Structure of subgrade of railway track
SUBSTANCE: support elements are located pointwise on the slope of subgrade and provided with grid combined with geotextile. The invention consists in the fact that support elements are arranged on the slope of subgrade in the form of metallic pipes with length of 2.0-2.5 m, in this case at least 1/3 of the length of pipes is introduced into the body of subgrade, the rest of their parts are located freely above the surface of the slope at a distance of 1.2-1.5 m from each other and grid of double torsion is arranged between them, it is wrapped with geotextile, which leans by the lower edge upon the slope of subgrade, its upper edge coincides with the top part of metal pipes, sinuses between the grid and slope of subgrade are filled with draining soil, the upper surface of which is located at the level of the main site of subgrade and forms the normative side of the subgrade. Thus, the proposed device allows to broaden the main area of subgrade, retaining the existing structure of the subgrade, due to the pointwise location of the support elements, and application of grid in conjunction with geotextile permits to obtain a certain amount of sinuses, and therefore predict the rate of discharge of draining soil. It should be noted that this structure of the railway track subgrade is produced without the use of complex vehicles and machinery.
EFFECT: extension of the main site of subgrade without destroying the integrity of the subgrade, decrease of volume of the backfill draining soil.
The invention relates to the construction of embankments, including embankments of Railways.
Known granoulozitarna design subgrade second track (A. S. 1041637 the USSR, CL E02D 17/18. The roadbed of the second lines / P. S. Pershin, T. G. Ivanov. Moscow Institute of railway transport engineers. - No. 3906619/22-03; Stated. 27.03.85; Publ. 23.09.86, bull. No. 35), is performed on the slope of the mound the first path in the form of a rectangular soil-filled cells formed from piles rigidly interconnected reinforced concrete elements.
The disadvantages of this design are a large amount draining soil backfill, the complexity of the design.
The closest in technical essence to the proposed design is a way of broadening the main site subgrade lateral powders (I. Prokudin, V., Grachev, I. A., Kolos, A. F. Organization of reorganization of railroads under high-speed trains: a textbook for high schools.-D. transp. / Under the editorship of I. V. Prokudin. - M.: Route, 2005. - Pp. 287-295). The disadvantages of this design are a large amount draining soil backfill, additional land acquisition, a large amount of excavation.
The purpose of the invention is to widen the main area of the subgrade without compromising the integrity of the subgrade to reduce the volume draining soil backfill.
Specified C�l is achieved by that the support elements are arranged point on the slope of the subgrade and is provided with a grid in combination with geotextile.
The invention consists in that the slope of the subgrade supporting elements placed in the form of metal pipes with a length of 2.0-2.5 m, while in the body of the subgrade is opened not less than 1/3 the length of the pipe, the remaining parts are freely suspended above the surface of the slope at a distance of 1.2-1.5 m apart and between them placed mesh double twisting, wrapped in a geotextile that the bottom edge rests on the slope of the subgrade, the upper edge coincides with the top of the metal tubes of the sinuses between the grid and the slope of the subgrade filled draining soil the upper surface of which is located at the main site subgrade and forms the normative side of the subgrade.
Fig. 1 shows the proposed design of the roadbed of railway track containing the axis of the rail 1, rail-sleeper grid 2, the prism ballast 3, the body of the subgrade 4, the main platform 5 subgrade 4, the side 6 of the subgrade 4, the slope 7 subgrade 4, metal pipe 8, the mesh double twisting 9, geotextile 10 draining soil 11 and the upper edge of the supporting elements 13.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram (plan view), the content�schaya the axis of the rail track 1, rail-sleeper grid 2, the prism ballast 3, the body of the subgrade 4, the main platform 5 subgrade 4, the side 6 of the subgrade 4, the slope 7 subgrade 4, located on the slope 7 of the metal pipe 8, the mesh double twisting 9, geotextile 10 draining soil 11 that fills the sinus 12, and the upper edge of the supporting elements 13.
