SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises drains 1, an inlet collector 2, and an outlet collector 3, between which the storage tank 4 with a siphon 5 is placed. The descending branch 6 of the siphon 5 is brought to the drain well 7 on the level of the outlet collector 3. The float 8 with the plate 9, suspended on a holding traction 10 of the float drive with a valve 11 is arranged, respectively, at the level of the siphon neck 5. The float 8 is placed on the corresponding critical depth of groundwater for the soil and climatic and hydrological conditions of the area, in which the drainage system is located. In the wall 12 of the tank 4, a hole 13 is made for the intake pipe 14, through which the tank 4 is connected to the draining storage water intakes 15. The storage water intakes 15 are connected to the openings 16 of sections of the inlet collector 2 at the location of the drains 1. When mounting the filter storage water intakes 15 the filling of waterproof materials 17 is used, such as sand, gravel, slag or synthetic wastes of light industry.
EFFECT: invention enables to automate fully the process of maintaining the level of groundwater at the level corresponding to the critical, ensures the supply of a certain amount of water from the groundwater in the root layer of soil, which increases moisture reserves for crops and enables decrease partly the irrigation rates, which provides saving water resources, the necessary regime of moistening and aeration of soil is ensured by creating an optimal level of groundwater in the different phases of plant vegetation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to hydraulic reclamation and can be used as irrigation and drainage of agricultural land.
A well-known regulator of the groundwater level, containing mounted on the tip drains are placed in the well of a stop valve with float actuator, it is provided with a tubular filter and located in the well chamber, the actuator of the locking device in the form of two pivotally connected with independently moving floats, one of which is placed in the chamber communicating through the tubular filter with groundwater above the regulator (inventor's certificate SU # 763519, CL E02B 11/00, 1980).
However, in the known controller the presence of the gauge tubular filter can lead to zakrivayu and exclude the ingress of water through it inside the tube and can't work on length regulation of drainage water depending on fluctuations in water level in the drainage system. Besides, at a certain point the location of the float occurs discharge of water from the system regardless of the hydrological regime of irrigated area, which leads to increased inflow of saline drainage water in water sources and purevsuren root-inhabited layer of soil, and the relatively low efficiency of cleaning of drains from the sediment. In addition, the movable cylinder with tarelka�first shutter, interconnected to move relative to each other in welded housing complex in operation and leads to significant efforts to overcome the hydrostatic pressure in the weld body, acting on the entire area of the gate when it is opened. These efforts reduce the reliability of operation of the device, and hence the reliability of its operation. On vertical rod due to friction of the rack there is no possibility to control the system to complete the trim lever of the device in two opposite directions, which leads to the randomness of the selection of its provisions.
Closest to the invention is a drain system, including drains, sewer, sealed holding tank with an air trap located at the mouth of drains (inventor's certificate SU # 1523632, CL E02B 11/00, 1989).
The disadvantage of this system is the discharge of water from the system regardless of the hydrological regime of the territory drained that leads to increased inflow of saline drainage water in water sources and purevsuren root-inhabited soil layer. In addition, it cannot provide for the needs of plants in water and air at different periods of the growing season.
The objective of this solution is the reduction of the risk of pollution of natural waters � saving water resources, as well as creating optimal moisture regime, and soil aeration.
The technical result is achieved in that the drain system, including drains and collector, at the mouth of which is in the drain well is a holding tank, holding tank associated with the outlet manifold via a well, equipped with a device for discharge of water, made in the form of a siphon, the descending branch of which is derived at the level of the tip of the discharge manifold, wherein the elbow of the siphon set at the level corresponding to the placement of the float of the float actuator with valve, and the float is placed at the corresponding critical watertable depth for the soil-climatic and hydrological conditions of the area in which is located the bilge system in the wall of the vessel has a hole connected by a conduit with drainage inlets drives.
In addition, the inlets drives are connected with the holes of sectional areas of the inlet manifold in the locations of drains, with the installation of filter inlets drives use the backfilling of waterproof material, in particular sand, gravel, slag, or synthetic wastes light industry.
