Method of continuous production of graphenes
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of nanotechnologies and can be used for obtaining composite materials with high electric and heat conductivity, additives to concretes and ceramics, sorbents, catalysts. Carbon-containing material is evaporated in volume thermal plasma and condensed on target surface 9 and internal surface of collector 7. Plasma generator 3, which includes coaxially located electrodes: rod cathode 4 and nozzle-shaped output anode 5, are used. Gaseous carbon-containing material 6 is supplied with plasma-forming gas through vortex chamber with channels 2 and selected from the group, consisting of methane, propane, and butane. Bottom of collector is made with hole 8 for gas flow to pass.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce energy consumption of the process, extend types of applied hydrocarbon raw material, simplify device construction and provide continuity of the process and its high productivity.
2 dwg, 3 ex
The invention relates to the field of nanotechnology and can be used to produce carbon nanostructures, in particular graphene. Synthesized by this method, the carbon materials may be used as the basis of composite materials with high electrical and thermal conductivity, as an additive in concrete and ceramics, can act as a sorbent and carrier of catalysts.
A method of producing fullerenes (application for invention RU №2005141129 "Method of producing fullerenes", IPC C01B 31/02, publ. 10.06.2006), in which a hydrocarbon gas and oxygen-containing gas discharged from the discharge section, placed in the fullerene reactor, in the fullerene reactor and burned.
The disadvantages of this method is the low rate of conversion of hydrocarbons to fullerenes, the high content of oxygen in fullerene products, and environmentally unfriendly process, due to the large amount of waste and emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere.
The known method (application for invention EN 97115694 "Method and device for producing fullerenes", IPC C01B 31/02, publ. 10.07.1999), in which the fullerenes are produced by exposure to a hydrocarbon by an electric arc, and as a carbon-containing material is used in liquid hydrocarbons.
The disadvantages of this spacebased high intensity of the process, associated with the use of the electric arc, and low manufacturability of the process, due to the fact that liquid hydrocarbon fills the casing above the level of the electrodes, which complicates the introduction of hydrocarbons to the discharge chamber and collecting the finished product.
A method of producing carbon nanotubes (patent RU 2414418 "Method of producing hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from hydrocarbon gas", IPC C01B 3/26, C01B 31/02, B82B 3/00, publ. 20.03.2011), which previously inert gas is carried out spraying of the catalyst nano-particles by evaporation of the anode graphite electrode, inside of which a wire of metal, which is used as a catalyst, with a diameter of 0.5 mm or less. Then the inert gas is pumped, ignite the arc AC method of touch electrodes with a consequent increase in the interelectrode distance to 0.3÷0.5 mm and in the plasma electric discharge is carried out high-temperature pyrolysis of hydrocarbon gas at a pressure in the reactor of 0.5÷2 ATM hydrogen and carbon nanostructures. The growth of carbon nanostructures, which is mainly single and multilayered nanotubes without admixtures of other carbon structures carbon, is synthesized on the catalyst particles. As the inert gas used�isout helium. As the hydrocarbon gas using methane, associated gas, acetylene, propane, butane, natural gas. As the catalyst, palladium, iron, Nickel, cobalt.
The disadvantage of this method is the high energy consumption associated with the use of electric arc alternating current, high costs on the behavior of the method, due to the need for expensive catalysts (cobalt, Nickel, etc.).
The closest to the claimed method is presented in the patent RU 2489350 C2 "Method of producing carbon nanomaterials and device for its implementation", IPC C01B 31/02, B82B 3/00, B82Y 40/00, publ. 10.08.2013. Bulletin No. 22. By this method the carbon-containing material vapor in the bulk thermal plasma and condensed on the outer surface of the anode and the inner cathode surface. Using glow discharge plasma. This glow discharge is set by applying an electrical voltage sufficient to breakdown of the interelectrode gap in the field formed by the anode, disposed in the cavity of the hollow cathode coaxially, and the walls of the hollow cathode. The anode is located in the cavity of the hollow cathode is movable along the axis in order to establish the distance required for the occurrence of breakdown, as well as to establish a desired distribution of electric�about potential field, current density and charge in the discharge gap, and the hollow cathode has a shape with a permeable bottom, ensuring that the flow through it of carbonaceous materials. Used carbonaceous materials may be in gaseous or liquid state, as hydrocarbons can serve as gaseous (methane, propane, butane, etc.) and liquid (oil, fuel oil, gasoil, etc.) hydrocarbons. The surface, which accumulates the produced carbon nanomaterial, represents the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the cathode cavity. The disadvantages of this invention are:
- the design complexity associated with the location of the anode to the cathode, and applying an additional device for moving it along the axis;
- the need for recirculation of unreacted gases to increase the degree of their transformation, which complicates the practical implementation of this method, since the inlet opening is in the bottom of the cathode;
as a plasma source applied glow discharge with significant thermal nonequilibrium. This leads to difficulties in ensuring the reproducibility of the properties of carbon nanomaterials;
- method of obtaining is not continuous and productive, since the formation of the product occurs in the volume� cathode with a diameter of 60 mm and a height of 100 mm and graphite anode with a diameter of 5 mm.