The proposed design is executed as follows.
Currently there are problems associated with the fact that the geometric parameters of the long term operating subgrade does not meet the requirements of modern regulations. This is because currently the width of the main regulatory sites increased relative to previously adopted standards, and the old roadbed does not meet modern requirements. In addition, in the operation of the track structure are repeated hoisting of the way when performing repair work, which leads to an increase of the base ballast and reducing the value of the roadside.
To provide the shape and geometrical dimensions of the subgrade is necessary to perform the broadening of the main site subgrade. In addition, the introduction of high-speed traffic and increased turnover leads to the necessity of reconstruction, rebuilding its basically� elements including the main site subgrade.
The width of the main regulatory site of the subgrade based on standard shoulder width, which corresponds to (SNiP 32-01-95 Railways of 1520 mm. the JV Project 119.13330.2011 Railways of 1520 mm. Actualized edition of SNiP 32-01-95. - Moscow, 2012) and (rules of technical operation of railway transport of the Russian Federation approved by Order of Ministry of transport of Russia dated 21.12.2010, No. 286). This normative width of the main site subgrade is determined by the location of supporting elements and their length above the surface of the slope.
Therefore, before installation of the support structures define the location on the slope of the subgrade, the length of the bearing elements on the surface of the slope based on the required regulatory width of the main site subgrade.
On the slope 7 subgrade 4 has supporting elements made in the form of a metal pipe 8, between which are placed the mesh double twisting 9, geotextile wrapped 10 that the bottom edge rests on the slope 7 subgrade 4, wherein the upper edge of the supporting elements 13 coincides with the level of the main site 5 subgrade 4. Received sinus 12 filled draining soil backfill 11, which can be used, for example, the gravel fraction 45-60 mm.
After�should be noted, the proposed construction of subgrade 4 is made without compromising the integrity of the subgrade, the predicted flow draining soil 11 is determined by the volume of the sinuses 12. In addition, the resulting plot of broadening the main site 5 subgrade 4 has increased strength due to the layering draining soil 11 with subsequent compaction of each layer.
The broadening of the main site 5 subgrade 4 rail journey allows using known materials, to solve problems related to deviation of the geometric parameters of the subgrade 4 in the operation of the normative.
Thus, the proposed device allows to widen the main area of the subgrade, retaining the existing design of the subgrade, due to the dot arrangement of supporting elements, and the use of mesh in combination with geotextile allows you to get a certain volume of the sinuses and thus to predict the flow draining soil. It should be noted that this construction of the roadbed of the railway track is manufactured without the use of complex machines and mechanisms.
Design subgrade of railway track, including the body of the subgrade, the subgrade slopes, the main area of excavation Polat�, characterized in that the slope of the subgrade supporting elements placed in the form of metal pipes with a length of 2.0-2.5 m, while in the body of the subgrade is opened not less than 1/3 the length of the pipe, the remaining parts are freely suspended above the surface of the slope at a distance of 1.2-1.5 m apart and between them placed mesh double twisting, wrapped in a geotextile that the bottom edge rests on the slope of the subgrade, the upper edge coincides with the top of the metal tubes of the sinuses between the grid and the slope of the subgrade filled draining soil the upper surface of which is located at the main site subgrade and forms the normative side of the subgrade.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the construction of highways, and is intended to create the permanent roads on weak swampy subgrades. Method for construction of the floating road body includes application of liquid layer of the foamed polymeric material of predetermined width on the surface of the weak subgrade, on the surface of which formed after polymerisation, the reinforcing geosynthetic material is placed, then the process of stacking of layers is repeated as many times as necessary till the achievement of the required height and geometry of the floating body of road. After that, the road body from the foamed polymer material is filled with mineral soil with thickness not less than 0.3 m. Road pavement is constructed, bottom layer of which is strengthened by cementing. The total height of the bottom part of the road body from the foamed polymer material hp and height of the upper part from mineral soil together with the road pavement hmp is determined from the given relationship.