The proposed drainage system is aimed at eliminating specified�'s shortcomings due to the design of the location of the float of the float actuator with valve, accordingly, the location of the bend of the siphon at the appropriate critical position of the groundwater level, which allows you to maintain the level of groundwater, to ensure the alarm system only when exceeding the critical level of ground waters on the territory drained and drain it of excess moisture, causing waterlogging and salinization, which can significantly reduce the discharges, and hence the salinity of drainage water in water sources and reduce the risk of contamination.
The system allows you to fully automate the process of maintaining groundwater levels at the level corresponding to the critical, ensures the supply of a quantity of water from groundwater in the root layer of soil, which increases the reserve of moisture for crop and provides an opportunity to reduce irrigation rates, which saves water resources. In addition, to provide the necessary moisture regime, and soil aeration resulting from the creation of optimal groundwater level in different phases of plant growth, reduce operational costs by eliminating manual labor on drained areas.
Comparative analysis of proposed technical solutions and prototype shows that the inventive combination of features part of essential features is� new, therefore, the claimed solution meets the criterion of "novelty."
The drawing shows a drainage system, a section along the axis of the collector.
The drainage system includes drains 1, inlet manifold 2 and exhaust manifold 3, between which is placed away from the tank 4 with siphon 5, descending branch 6 which is derived in the drain well 7 to the level of the outlet manifold 3. The float 8 with a horizontal plate 9, which is suspended on a flexible restraint 10 deadlift float actuator-valve 11, located, respectively, at the knee of the siphon 5. In the wall 12 of the container 4 made hole 13 to the intake pipe 14 through which it is connected with filter inlets drives 15, which is filtered ground water from the holes 16 between the sections of the inlet manifold 2 during the withdrawal of groundwater through the layer of waterproof material 17, in particular sand, gravel, slag, or synthetic wastes light industry. The bottom of the tank 4 and the bottom of the well 7 is formed in a rounded shape.
The drainage system works as follows.
When the groundwater level is above normal, the water coming from the soil into the drains 1, moves to the collector 2 and further through the holes in the collector sections 2 comes to the filter inlets drives 15, and profiltrovavshih through a layer of waterproof�x materials 17 (for example, sand) in the last downstream reservoir 2, the water enters the conduit 14 and then through the hole 13 into the container 4.
With increasing content of water in the tank 4 to the estimated location of the float 7, which is installed at elevation, respectively, of the tribe of the siphon 5, the valve 11 is lifted and letting all the water flow from the inlet manifold 2 into the container 4. The water level in it increases, reaching critical for the operation of the siphon 5 full section on the discharge of water from the tank 4 into the well 7. As a result, in the presence of the rounded bottom in the well 7, the discharge of water along with suspended sediments will be continually flush the sediment into the reservoir 3, which ensures the reliability of the system. After you reset the water in the tank 4 is sinking float down 8 to its initial position. As a result of reducing the level in the tank 4 of the float 8 and the plate 9, the valve 11 will be closed and the intake manifold 2. Thus, when the critical groundwater depth is defined as the position at which there is salinization of soils in the unsaturated zone and ensured the flow of some quantity of groundwater in the root zone (see Kharchenko S. I. Hydrology of irrigated lands, L. G., 1975, p. 169: Maslov B. S., Minaev I. V., Huber K. V. Handbook of reclamation. M. Rosa�repromised, 1989, p. 14).
Drainage system allows you to fully automate the process of drainage water for operation of drainage systems and reduce the flow of saline drainage water in the water sources that will improve the environmental situation, and to use some portion of the groundwater to increase water supply in agricultural crops, giving a somewhat reduce the consumption of irrigation water, i.e. to provide the necessary moisture regime, and soil aeration by creating optimal periods in different stage of plant growth, reduce operational costs by eliminating manual labor in the conduct of drainage water and save irrigation water and allow to maintain the correct balance of moisture in the soil. In addition, it allows purification from suspended sediments draining the well, which increases the reliability of its work in mutual communication with the siphon, as at the end of the descending branch of the 6 measured flow stream erodes the sediment in the presence of the rounded bottom to the outlet side of the manifold 3. Thus, construction of drainage and drainage systems according to the invention allows to achieve the desired technical result due to mutual fluid communication of the tank with a siphon, float float p�of ivoda with valve, and the holes in the container wall, respectively, connected to the pipeline, which is associated with filter inlets drives, when the permeability of backfill sufficiently ensured.
