Method of preventing fire for small contour peatlands

FIELD: fire safety.

SUBSTANCE: method of fire extinguishing for small contour peatlands is to prepare the trench (ditch), in which the pipelines 1 with holes 2 are laid. In the cavity of the pipelines 1 the additional pipelines 3 with perforation 4 are placed. In the storage water reservoir through the automatic water level regulator of the tail bay 7 the water level is set, then the water enters the well-distributor 5. The well 5 is connected by the low-pressure pipeline with automatic water level regulator of the tail bay 7. The water from the well-distributor 5 is supplied to each perforated pipeline, the inlet of which is connected with the well-distributor 5 at the level of its bottom. The water is supplied to the pressure pipeline 8 from the storage water reservoir 36 using mobile pumping station. The pressure pipeline 8 is hydraulically connected to the automatic water level regulator 7. The drain of storm rainfall or snowmelt is fully retained in the storage water reservoir and flows into the perforated pipelines 3 and then into the cavity of the main pipeline 1 with holes from which water comes into the upper layers of peat.

EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in peatlands, reduced risk of emergencies, and improved overall environmental situation around the peatlands.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods of fire prevention in situ peat or other prone to fire compressed loose flammable materials and, in particular, to the flooding of the peat bogs, but can also be used to the flooding of peatlands.

The bogs are peat lands exceeding 30 cm, at lesser capacity of the peat used the term "wetlands". The coverage of peat bog land covers 21% of the country, in some areas up to 40-50%.

Peat is distinguished by the form of the main plant forming, allocate grass (sedge, howevei, cane, etc.), Moholy (gisby, sphagnum), wood (alder, pine, birch, etc.) - only about 40 species. Depending on the age of the bog and the intensity of formation of peat the peat layer is most commonly 1-3 m, but sometimes in separate depressions up to 8 meters.

The rate of formation of peat in the Central belt is 1 mm per year in Northern half. Thus, it is necessary to conserve peat, protection from fires and erosion.

The density of the peat in natural deposits of 0.8-1.1 g/cm3close to the density of water (1 g/cm3), peat at flooding may emerge. The peat is carbon - 50-60% of organic mass.

The intensity of the carbon stocks in peat of the Russian Federation has increased,and hence a large area of peatlands. Lowland peat rich in nitrogen, often phosphorus.

Layers of peat deposits lying below the production of peat bogs remain intact, they are completely saturated with water, so that pereobucheniya of peat is not complete.

It should also be noted that the composition to the flooding of peatlands should find useful supply of water in the upper layers, and count depending on serve at fires area with peat soils. This system measures should take into account measures to prevent the ignition of peat.

As noted in one of the sources (N. P. Karpenko, D. A. Manukian. The management of water regime on peatlands to prevent their ignition. Log. Melioration and water economy. No. 4, pp. 13-17, 2012), the total area of peat bogs in the Moscow region is 254,5 thousand hectares, of which 75 thousand hectares are a fire hazard. During periods of active snowmelt and heavy rains there is a rise in the level of water and formation water surface. To control the water regime of peatlands to prevent them burning must be created system of dual regulation (drainage-humidifier). However, this should create new systems that could create adjustable water flow precluding ultimately a fire of peat bogs, so�x cases addresses the composition of the soil peatland, based on known formulas. Thus, the lack of water can be eliminated by the creation of reservoirs drives and system technical solutions for the provision of wetting (soaking) of the upper layer of peat on the basis of seasonal restrictions on carrying out similar works.

In the marshes two natural elements: water (more than 90% of the peat consists of water and fire come into combat - the water prevents the spread of fire in peat. But peat two specific properties. Dried thin upper layer of the peat bog is not wetted by water, has the property of water proof seal possible Peat even in the water can smolder for years. Two other elements of nature - earth and air - are not left out. The land is on the side of the water against fire, preventing its spread. The land is used for fighting fire, apacheva or hilling the wetlands, including okrika wetlands, creating a barrier to the movement of the fire.

In the thickness of the fire when the water is squeezed out from the pores of fire and is converted to steam and released oxygen in the air supports the smoldering peat.

It is known that if to consider the restoration of peatlands, one of the main tasks is the creation of an effective system of accumulation of water to restore the water balance of depleted peatlands (see D. E. Alekseev. Green conveyor belt on drained peatlands. �.: Rosselkhozizdat, 1984, p. 7). Hence it can be concluded that peat soils need to find acceptable ways of dampening the lack of water needed to restore the marshes.

