Method of integrated reclamation of irrigated saline soils

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises deep loosening of soil, application of fertilizers and ferrous sulphate solution, and watering with increased irrigation rate. At that as the fertilizer the urea formaldehyde fertilizer is applied in the topsoil, which is saturated with ferrous sulphate solution and encrusted with phosphogypsum. After completion of washing the fertilizer is moved to the lower part of the ploughed horizon.

EFFECT: efficient desalination of irrigated saline soils with improvement of soil structure, increase in soil fertility and erosion resistance without damaging the surrounding area and plants.

 

The present invention relates to the field of agriculture and will be used for reclamation of saline lands, mainly soda solonetzes.

Feature of soda solonetzes is the large number of their salts, sodium carbonate, have a dampening effect on plants. For soda-saline soils are characterized by a pronounced alkaline reaction (pH 9-11) and low soil productivity.

To desalinize soda solonetzes use the methods of complex reclamation, combining loosening of saline layer, depositing homelegance, flushed the soil with disposal of wash water drainage. When desalinization soda solonetzes normal homelegance (gypsum, phosphogypsum, etc.) do not give effect due to their poor solubility in alkaline medium. In these conditions, the most effective acid and acid-forming substances. The most widely sulfuric acid and ferrous sulfate (iron sulfate).

The known method of complex reclamation of soda salt licks, including the construction of a drainage and irrigation network, the layout of the soil, making homelegance and flushed with the discharge of wash water in the collector-drainage network (Maslov B. S., Minaev I. V., Huber K. V. Handbook of reclamation", M, "Rosagropromizdat", 1989, pp. 297-301).

The disadvantage of tragopogon are the high application rate of ferrous sulfate (280 t/ha), a large amount of water (50 thousand m3/ha), the need for the construction of drainage and disposal of diverted drainage flow.

The closest present invention is a method of integrated reclamation of saline lands, including deep loosening of soil at the site, fertilization and irrigation sprinkler with increasing irrigation rates by 20%. In irrigation water add 0.5 to 0.7% iron sulfate (L. A. Kazakov "Integrated irrigation of saline soils" Proc. n of Tr. "Problems of water-saving irrigation and melioration of soils", unijos, Volgograd, 1994, pp. 122-128).

A comprehensive reclamation of saline lands with the use of this method allows to combine the washing with holding irrigation, thus increasing irrigation rates of only 20%, which is 10 times less than in the capital leaching flooding.

However, this method has several disadvantages: the absorption of ferrous sulfate by plants through the leaf surface, when exceeding a given concentration of sulfate in irrigation water can cause burns leaf surface of plants, flow and higher standards of irrigation water containing sulphate of iron, leads to the formation of surface runoff containing ferrous sulfate, and contamination of adjacent territories, as well as to water erosion top�layer of the soil.

To eliminate the mentioned disadvantages allows the method of complex reclamation of alkali lands, including deep loosening of soil, fertilizer and solution of sulphate of iron, irrigation high irrigation rate, which according to the proposed invention, as fertilizer in the topsoil to make urea-formaldehyde fertilizer, a saturated solution of sulphate of iron and inlaid with phosphogypsum, which after washing move to the bottom of the plough layer.

New technical result from the use of the proposed method is that the introduction of sulphate of iron in solution in the composition of urea-formaldehyde fertilizers "Mohn" (Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2230719, IPC C05C 9/02, 2004) provides humidification of soil gradual release in soil solution interaction with the soil absorbing complex (ACC) is forced out of sodium. Thus the sulfuric acid formed in the process of interaction of sulfate with the soil solution increases the efficiency of desalinizing action of phosphogypsum. When conducting spray irrigation increased irrigation norms, there is a gradual movement of ferrous sulfate from the structure of Manama" in the depth of the loosened soil and desalinization. Thus preventing the ingress of sulfate on�Ernest leaves and wash its surface runoff of irrigation water. "Mohn", included in the upper layer of the soil, reduces the erosive effect of rain thanks to the strength of granules "Mohn" and coagulating action on the soil structure of iron hydroxide formed during the interaction of sulfate with the soil solution.