1. Drain system, including drains and collector, at the mouth of which is in the drainage well is located away from the tank, characterized in that the storage container is associated with the outlet manifold via a well, equipped with a device for discharge of water, made in the form of a siphon, the descending branch of which is derived at the level of the tip of the discharge manifold, wherein the elbow of the siphon set at the level corresponding to the placement of the float of the float actuator with valve, and the float is placed at the corresponding critical watertable depth for the soil-climatic and hydrological conditions of the area in which is located the bilge system in the wall of the vessel has a hole connected by a conduit with drainage inlets drives.
2. A drainage system according to claim 1, characterized in that the inlets drives are connected to the openings of sections of sections of the inlet manifold in the locations of drains, with the installation of filter inlets drives use the backfilling of waterproof material, to a pri�STI sand, gravel, slag, or synthetic wastes light industry.
SUBSTANCE: construction method of adits containing a water-receiving element in the form of a solid unit of n number (n>2) of vertical longitudinal toe filters involves trench excavation by means of an excavating and drainage machine, laying into it of a drain pipe covered with protective filter material, and refilling of the trench by means of a padding device moving synchronously with the drainage machine and provided with a bunker for filter material with a drain chute. Laying of the drain pipe covered with protective filter material and refilling of the trench is performed simultaneously. The drain pipe covered with protective filter material is padded throughout the trench width to the depth of 15 cm above its crown from a duct to which filter material is supplied from the bunker via the drain chute. The duct represents a rectangular parallelepiped having width equal to trench width, and height that is somewhat bigger than trench depth. Duct bottom is located near the trench bottom at the distance of padding layer thickness of the drain pipe relative to the trench bottom. The duct is rigidly attached with front wall 7 to housing 8 of the excavating and drainage machine. On rear 9 wall of the duct there installed on the outer side are (n-1) vertical partition walls 10 parallel to each other and to walls 1 of the trench with a possibility of changing the distance between them according to thickness of the filters. Height of each of partition walls 10 is equal to the duct height. The filter material bunker is divided into sections by means of partition walls with a possibility of changing the distance between them and their number so that the number of bunker sections is more by one than the number of vertical longitudinal toe filters of the adit. Each bunker section is provided with its own drain chute, from which each adjacent vertical longitudinal filter is filled with heterogeneous filter material.
EFFECT: providing a possibility of filter refilling of the trench of the adit; improving hydrological action of adits and ecological and economic efficiency of draining of low-water-permeable middle and heavy loamy and clay soils.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device is located at drainage-watering collector and drainage network. Device contains a drain well 2 with installed drain tip 1, shutdown device, drive and chamber 10 connected by means of the additional chamber 28 with collector 27 cavity. The device is provided with installed self-regulating gear 3 of the regulator in well, and comprises head regulator made in form of the membrane 13 provided at bottom with mesh-type protecting limiter 22 of membrane 13 movement. The membrane 13 is secured at top to the casing 4. The above membrane cavity 12 is connected with atmosphere and with valve 14 and rod 16 by means of two-arm lever 17 with output valve 20 closing the hole 21 in the chamber 10 bottom. The rod 18 of the output valve 20 has piston 19 for water supply in the cavity of the collector 27. The output valve 20 is located in the additional chamber 28, in its side wall the calibrated hole 29 is made, it is connected with well 2. The chamber 10 bottom has inlet hole 23 with valve 24 connected with float 25 installed with possibility of the latter abutment to the limiting shoulders 26.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the device, operation reliability and quality of the water regulation in the drain system.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises a device of drainage trench with a drainage pipe laid on its bottom with a protective-filtering material, the filtering elements in the form of prisms of soil of humus horizon, arranged in a trench to the arable layer, and the final backfilling the trench with soil of humus horizon. Each drainage trench is made with the depth of at least 1.1 m and the width of at least 50 cm across the direction of flow of surface waters at an angle of not more than 30 degrees to the horizontal. The drainage pipe with protective-filtering material is sprinkled with soil of humus horizon, cut off from the upper edges of the trench, not less than 15 cm above the pipe crown. The filtering elements are made in the form of a single block composed of the nth odd number (n≥3) of the vertical regular prisms parallel to the trench walls, in which the prism of soil of humus horizon alternates with the prism from the excavated soils. The width of the prism from the excavated soil is two times greater than the width of the prism of soil of humus horizon, and the width of the trench B and the width of each odd prism of soil of humus horizon b"n" are related to each other as b"n"=2B/(3n-1).