To extinguish fires peatland provides some methods that can be used to prevent fire. Such methods include a method of extinguishing water supplied to places where fire using needle guns or other conduits providing hydration peatlands (Pasic J. S., kluis p. P., Matachin A. M. Fire tactics. M.: stroiizdat, 1990, p. 312-314).

The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency due to the fact that water comes from the top of peat and under its own weight takes place in the thick peat to a depth of one level of the aquifer. It is also difficult to organize contribuye peat in swamps and small contour, i.e. taking into account their size and occlusion in the summer periods, as well as the lack of water necessary to prevent possible ignition of the peat bogs. This disadvantage, as a rule, carry a supply of water from natural sources or artificial reservoirs need to be considered in regions with seasonal restrictions on the conduct of operations.

Also known way to prevent fire in peatlands, including lining of canals around the hearth in�ble fire, supply and filling up with water, in the winter, pave the channels around the fire potential fire and samarajiva in the prepared channels and natural cavities ice massifs by supplying water in winter (Patent RU №225454, CL. ES 3/02 from 20.06.2005).

However, the disadvantages of this method are the rapid silting of open channels, fed by water from freezing in winter; the profile of the channels is necessary to perform complex configuration because of the possibility of a collapse (scree) slopes, which reduces their useful volume to fill with water. In addition, the complexity of the great depths across the width of the channels, slopes in the spring and summer quickly become overgrown with woody and other vegetation that is not effective enough to prevent possible ignition of the hearth, while the bottom and slopes of channels peat deposits have a high degree of drainage water into the lower layers, which reduces the efficiency even when the melting of the ice layer.

In addition, the disadvantages of the known method include the high volume of work and short period of time productive use ice packs prepared by the known method, since the absorption is mainly going to be on the depth of saturation of the lower layer of soil, while the channels again become unsuitable for effective�th their use in the method of preventing fire in the summer time.

As noted above, the minimum depth of peat may be 30 cm, hence there is the possibility of fire, hidden fires in natural landscapes, such acreage - this is an urgent task. The urgency of this task is determined by the harm to human health, the disruption of natural resources, economic losses associated with the extinguishing of such fire through the deaths of people. It is very important issue is the creation of methods of prevention of fires, meeting the requirements of Geoecology in closed depressions of peatlands, i.e. in the lowest topographic elevations of the peat volume, close to the size of small-scaled peat bog.

The problem to be solved by the claimed invention - improving the efficiency of wetting of peat in the upper layers of the water flows of spring flooding from reservoirs-storage, water saving and a longer lifetime in the system to prevent fire.

The technical result achieved in the claimed invention, is to create additional sources of water volume of spring flood when the snow melts, necessary to withstand the possible ignition of the hearth in the upper layers of the peat due to the constant propityvanie�, improving the efficiency of use of fresh water, saving water resources and the elimination of seasonal restrictions on work on the wetting of peat in the upper layers, and to increase the level of fire safety for small-scaled peatlands, and reduce the overall costs of material resources for liquidation of consequences of emergency situations, environmental and technological disasters.

Said technical result is achieved in that in the method of fire prevention for small contour of peatlands, including lining of canals around the hearth of a possible fire, water flow, the channels perform additional pressure perforated piping with a well-dispenser connected to the automatic level control of water downstream through a low pressure conduit with the reservoir storage through high-pressure pipeline with a mobile pumping station in the form of SNP type, and the reservoir is filled with spring flooding when the snow melts at a positive temperature, wherein the reservoir off in the lowest topographic mark outside of peat by volume, equal volume of peat, in addition, the channels made in the form of additional low-pressure perforated piping, each of which�'s individually connected to the well-dispenser, perform the role of drainage water from it, and each additional perforated pipe is placed in the cavity of the main pipe of larger diameter, made in the form of a casing, the outlet of which is placed in the upper part, thus carry out basic pipe made of polyethylene material with a depth not exceeding the minimum in the process of impregnation of the upper layer of peat.

The set of essential features sufficient, and each of them is necessary to achieve the above technical result.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Fig. 1 shows a method of fire prevention for small-scaled peatlands.

Fig. 2 - section primary and secondary pipelines.

Fig. 3 is a kinematic diagram of the automatic level control of water downstream of the discharge pipe.