EFFECT: increase of the load-bearing capacity, reduction of materials consumption.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: natural soil is extracted for optimal depth, drilling is done from the bottom of excavation of vertical and inclined wells to the roof of permafrost soils, steel pipes filled with sand and in the upper part with concrete are submerged into wells, a buffer layer from crushed stone is filled on the entire area of the excavated bottom, layers of horizontal reinforcing elements are laid above the buffer layer in the form of geogrids filled with crushed stone, the excavation is filled with coarse clastic rock with subsequent arrangement of road surface.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in reduction of deformations of motor and railway roads on permafrost soils that thaw out in process of operation and are located in an earth bed base.
SUBSTANCE: reinforcing element comprises toroid elements from car tyres, with soil filling, fixed to each other with the help of connecting elements made by cutting from a car tyre laid in contact with each other by treads. Each toroid element is made as a car tyre with a cut board, which is crossed by radial cut and is used as a connecting element. In the tread surface of the toroid element there is at least a pair of slots with length near width of the cut board with the possibility to enter the ends of the connecting element via them. A pair of slots is arranged in the plane parallel to the board of the toroid element, preferably in the area of the shoulder part of the toroid element. Toroid elements rest against the surface by shoulder parts so that slots of adjacent toroid elements face each other. Toroid elements are fixed to each other by means of stretching of ends of the connecting element via these slots. The radial slot of each connecting element is oriented to the centre of one of adjacent toroid elements.
EFFECT: higher durability and reliability of design, reduced labour intensiveness of manufacturing, no wastes from erection of structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely to elements for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures, such as road embankments. A plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, comprises a plate body, which has a lattice structure with main and transverse cables, stretched along two mutually perpendicular directions. The cables are biaxially oriented with a stretch ratio in two indicated mutually perpendicular directions, which is from 2.8 to 5.5. Main cables, i.e. in a direction of a workpiece extrusion, forming the plate body, have a quadrangular cross section and thickness in the direction, passing perpendicularly to the plane of the plate body location, which is equal to at least triple thickness of the transverse cables.
EFFECT: provision of the plate element fixing in soil, provision of reliable operation and safety when using.
10 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to wash over earth works in the form of narrow-profiled dams consists in supply of pulp from the end of the main pulp line and dispersed release of pulp taken from the lower part of the main pulp line, from distributing pulp lines. The narrow-profiled dam is washed over with the help of a distributing device, making it possible to fractionate and wash over side prisms from sorted fractions, and the nucleus of the dam may be washed over from the remaining mass of the solid phase of the pulp. The distributing device is the end section of the main pulp line, to which via a socket rigidly fixed in its lower part there are two distributing pulp lines connected, being arranged in parallel to the main pulp line, with varied distance between them. In front of the inlet hole into the socket there is a guide element fixed rigidly with crescent shape, inclined at the angle of 25…30° towards the protective grate. The guide element is made of sheet wear-resistant steel with thickness of 8…10 mm, height of 50…70 mm, length equal to width of the inlet hole of the socket. The distributing device has four vertical stands with height of 1500…2000 mm and support elements rigidly fixed to them in the form of bent bars with size of 150 mm with horizontal sections with length of 800…1200 mm. From horizontal sections of bars in the front part along the travel of the distributing device there are diverting inclined section with an angle of inclination to the longitudinal axis 45…55°, fixed on distributing pulp lines, which provides for self-tipping out of the distributing device during movement from the washed over section.