EFFECT: improvement of hydrological action of the closed regulatory network, increase in efficiency of the use of topsoil and the ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of average-loamy soils.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: system includes supply drain lines 1, manifold 2, and storage well 3, in which siphon block 7 is mounted. The system is provided with self-regulating mechanism 4 of ground water level installed in well 3 and consisting of float chamber 6 rigidly fixed in the upper position above the ridge of siphon block 7 and connected by means of a rigid float drive through valve 8 with a blind section of pipe 13 on a descending branch of siphon block 7. The descending branch of siphon block 7 is connected to discharge pipe 14. Float chamber 6 is connected via hydraulic channel 12 to well 3. The lower part of well 3 is sealed, and above discharge pipe 14 it has outlet opening 15 with branch pipe 17, which is shut off with a level control by means of an additional float drive for control of gate 16. Float gate 16 has L-shaped lever 19 with flange 20, on which float 18 and horizontal plate 23 is fixed. Branch pipe 17 is connected to storage well 3 below the ridge of siphon block 7 by value Δh providing maximum design water filling of well 3 with further discharge to discharge pipe 14. Value Δh is calculated by the following formula: Δh=h1-h2. The self-regulating mechanism is connected to hydraulic channel 12 and well 3 as per a principle of communicating vessels. When the level of the ridge of siphon block 7 is achieved, a charging device is actuated and water discharge through siphon block 7 is performed in a pressure mode to the level of the inlet opening of its ascending branch. The level control in well 3 is actuated when maximum water level achieves the fixed restraining bracket 21, and opening of opening 15 with gate 16 is performed.
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow automating of a ground water level control process and maintaining correct soil humidity balance; automatic flushing of the well with pressure water flow.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating a closed water area in the form of a storage pond 8 with the area of accumulation of sludge from liquid flows. The storage pond 8 is a water area with a levee 12, in which body the inlet water intake hole is made, and the opposite - a water receiver 9 of the water intake pipeline 22. According to the first embodiment of the method, at the bottom of the storage pond 8 the closed air-injecting devices 14, 15 are mounted to form a number of beams diverging from the device as horizontal perforated pipelines 16 in the direction of the base of the upper slope of the dam 12. The perforated pipelines 16 end with a dead end. The air-injecting devices 14, 15 are connected to the central supply pipeline 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air. With the increase in the accumulation of sediment in the form of sludge in the zones of the storage pond 8 the air supply in portions into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is resumed with brief connection of the compressor 19 on the command of the time relay 20 on the air duct in the intake pipeline of the closed air-injecting device. Breaking through the holes of the perforated pipeline 16, the compressed air loosens and roils the sludge, with simultaneous saturation of manure flow with it, and transports it to the discharge water intake pipeline 22. As the reduction in the sludge layer in the storage pond 8 the air supply into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is stopped. According to the second embodiment of the method, in the storage pond a floating platform is placed, on which a compressor is located, connected to the pressure hose air duct. The nozzle of the pressure hose air duct is made in the form of a metal trunk with a perforation in its end part, attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the section of sludge residual accumulation, the end of which is inserted into the precipitate formation. The floating platform is attached on both sides of the dam using a rope and block system in the areas of erosion of the sediment of sludge precipitation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of transport capacity of roiled manure flow coming from the livestock complex, and increased in functional capabilities of the storage pond with possible disposal of flows on irrigated fields of reclamation.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises a collector 1 connected with the drains 2 entering into it, vertical tubes 3 and a device for flushing of sediments. The device for flushing is made of perforated pipes 4 in the form of air outlets 7 arranged inside the drains 2 attached to the upper part of the pipes above the bottom. The perforated pipe 4 by the metal barrel 6, placed in the tube 3 is connected to the pressure hose 8, which inlet is connected to the discharge pipe 9 with the valve 10 of the receiver 11. The receiver 11 is connected to the compressor 12 generating the compressed air. The compressor 12 is connected to the timing relay. The invention increases the transporting capacity of disturbance sediments and other compounds in the drain cavity and accelerates their removal into the open channel 17.