30 cm, the Difference between the minimum depth of drains made of ceramic pipes, measured from the top of seligi pipe, and a maximum depth of deep loosening of soil increases with 7...17 cm and 13...23 cm prototype to at least 30 cm by the inventive method. When applied to drains of corrugated plastic pipes considered permissible exceeding of the prototype will be from 12.5 to 25 cm against at least 30 cm claimed method.

Considering the accuracy of the shooting marks the surface of the soil, change the state of the surface�ti in planning and processing, and the deep ruts from the wheels or tracks of the tractor, you can expect damage to drains in making maximum depth of the loosening of the prototype and first of all, when using ceramic pipes with outer diameter of 130 mm.

An example of the method of deep loosening drained soils in the Tver region on the object "Podgorica". By the Executive of documentation found that the minimum depth of drains on the site, is scheduled to conduct deep loosening is 90 cm, i.e. (hd)min=90 cm For drainage of the soil used clay pipes with an inner diameter for drains 50 mm, and 72 mm, i.e. D=72 mm ≈ 7 cm

On drained land a plan on a scale of 1:2000, the land is not of zakustareny, smooth with a uniform slope equal to 0,004. Performed construction layout and plowing of the site. Given these initial data, it is assumed: ∆ H1=±12.5 cm, Δh2=±2 cm and Δh3=±5 cm. Depth of ruts left by a wheeled tractor on the surface of a plowed dry soil for the pilot deep loosening, was equal to 5 cm, i.e., Δh4=5 cm

By the formula (3) ΣΔhi=12,5+2+5+5≈25 see

Drained land is used in the system of grain and grass crop rotation. According to the data of the objects analogous to the depth of penetration of the root system (hK)min =40 cm, a (hK)max=70 cm.

Ripping depth-drained soils hpon the object "Podgorica" must meet the requirements of (1), (2) and (4):

40≤hp≤70;

hp≤90-7-25=58≈60 cm,

60≤hp≤ht.

In the application of Ripper ROO.65.2,5 maximum possible depth of loosening soil ht=65 cm (see the previous work of V. J. Noted and S. I. Brusilovsky, p. 18).

In accordance with the terms of (1)...(4) the depth of the deep loosening of the soil in the drained area shall be equal to 60 cm hp=60 cm runs and requirement (5): Executive documents sent to the landowner by the builders on the site on which you plan to conduct deep loosening, hd=90...130 cm, mp=40...80 cm, i.e. the powder drainage trench perform to the level that sits below the surface of the soil at 50 cm, which provides a hydraulic connection loosened soil from the drainage pipe.

The value of hp=60 cm was determined using the depth Adjuster on the mechanism of Ripper when setting up, preparing to work. After performing the marking in kind directions loosening was carried out by deep ripping of soils on the site, periodically monitoring its depth and condition powders drainage pipes.

The inventive method provides, especially at parties�Ah with well-developed micro-relief, the achievement of the expected technical result, namely: obtaining reliable land user in action durable subsurface drainage, providing design and mode of soil moisture in the process of its operation for at least normative of life and reducing the need for irrigation of crops.

1. Method deep loosening drained soil, including tilling to a depth of not less than 60 cm, characterized in that to achieve the desired plant moisture regime of soils, reducing the need of plants in irrigation, the prevention of possible damage to the pipe subsurface drainage Ripper and blockage of the cavity of the pipe to the roots of plants, and industrial feasibility of deep ripping, deep ripping is carried out to a depth of hpmounted in each case provided the following requirements are met:


where


where
(hK)minand (hK)maxrespectively the minimum and the maximum penetration depth in backfilling subsurface drainage of the root system of cultivated crops, cm;
(hd)min- the minimum depth of the subsurface drainage pipes p� Executive documentation transferred to the landowner by the builders on the site on which you plan to conduct deep tillage, cm;
D - outer diameter of pipe drainage lines with a minimum depth of their laying on the plot, cm;
ΣΔhi- the amount of amendments (cm), including: the amendment that depends on the accuracy of the topographic high-rise shooting the surface of the soil drained plot, Δh1; amendments, taking into account anthropogenic erosion of the surface soil when conducting technical and planning works Δh2and during ploughing Δh3; the amendment, taking into account the depth of the ruts left by the tractor on the soil surface when conducting deep loosening, Δh4;
ht- the maximum possible depth of loosening of the soil, due to the level of technological development and characterizing the industrial feasibility of the claimed method, cm;
thus at each point of the drainage trench the thickness of the layer of powder of the drain pipe above the bottom of the trench

where
hd- depth of the subsurface drainage pipe.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that prior to loosening the soil at the site designated in accordance with the requirements (1)...(4) the magnitude of the depth of the deep loosening of the soil is established by means of the depth Adjuster on the mechanism of the Ripper when I tune, �odgotavlivaya to work.