EFFECT: lower clogging of a protective grate of a socket and higher mobility of a distributing device during relocation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and operation of earth structures under complicated natural and climatic and engineering and geological conditions and may be used in construction and reconstruction of linear structures in sections of weatherable rock soils, also permafrost ones (railway and motor roads, manifold pipelines, dams and weirs). The structure for reinforcement of slopes of earth structures in weatherable rock soils, comprises a upland ditch, made in the upper part of the slope of the groove of the railway track along the earth structure above the border of the active layer reinforced with coarse clastic soil. At the slope there are at least two alternating ledges and two rollers, at the same time the upper roller is made between the upland groove and the upper ledge, and each subsequent roller - between the adjacent ledges. Rollers are made of fine-dispersed soil coated with a gravel-crushed stone soil. The area of the cross section of ledges is comparable with the area of the cross section of rollers, the volume of finely-dispersed and crushed stone soils has the ratio of 1 to 4-6.
EFFECT: increased service life of an earth structure up to the normative life and more than that due to colmation of pores and cavities of soils in slopes of the base, lying below the depth of a layer of seasonal freezing, formation of a permanent live section of soil flow in profile and considerable reduction of water migration from soils below depth of seasonal freezing into soils of an active layer.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of railway track reconstruction includes cutting of ledges on a slope of an earth bed, laying of gabions on them. The lower ledge is made with width equal to the width of some gabions, the width of subsequent ledges is equal to 1/3 of the width of the lower ledge, the height of all ledges, including the lower ledge, is equal to the height of a row of gabions. The produced gabion wall comprises N+1 rows of gabions. Besides, N rows of gabions are placed to the level of the main platform of the earth bed, and the upper N-first row of gabions simultaneously rests against the previous row of gabions and the main platform of the earth bed and supports the ballast prism.
EFFECT: reinforcement of a railway track earth bed, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect narrow-section dams is carried out by pulp supply into an inwashed structure simultaneously from the main and two distributing pulp lines. Distributing pulp lines are arranged in parallel at two sides of the main pulp line for inwash of side prisms from coarse fractions of the inwashed soil and the middle part, being the core of the dam, from fine fractions washed from the end of the main pulp line. Outlet holes in distributing pulp lines are made in their lower part and displaced by 20…30° from the vertical axis towards the main pulp line, being distant from each other at the distance of ℓ=dmain, where dmain - diameter of the main pulp line, and the diameter dv=1/3dd, where dd - diameter of the distributing pulp line providing for inwash of soil along the length of side prisms. Pulp supply from the end of the main pulp line for inwash of the dam core is carried out via a damper made in the form of longitudinal steel rods with the diameter of 10…14 mm from smooth reinforcement steel, rigidly fixed by one side along the upper outer surface in the end part of the main pulp line with arrangement of the rods in parallel to the axis of the flow, with the distance between the rods equal to 1…2 of the rod diameter and made with a protrusion by the value of 1.5…2dmain, and the bend of the end section until complete closure of the vertical projection of the end of the main pulp line. The connection of the distributing pulp lines with the main one is made in the form of a socket coupled with the main pulp line, along the line produced from crossing of two cylinders of identical diameter, equal to dmain, and with the distributing pulp lines - in the form of an oval having the size along the large axis equal to dmain, along the small one - dd. The inlet hole of the socket is protected with an inner lattice made in the form of longitudinal rods from smooth reinforcement steel with the diameter of 10…14 mm, rigidly fixed only at the discharge side with arrangement of the rods from each other at the distance of 0.75dv.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to erect protective dams with simultaneous clearing of river beds from bottom sediments and to prevent flooding of adjacent territories, which improves environmental condition in general.
SUBSTANCE: ground structure on a weak base comprises an embankment, trenches made at its both sides and a reinforcing system in the form of a horseshoe-shaped retaining shell with a vault and supports. The retaining shell is arranged in transverse and longitudinal direction of the ground structure from webs of a synthetic non-woven material (SNM) laid into the embankment and trenches. Webs of the SNM in trenches are filled with soil, forming supports of the horseshoe-shaped retaining shell. The retaining shell is made in the form of a closed shell, its vault is installed in the embankment body and is filled with soil. The volume weight of soil in the horseshoe-shaped retaining shell exceeds the volume weight of embankment soils.