The proposed method of complex reclamation of alkali lands is as follows.

Autumn on the saline land produce loosening of saline layer using deep-WG at a depth of 0.8 to 0.8 m Then produce the fertilization "Mohn" by sealing it in the top layer of soil to a depth of 0.1-0.15 m heavy disc harrow. Before making "Mohn" is prepared using a method similar to the Method of preparation of foamed karbomidoformaldegidnogo fertilizer to make for plowing" (Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2497338, IPC A01C 3/00, C05C 9/02, 2013). Unlike the known method pellets "Mohn" saturate 20-30% solution of ferrous sulfate to fill 70-80% of their pore space, and then encrusted with crushed phosphogypsum (5-7 t/ha) with the formation of a thin layer on the surface of the granules. For preparation of a solution of ferrous sulfate can be used slurry. The application rate, thus prepared, is taken equal to 20-25% of the volume of topsoil (0.1-0.15 m) and 250 m3/ha 25 t/ha. This figure�ladybeetle of 5 t/ha of dry fertilizer "Mohn", 5 t/ha of phosphogypsum, while absorptivity fertilizers 350% of its pores after saturation will retain more than 15 t/ha of 30% solution of ferrous sulfate in the dry matter of about 5 t/ha corresponds to the norm of its submission to the prototype method. When precipitation autumn precipitation the upper soil layer is saturated with moisture, the diffusion of a solution of sulphate of iron from pellets "Mohn" in soil solution and neutralize its alkalinity. In the process of interaction with the soil solution are formed hydroxides of iron and free sulphuric acid. The iron hydroxide promotes the aggregation of fine fractions and to improve vodoprochnost patterns of the upper layer of the soil. Sulphuric acid acts on the carbonate salts of phosphogypsum, increasing their activity in the displacement of sodium from the CPD and the formation of soluble salts of sodium sulfate, which is well washed out in the spring downward current of melt water.

In the spring when the ground state of maturity at the produce section of her pre-sowing treatment without turning the soil and planting. The introduction of the "Mohn" in the upper layers of the soil creates favorable conditions for the supply of seedlings due to the high content of nitrogen and the formation under the action of sulfuric acid available to plants of phosphorus compounds in the phosphogypsum. Vegetation irrigation is carried out with the supply of design polyun�th standards increased by 20% to create the wash of the current. When conducting irrigation topsoil containing up to 20% of solid granules "Mohn" and soil particles that were embedded under the action of the coagulant, more effectively resist the eroding effects of rain drops. Desalinization of topsoil in autumn it improves water infiltration and increases the rate of absorption of irrigation water, which washes away from the upper root layer of sodium sulfate in the depth of the loosened horizon, provides the diffusion of a solution of sulphate of iron from pellets "Mohn" in soil solution and transfer it to a more deep saline aquifers for their dissolution.

After washing and harvesting the produce section plowing with the turnover of the reservoir, moving the "Mohn" in the depth of the arable layer, providing the increase of its fertility and water holding capacity. On the surface of the soil made soil layer subjected to desalinization. The following year, when watering is carried out without increasing irrigation norms, "Mohn", moved to the bottom of the plow layer due to its high water-holding capacity will play a role of a buffer, delaying salt rising from the depths of the saline horizon, until you remove them through seepage of flood water in the spring.

Thus, the proposed method effectively provides� desalinization of saline irrigated lands, improving their structure, improving soil fertility and erosion resistance without harming the surrounding areas and plants.

The method of complex reclamation of alkali lands, including deep loosening of soil, fertilizer and solution of sulphate of iron, irrigation high irrigation rate, characterized in that as fertilizer in the topsoil to make urea-formaldehyde fertilizer, a saturated solution of sulphate of iron and inlaid with phosphogypsum, which after washing move to the bottom of the plough layer.



 

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2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

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7 cl, 4 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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3 cl, 4 tbl, 2 ex

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