 

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EFFECT: efficient desalination of irrigated saline soils with improvement of soil structure, increase in soil fertility and erosion resistance without damaging the surrounding area and plants.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises placing a potato on the predecessor, disking, fall-ploughing the soil, spring cultivation, preparation the seed material two weeks before planting by air-thermal heating to pipping of sprouts, cutting ridges, processing of tubers with microbiological preparation and planting tubers, inter-row treatment at finding weeds in the stage of "white string" with the gradual increase in the ridges. The first inter-row treatment is carried out after the emergence of potato sprouts, the subsequent second and third row treatments - with an interval of 10-12 days prior to the closing of potato tops. Protection of potato plants from pests is carried out using microbial agents by spraying the tops during the growing season in dry calm weather, pre-harvesting mechanical removal of the tops and harvesting potatoes is carried out. At that planting tubers is carried out on a smooth surface of soil after deep cultivation to a depth of 20-22 cm in rows with spacing between them of 90 cm to a depth of 4-6 cm with a planting density of 50000 tubers per hectare with simultaneous treatment of tubers and the bottom of the furrow with 5% solution of Phytosporin-M at the rate of its consumption of 10 litres per 1 ton of planting material by spraying with a nozzle. Cutting the ridges is carried out simultaneously with the first inter-row treatment, forming a ridge with the height of 25-30 cm and the width of 17-18 cm on top with the ridge-forming cutter with active working bodies. The second and third inter-row treatments are carried out with a simple ridge-forming cutter. In addition, protection of potato plants from pests is carried out once with 0.01% solution of Phytoverm-M at the rate of its consumption of 500 litres per 1 ha.

EFFECT: method enables to obtain the yield of food potato with high consumer properties against the background of complete elimination of chemical means of plant protection from diseases and pests by environmentally friendly methods and means of weed control, preventing pollution the environment and potato crop with toxic substances.

3 cl, 4 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing, application into soil of water or liquid fertilizer, after harvesting the crop the field is prepared - decontaminated, neutralized and dehydrated sludge residue is scattered across the field, obtained during biological purification on the complex of livestock wastes, then before ploughing on the irrigated field soil disking is carried out to the depth of 5 cm, the passage is made in two directions, longitudinal and transverse, and ploughing is carried out not on the slope of the field, but perpendicular to the horizontals in direction of the slope, followed by application into the soil of liquid effluent across the width of the arable field with the sprinkler unit with the sprinklers equipped with the closed pipelines to transport the said effluent from the storage pond, after application of the liquid effluent and drying the sludge remaining after application of liquid effluent in the ploughed field, soil disking or cultivating is carried out, its smoothing and compacting is carried out with smooth water-filled rollers. The effluent through the ploughing and depth of the soil enters the drainage pipes, which communicate with the open collector.

EFFECT: increase in soil fertility.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises alternate strip broadcast sowing seeds with loosening the soil to a depth of sowing on the whole working width. Continuous sowing seeds is carried out through a strip with intermittent sowing seeds on the strip sections with the length of 22.5-30 cm with unsown gaps of the same length within a given general seeding rate. The width of the space between the continuously sown strips is Lc=(2×lm-ls)>30 cm, and the width of the gap between the adjacent strips is la=(lm-ls)>22.5/2, where lm is row middle; ls is a strip width.

EFFECT: use of the invention enables to improve the harvesting capacity and quality of grain, as well as the level of profitability of grain production while reducing costs.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes adding biopreparations and sowing high sorption capacity plant seeds. Contaminated areas are irrigated with p-aminobenzoic acid in concentration of 0.1-0.2%. When dissolving p-aminobenzoic acid, stevia leaves are added to the hot solution in amount of 0.2%. After cooling the solution to 20-25°C, biopreparation Baikal - EM-1 is added in concentration of 1:100. Amaranth is then planted 2-3 weeks after irrigation. Repeated irrigation in the same concentration is carried out at the branching phase of the amaranth.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used as a protective measure in pest control. The method comprises post-harvesting shelling, fall ploughing and pre-sowing soil treatment. At that, on the field two varieties of winter wheat are sown. Along the perimeter of the field of the main variety the pest-resistant winter wheat variety Kuma is sown with the width not less than 50-55 m, and both varieties should be similar in terms of ripening, and harvesting of both varieties is carried out simultaneously.

EFFECT: method provides reduction of the pesticide load and increase in efficiency.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing, disking, subsurface treatment and combing. At that in July the fallow field is ploughed along the perimeter to the depth of 0.15 m, the width of the band is 10-15 m. The fallow soil of the entire field is cut to the depth of 0.06 m, and the plants are pressed to the ground. The aboveground mass is dried and burned, and the roots in the soil loosened to a depth of 0.15 m are removed to the surface of the soil and dried to lethal outcome.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of cleaning fallow soil from hardly-exterminable weeds.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.

EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes area treatment, beds forming, potato tubers planting, scraping, fertilizers addition, irrigation and crop gathering. To receive second crop the tubers are planted at the area where previously grain, legume crops or even annual or perennial grasses wer cultured. The potato tubers with sprouts of the previous crop are used as planting material. At that the tubers are planted during last ten days of July till first ten days of August. Second crop tubers are irrigated during sprout appearance. Crops is gathered from last ten days of October to first ten days of November.

EFFECT: method ensures high quality planting material for next year.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, mainly to industrial grape culture and gardening. The method includes agriculture soil treatment, seeding of halophytes and green manure. At that in May of first year grain salt enduring sorgho is seeded in amount of 50 kg/ha. In August it is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). The cut sorgho mulching layer is held till October. In October phosphogypsum 4 t/ha is spreaded, and is ploughed in soil to depth 25-30 cm. In November Grenader winter triticale is seeded (130 kg/ha). In May of second year triticale is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). In July disk treatment is performed with triticale with heads plough in soil. In August phosphogypsum is spreaded with rate 4 t/ha, and poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). In September soil is ploughed to depth 25-30 cm. In May of third year sorgho grains are seeded (50 kg/ha). In August sorgho is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). The cut sorgho mulching layer is held till October. In October phosphogypsum with rate 4 t/ha is spreaded, and in November the deep-ploughing is performed to depth 60-70 cm.

EFFECT: method ensures high degree of soil desalination for vineyards, ecologically optimal and safe crops of grapes.

3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: environment protection.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

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