EFFECT: provision of a reliable and durable earth structure on a weak base in process of permanent operation without drying of weak soils in area of any length.
SUBSTANCE: embankment includes an embankment body in the form of filled soil and a cooling system installed in the embankment in the form of a panel with channels arranged inside. The panel with channels may be arranged in the form of a net. Holes of channels arranged at the edges of the panel are connected with a transverse air intake tube. The cooling system is arranged as follows: in the form of a row of bays made of spirally wound panels or nets with channels and installed across the axis of the road route. The cooling system may be arranged as combined of at least two layers, in which the lower one comprises bays, and the upper one - from panels with channels or tubes. Inside bays there are central tubes installed.
EFFECT: possibility to use in erection of transport structures on frozen soils, both in summer and winter periods of the year.
6 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for building railroad embankments in permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: groove includes ballast prism, support massif contacting with groove slopes by side massif walls and arranged under ballast prism, heat insulation layer laid on groove slopes and protective layer located above heat insulation one. Support body comprises upper part of hU height formed of fractional rock and lower part of hL height made of non-drainage ground. Protective layer is made of drainage ground. Support massif height h0, upper part height hU and lower part hL height are determined from corresponding relations.
EFFECT: prevention of road bed deformation during embankment erection.
FIELD: building, particularly for building high filtering embankments on permafrost ground bases.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises drainage groove body built on natural ground surface and approach embankment parts adjoining to drainage groove from both sides. Approach embankment parts include systems for permafrost ground cooling arranged on surfaces thereof formed, for instance, as rock fills arranged on embankment slopes. Drainage groove body consists of filtering mass crossing embankment body at an angle to longitudinal axis thereof, upper part located directly above filtering mass, and two intermediate embankment parts of variable heights disposed between filtering mass together with upper part of drainage groove body and both approach embankment parts. Filtering mass has trapezoidal cross-section. Ends of filtering mass, upper part and intermediate ones are located in planes of approach embankment part slopes. Filtering mass body is formed of filtering ground. Upper drainage slot part and intermediate parts are made of embankment ground.
EFFECT: possibility of regular embankment operation in permafrost areas.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting ground road embankment in permafrost territory.
SUBSTANCE: berm located on transversal ground grade and directly adjoining upper embankment slope is formed of fractional rock ground. Berm comprises side antifiltering lock located in embankment body on natural ground surface near berm, lower antifiltering lock arranged below natural ground surface at contact area with lower berm surface and side antifiltering lock. Upper berm surface is located above maximum level hn of surface longitudinal water flow in bottom area of upper embankment slope. Berm body may be partly deepened in natural ground surface.
EFFECT: prevention of embankment ground erosion, filtering through embankment body in transversal direction and thaw of embankment foundation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for road building and embankment repair, for forming platforms for buildings and creating islands and dams in shallow water zones.
SUBSTANCE: embankment erected on soil includes embankment base, embankment body and outer side slopes. Embankment base is made of clay and shaped as lodgment having side breastworks located above flood water level.
EFFECT: increased embankment stability, prevention of impounding thereof with flood water.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting road embankments in areas with high-temperature permafrost ground.
SUBSTANCE: earth structure comprises road bed body and rock layer exposed to air in peripheral zones. Lateral parts of peripheral zones in are water-impermeable from below. Rock layers are connected one to another by underlying rock layer.
EFFECT: increased resistance and operational reliability of earth structure, particularly erected on permafrost ground in summer period.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: building, particularly for constructing road embankments on permafrost ground bases.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body laid on natural ground surface, ballast section formed on the main embankment area and heat insulation layer. Road embankment has side auxiliary ground bodies with heights of not less than 0.3 m and Bb widths located within the boundaries of the main embankment area, slopes thereof and on horizontal area of natural ground surface at embankment slope base from ballast section sides. Heat insulation layer with Rh thermal resistance is located on leveling layer of dry frozen sand immediately under side auxiliary ground body. Bb is determined from specified condition.