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of flushing and increased drainage term by air exposure to sediments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the drain well 1 a chamber 11 is located, communicated with the outlet orifices 12 and 25, and a container 13. In the chamber 11 a float articulation linkage is placed, the rod 18 of which is passed through the orifice 12 into the container 13, in which the cone valve 14 with the load 15 is placed. The container 13 through the pipeline 16 is connected to the outlet drain 4. The bottom of the chamber 11 is communicated with the drain well 1 by the inlet opening 17 and is made in the form of a valve 23 and a float sensor 22 interconnected with the rod with the ability of axial displacement. The inlet opening 17 of the float sensor 22 is formed with projections-limiters 24 with windows. The housing 10 of the shut-off device has a recess in which a pipe 26 with a spring 27 with a screw 28 is placed. The spring 27 is placed in the cavity of the flexible sleeve 29, which serves as protection from clogging with debris and deposits. The sensing element in the form of a spring 27 supports the valve 3 in opening and closing the opening 9 in the seat of the housing 10, which eliminates the shock loading of the valve on the seat in the housing 10. Closing the opening of the shut-off device is carried out only after emptying of the float chamber. As a result of this the work of the float drive is balanced by moments of forces from the minimum to the maximum water level in the well 1.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the device, improved accuracy of regulation and enhanced range of technical means for regulation of the water level in the closed drainage systems.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: body of a water-diversion ditch comprises two substantially identically formed surface blocks, namely: a bottom block and a substantially identically formed cover block, which with the help of spacing elements are connected to each other at the mounting distance. Surface blocks are proposed to be made substantially as capable of engagement when laid into stacks, so that the mounting distance of the surface blocks is considerably more than their distance when laid into a stack. Spacing elements are substantially shaped in the form of a truncated cone or a truncated pyramid, with a limited surface of the cross section, which with increased distance from the surface blocks becomes less. The first alternative version may include placement of the spacing elements on the surface units so that bottom blocks and bottom covers are laid as overlapping each other according to the type of stonework tying. The second alternative version may provide for overlapping connection of the bottom blocks and the cover blocks to each other according to the type of stonework tying.
EFFECT: high stability simultaneously with the possibility to save area during storing and transportation.
14 cl, 23 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.
FIELD: land-reclamation, particularly drainage building in flooded irrigated lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging out channel in a single drainage machine pass by plow-type ditcher; dumping dug out fertile ground on channel brows in banks; digging out trench by operative tool of drainage machine; laying drainage pipe and covering thereof with ground; filling channel with fertile ground. Fertile ground layer is loosened before trench digging out along drainage pipe laying axis, wherein width of loosened ground strip is not less than operative tool width. Loosened ground is laid on channel brows. Trench is dug out by chain operative tool of narrow drainage machine performing reverse rotation and extracted ground is placed between trench walls and drainage machine bunker to cover drainage pipe moved into trench by guiding means. Trench is backfilled with ground with the use of two pairs of banks, which provides successive filling trench with ground and loosened fertile ground.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to prevention of trench wall compaction, reduced power inputs.
FIELD: hydraulic and reclamation building, particularly in permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating planned embankment on territory to be developed; performing surface water drainage from embankment. Embankment slope provide water flow to water receiving means and drainage of surface water from adjoining areas. Ground water flowing from adjacent areas are drained during and/or after embankment erection and removed from embankment body. Motor roads and in-territory water draining channel systems are used as water receiving and draining means within the boundaries of territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system is used for water removal from outside the territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system are formed along embankment perimeter and above slopes reinforced from embankment side. Motor roads are built on embankment top, wherein motor road pavements are located beneath embankment surface. Embankment has slopes directed towards roads. Motor roads have longitudinal and transversal slopes providing surface water flow along roads to water draining channel system, which drains water into water diversion ditch system. Surface water flows into water diversion ditch system from embankment areas located at a distance from motor roads due to inclining above areas towards water diversion ditch system, which directs water to purification system or to natural temporary or permanent water channels. For ground water removal from embankment body drainage layer is placed in embankment so that drainage layer diverts accumulated water to water diversion ditch system, which is also used to remove ground water entering from areas located adjacent territory to be developed.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced labor inputs, provision of stable and effective protective system operation.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: irrigation building, particularly for laying collector-and-drainage system in the case of high ground water level (which is below plough-layer).