The claimed method of fire prevention for small-scaled peatlands represents the construction of trenches for laying of pipelines, which are as follows: in the winter make the passage of the trench at the depth of peat is not less than the minimum to 30 cm, in which the individual links of the stack main tube 1 from a plastic material, the holes 2 which are placed only at the top. Then in the individual links of the main �RUB 1 in the internal cavity is placed an additional perforated pipe 3. The total area of the perforations 4 more perforations in the form of holes 2 in the pipe 1. The main pipe 1 is a kind of protective casing, in which is placed an additional perforated pipe 3 with perforations 4. Then the ends of all pipes to be interconnected and get the specified length of the route by installing the pipe in the trench.

The beginning of the pipeline 3 (Fig. 1) connect with a well-dispenser 5 in the form of diverging beams, and the main pipeline 1 with both ends closed by plugs and connect with additional pipeline 3. Each additional perforated pipe 3 has a passage-way valve 5, which lay at the level of the bottom of the well-dispenser 5 for the purpose of establishing water pressure over the last exits in additional perforated pipes 3 and respectively supplying water in them, which are placed in the cavity of the main pipe 1 with holes 2 in the upper part, capped at both ends, with the main pipelines are made of polyethylene material (this is the longevity of the pipes) and joined into one common along the length of the pipeline, which is protected in the form of the hood for additional low-pressure perforated conduit 3 in length. After Assembly of pipelines 1 and 3 fall asleep on top of excavated peat layer from the trench, and sist�mu track of perforated piping can be called by the term "drainage system", filled with pressurized water to soak the top layer of peat, i.e. water flows through the perforations 4 of the additional pipeline 3, then enters into the cavity of the main pipeline 1, then from the holes 2 in the pores of the peat up, impregnating (wets) is constantly its thickness. Extra perforated piping 3 can be made of different materials.

The well-distributor 5, respectively connected with additional perforated pipes 3, also connected to the upper part via a low pressure conduit 6 with automatic control of water level downstream 7. Automatic water level controller downstream 7 improves the accuracy and reliability of the well-dispenser 5 through maintaining a constant pressure (level) of water for supplying water to additional perforated pipes 3, i.e. with regard to its building height, as each of them works individually (independently) and depends on the water head in the well-distributor 5, wherein the output of each individual pipeline 3 from the well-dispenser 5 provides an opportunity to work reliably and does not depend on the parameters of pipelines. Furthermore, an additional perforated pipes 3 in conditions of rugged terrain can be �Rog relative to each other in different planes with different angles and turns (not less than 90°). This gives the opportunity to supply water to the peat bogs along the contour that cannot be used in open channels filled with water and others material (e.g., ice). Consequently, the flow rate in the well-distributor 5 is stabilized due to the automatic controller of water level downstream in the cases of any outage of one of the additional perforated piping 3 or for some other reasons (repairs, etc.).

It should be noted that this connection associated with the transition of the mode of operation of water supply and distribution 5, depends on the operation of the aforementioned automatic water level regulator downstream 7 (Fig. 3).

Automatic water level controller downstream 7 includes a pressure inlet conduit 8, a diaphragm actuating mechanism, consisting of a chamber 9 of the pressure valve 10 with the rod 11, rigidly connected to the membrane 12 and passes through guides 13 in the lid 14, and the valve 10 closes the outlet opening 15 of the housing 16, informing the drain pipe 17 with a well-damper 18. The well-damper 18 is provided with a flow capacity of 19 static head with holes 20 and 21 and is connected with the low pressure conduit 6. Flow capacity 19 the static head provided with a float sensor 22 and rod 23 rigidly connected to lever the PR�an 24. Lever body 24 is pivotally connected by a rod 25 with a valve 26 with a transverse through hole 27. In addition, the spool 26 is placed in the cavity of the dispenser 28 is pivotally suspended from the abutments 29. The dispenser 28 has a through symmetrical holes 30 and 31, lockable spool 26, one of which 30 is connected to the atmosphere, and the other is hydraulically connected through a tube 32 with a valve 33 with namebrands cavity of the pressure chamber 9 and the discharge conduit 8 by a tube 34 with a valve 35.

In the reservoir 36 is submerged suction pipe (not shown) of the mobile pumping station 37 in the form of SNP type, connected to the discharge conduit 8.

The work of the SNP is directly related to the operation of the automatic controller of water level downstream water 7, which is connected to a system of well-dispenser with 5 additional perforated pipes 3. SNP may be provided with a level switch for automatic level control of water below the reservoir 7 through the communication line.

Method of fire prevention for small contour of peatlands is as follows.