EFFECT: increased stability and durability of embankment built on permafrost ground under heavy drift-snow transport conditions, simplified perennial technology of building thereof and extended range or local permafrost ground application.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for constructing road embankments on permafrost ground bases.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body, ballast section formed on the main embankment area and heat insulation layer. Road embankment has side auxiliary ground bodies having hb heights and Bb widths located from ballast section sides within the boundaries of the main embankment area on natural ground surface at embankment slope base. Embankment body includes three layers, namely lower layer having hl height, medium layer having hm height and upper one having hu height. Upper layer is made of drainage soil. Heat insulation layer having Rh thermal resistance is located on leveling layer of dry frozen sand immediately under side auxiliary ground body. Heat insulation layer extends from its bottom to medium layer top surface and then over the top surface to vertical plane passing through the edge of main embankment area. Auxiliary ground body hb height is defined to increase convenience of mechanized embankment forming and is equal to 0.3 - 0.7 m in separate areas thereof. Main embankment dimensions are determined from predetermined conditions.
EFFECT: increased embankment stability and durability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to erect road embankments.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment ground, retaining wall and support structure. Embankment ground is divided with flat geonet webs into several layers. The retaining wall is also divided into layers similar to ground layers and covered with single geonet webs. Each retaining wall layer has vertical through slots filled with macroporous draining material. Flat geonet webs are inserted between hollow layers of retaining wall. Vertical cavities of adjacent retaining wall layers in height direction are superposed in plan view. Length L of ground layers reinforced with flat geonet webs beginning from inner retaining wall surface is determined from a given equation. Road embankment erection method involves forming retaining wall base; laying road embankment ground layers alternated with flat geonet webs; erecting retaining wall comprising several layers and constructing support structure. Base is initially created and then lower erection wall layer is erected on the base, wherein the retaining wall is provided with vertical cavities having heights corresponding to ground layer heights. The vertical cavities are filled with coarse material for 2/3 of volume thereof and then embankment ground layer is poured and compacted. Embankment ground is leveled and coarse material is added in the cavities. The coarse material is leveled and geonet web is placed onto the coarse material within the bounds of retaining wall and embankment ground layer. Next layers are formed in similar manner. Reinforced concrete block for retaining wall forming comprises device, which cooperates with ambient ground. The device comprises one or several vertical through cavities to be filled with granular coarse material. Depression in concrete is formed in lower block surface in front of erection loop.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption and erection time, increased service life, stability and operational reliability.
9 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct road embankments on permafrost ground.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body composed of two stacked layers and ballast prism arranged on base platform. Each layer is formed as trapeze with larger base facing downwards. Lower base of upper layer trapeze has dimension c equal to that of upper base of lower layer trapeze. Lower base of upper layer trapeze mates upper base of lower layer trapeze. Upper layer has side slope less than that of lower layer. Main embankment parameters are determined from corresponding relations.
EFFECT: provision of embankment stability due to permafrost temperature reduction in embankment base.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: road building.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to strengthen weak base, increase strength and load-bearing capacity of roadbed. Proposed construction includes earth roadbed with shoulders and slopes, support longitudinal trench filled with material arranged in earth roadbed with geosynthetic material placed over top of trench. Longitudinal trench arranged along axis of earth roadbed or several longitudinal trenches are made with width of 0.6-10 at depth of 1.2-2.6 m filled with friction material, and geosynthetic material with minimum breaking strength of 15kN/m in longitudinal direction and of ≥ 20 kN/m in cross direction is placed over top of trench with back lapping into embankment providing formation of semiholders from two sides of earth roadbed.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of road, increased time between repairs owing to elimination or reduction of sagging of earth roadbed base.
2 cl, 2 ex, 4 dwg