SUBSTANCE: method involves erecting pits along drain lines having inclined walls, wherein pit wall inclination is less than natural filtering material slope; filling the pits with filtering material along drain-installing machine travel so that filtering material volume is equal to that of blinding material; laying drain lines along pit axes with narrow-trench drain-installing machine after drain-installing machine bin is filled with filtering material up to level above ground water one, wherein drain laying rate exceeds rate of water percolation from watered ground of trench backfill; maintaining constant filtering material level in the bin due to supplying thereof from pit; additionally leveling and compacting upper filtering material surface. Device comprises main machine, active working tool with reverse operating chain rotation, guiding draining pipe chute and bin. Bin has front cutting part, expandable transversal walls and longitudinal walls bending in vertical plane. Receiving windows are formed in longitudinal walls. Splitter located in front of working tool is mounted on working tool frame and may perform vertical displacement. Splitter comprises plough and side wings enclosing working tool from two sides and connected to plough in front wing parts and to hinges in rear parts thereof. The hinges are connected to bin in front of receiving windows having additional wings installed behind receiving windows to allow installation angle change. Device has gate extending at 3°-4° angle to drain line and located in lower bin part.
EFFECT: increased capacity and drain laying quality, as well as following drainage operational efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building and irrigation and drainage construction, for agricultural land, underground building parts, roads, and slopes reclamation.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises perforated drainage pipe connected to drain web having extensions, filtering diaphragm and thickened parts in joint areas. The thickened parts are provided with through orifices for bolts receiving. Nuts are screwed on the bolts. Drainage pipe has horizontal slot with bent upwards ends in which drain web in installed.
EFFECT: improved draining efficiency and increased speed of excessive water draining from ground.
FIELD: land reclamation, particularly to lay drain collection system in zones having ground water level above drainage laying level.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loosening fertile ground layer along drain laying axis; digging out channel; forming kerbs of excavated fertile ground; developing trench with chain working tool performing reverse rotation without ground lifting to surface; laying drainage pipe; backfilling the trench and the channel. Pulp consisted of crashed ground and water is extracted from lower trench part during drainage laying and the extracted pulp is supplied into channel or to surface of material used for trench backfilling. Device comprises basic machine, active working tool rotated in reverse direction, drainage pipe tray, box-like hopper with front cutting part, namely knife including post and plowshare. Suction dredge is installed inside the plowshare. Suction dredge has suction line communicated with zone between active working tool and knife through windows formed in front plowshare section. Pressure supply pipeline is communicated with distribution pipelines through intermediate pipeline and bypass gate operated by lever mechanism.
EFFECT: increased productivity and quality of drainage laying in water-saturated ground.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect building structure built of clay ground against flooding in the case of bedded mineral deposit mining under the structure.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting dewatering wells in maximal ground subsidence zones over breakage heading center; drilling horizontal drainage wells from dewatering wells at depth, which is less than distance to neutral line at ground layer bent, but is greater than structure foundation erection depth. Well lengths are determined from mathematical expression with taking into consideration parameters of layer cutting and ground shifting process characteristics.
EFFECT: increased clay ground dewatering and structure protection against flooding.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises lying the drain system with the converging drains on the control section, making observation gates within the converging drains, observing the parameters of the operation of the drain system, and comparing the parameters with the permissible values. The drains are provided with mouth and source sections of parallel drains. The lengths of the source and mouth sections of the parallel drains are chosen to be no less than the half of maximum distances between the sources and mouths of the converging drains, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of control.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making diverging drainage canals in the area to be drained. The mouths of the bed sections are connected with the collector through the underground pipelines. The flow rates are measured and water is sampled in the mouths of the underground pipelines and in the mouths of the canal section beds connected to the collector. The concentrations of contaminants in the samples is measured, and the results are compared with the permissible values.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions.
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect objects to be developed and located in shifting basing against flooding with ground and surface water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming water-receiving excavations made as drains, pits or wells; draining and removing water; predicting ground surface relied after ground deformation before underground work performing; marking out flat shifting basin bottom and zone characterized by maximal relief depression; forming pit in area of maximal relief depression; arranging water drain at shifting basin boundary; forming ground water removing wells. Pit volume, well depth and well pitch are determined from mathematical relations.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.