Known method by the nature of the formation of peat define the boundaries of its contour for permanent or periodic saturation of the upper layer of peat. Then within the boundaries of the in winter define trenching and about�odat laying additional perforated piping 3 and the main pipeline 1, then mounted. Further, the pipelines 1 sleep excavated from the trench with peat.

In the mode of supplying water from the reservoir to the accumulator 36 through the automatic water level control downstream 7, last set up to maintain specified levels in the well-distributor 5, the marks of which are taken on the basis of the actual position of the marks of the surface of the peat bog, as well as the required extinguishing water in additional low pressure in the pipes 3, then the water through the perforations 4 is received in the cavity of the main pipeline 1, which is closed at both ends, for example, plugs, and water, filling the cavity of the pipeline 1, goes through the holes 2 with quenched kinetic energy and at a certain pressure (the well-dispenser 5) enters into the thickness of the upper layer of peat. There is no shortage of water in the pipelines 1 and 3, so that each additional perforated pipe 3 to obtain a uniform distribution of water from the well of the dispenser 5. If you want to change additional pressure in the perforated pipe 3 changes of water levels automatic water level control downstream 7, the magnitude of this difference is constant for each additional entry of the perforated pipe 3. If you want to disable one of the secondary conduits 3 e�about overlap, for example, a locking device mounted in the well 5 (not shown).

Automatic level control of water downstream is not described, but quite clear in its design descriptions in the text.

The execution of the main pipeline 1 with holes 2 in its upper part allows additional perforated pipe 3 to be placed in its cavity in the form of a protective cover and allows flowing water from the pipe 3 to get into the lower layers of peat, saturated aquifer, so the water through the holes 2 starts to wet the top layer of peat above the laying of pipe 1 is made of plastic material, the durability of which is fairly obvious. Technology operations such welded pipes already known and simple without much effort welding and installation for an additional perforated piping 3. No sogrevaniya perforation holes 4 and 2, as a consequence, leads to the durability of the pipes 1 and 3.

With the beginning of the spring period of the year with increasing ambient temperature begins the active process of melting the surrounding snow cover, is the passage of the spring freshets, depending on relief conditions to the location of the peat bog, thus there is a significant accumulation of water in the reservoir-seq�body with its given geometric dimensions. Consequently, the supply of water will be sufficient for irrigation of peat, there is a constant filling of the reservoir storage during the long period of its use and more effective in automatic mode.

Collection of water in the reservoir may also be provided throughout the year by means of the inlet channels, chutes, gullies, etc., performed at a higher level before the reservoir storage.

The invention provides significant water savings, which is designed to prevent fire for small contour of peatlands and which is intended for accumulation for impregnation of the upper layer of peat. In addition, the efficiency of the invention is that it automatically eliminates the loss of water to discharge into the aquifer. Due to mutual fluid communication of the reservoir-drive, SNP, automatic water level control downstream and the well-dispenser with individual inputs additional perforated piping placed in the casing, the contour of peat increases the efficiency of impregnation (wetting) of the upper layers of the peat bog, reliability in transient modes of operation of the automatic level control of water downstream. This also in turn enhances its ability to absorb hut�internal energy of the flow for different flow supplied under pressure from SNP high-pressure pipeline, and the process of controlling the water supply to prevent possible occurrence of a fire allows you to create a control system processes the passage of water from a reservoir storage of fresh water and other sources of accumulation it eliminates the subjective factor in determining the amount of the upper layer of peat during dry periods of the year, using low-pressure piping on the contour of the peat bog. Such a possibility is not provided by any known technical solution.

Method of fire prevention for small contour of peatlands, including lining of canals around the hearth of a possible fire, water flow, characterized in that the channels are in the form of low-pressure additional perforated piping with a well - dispenser connected to the automatic level control of water downstream through a low pressure conduit with the reservoir storage through high-pressure pipeline, combined with a mobile pumping station in the form of SNP type, and the reservoir is filled with spring flooding when the snow melts, at positive temperature, wherein the reservoir off in the lowest topographic elevations outside of peat by volume, no less� volume peatland in addition, the channels made in the form of additional low-pressure perforated piping, each of which is individually connected to the manhole allocator that performs the role of drainage of the supply from the well - dispenser and each additional perforated pipe is placed in the cavity of the main pipe of larger diameter, made in the form of a casing, the outlet of which is placed in the upper part, thus carry out basic pipe made of polyethylene material with a depth not exceeding the minimum in the process of impregnation of the upper layer of peat.



 

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