The objective of the claimed invention is to provide a method for the continuous production of graphene, which allows to achieve the technical result consists in reducing the energy intensity of the process, the expansion of the types of carbonaceous materials, simplifying the design of the device and ensure the continuity of the process and its high performance.
The task is achieved by the decomposition of gaseous carbon-containing material from the group consisting of methane, propane, butane in plasma, and its condensation on the surface, the method is characterized in that the plasma used bulk thermal plasma generated by the plasma torch with a coaxially arranged electrodes, wherein the hollow output electrode - anode has the shape of a nozzle, the cathode is in the form of a rod, a carbonaceous material is fed to a plasma-forming gas into the reaction zone through a vortex chamber to stabilize the arc gas flow, and the surface use the inner surface of the collector, the bottom of which is made with a hole for passage of gas flow, and the target surface is mounted perpendicular to this flow. The cathode, anode and the collector is cooled by water. As the plasma gas used is one of the gases: helium, argon, nitrogen or a mixture thereof. When using this method:
- the consumption of coal�roasteries materials the plasma gas and the power of plasma torch are regulated independent of each other;
can operate in the pressure range from 200 to 760 Torr;
- changing the pressure and speed of the plasma jet, it is possible within wide limits to vary the cooling rate of the resulting condensate;
- continuous synthesis is limited by the resource of the cathode of the plasma torch that can reach up to 50 hours for used designs of copper cathode with a tungsten insert.
In Fig. 1 is a diagram of a method for the continuous production of graphene.
A method of producing graphene can be implemented as follows: turn on the cooling water 1 and the working gas flowing in the channel of the vortex chamber 2 to enter the working gas. Next, a voltage is applied to the plasma torch 3 between the cathode 4 and anode 5 and one of the known methods arc is ignited between them. The distance between the electrodes continuously and is 6 mm. After stabilization of temperature in water cooling systems introduces a swirling flow of plasma gas with a carbonaceous material 6.
Consumption of carbon black with catalyst is 0.2-1 g/min plasma gas is helium or argon at pressures 350-710 Torr and with variation of flow rate from 0.5 to 1 g/ sec. In fact, the time of synthesis is determined by the capacity of the cylinder gases. �Raheny collect on the inner surface of the manifold 7 with a hole 8 and the surface of the metal target 9 after cooling the reactor to room temperature.
Analysis of the synthesized graphene obtained at a metal target, was carried out using simultaneous thermal analysis and electron microscopy.
Example 1. After temperature stabilization in the reactor tangentially injected with helium propane butane helium at a pressure of 710 Torr and a flow rate of 0.5 g/h, the arc current 400A, voltage of 70 V. the Flow rate of the mixture gas was 30 g/min. the machine is running 20 minutes On the surface of a collector formed soot with a low content of graphene. On target - graphenes in the form of defective roses. Output - 8 wt.%.
Example 2. Evaporation of the mixture of propane / butane at a flow rate of 30 g/min, at a pressure of argon of 500 Torr, the flow rate of 3.5 g/h, the current arc 350A and voltage 23 To gives the formation of layered graphene on target and the collector. On target advanced forms of amorphous carbon. Output - 50 wt.%
Example 3. By reducing the pressure to TIR, a current of 400 A, the voltage of 35 V and the flow rate of the mixture of propane, butane 25 g/min graphenes synthesized on the target and collector. Output - 95 wt.% (Fig. 2).
Example 4. The reduction of methane feed rate and pressure Not to 13.2 g/min and 300 Torr increased the yield of graphene up to 600 nm with a constant geometry to 90 wt.%.
Thus, it is possible to work continuously with high productivity in a wide range of pressures the inventive method has the advantages�society.
A method for the continuous production of graphene, including the decomposition of gaseous carbon-containing material from the group consisting of methane, propane, butane in plasma, and its condensation on the surface, characterized in that the plasma used bulk thermal plasma generated by the plasma torch with a coaxially arranged electrodes, wherein the hollow output electrode - anode has the shape of a nozzle, the cathode is in the form of a rod, a carbonaceous material is fed to a plasma-forming gas into the reaction zone through the vortex chamber, and the surface use the inner surface of the manifold, the bottom of which is made with a hole for passage of gas flow, and the target surface is mounted perpendicular to this flow.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to nanotechnology and may be used to manufacture catalysts and sorbents. Graphene pumice contains graphenes arranged in parallel at distances of more than 0.335 nm, and amorphous carbon as a binder at their edges, with the graphene-binder ratio from 1:0.1 to 1:1 by mass. The specific area of the surface is more than 1000 m2/g. The absolute hardness is 1 unit by the Mohs scale and less, specific density is 0.008-0.3 g/cm3 for solids, loose specific density of 0.005-0.25 g/cm3 for granules. The composition is produced by burning of a homogeneous powder mix of graphite oxide, unstable organic material and organic and inorganic metal salts with the moisture of all components of 10-15% in a heat-resistant open or tight mould. The source material for the binder is represented by chemical compounds capable of being in a liquid state up to 180°C, not soaking the graphite/graphene surface and damaged at a temperature of not more than 800°C. Graphene pumice is activated by restoration in hydrogen at 400-450°C and pressure of 0.05-0.11 MPa for 10-30 min or in methane at 800-950°C for at least 1 hour at atmospheric pressure with subsequent cooling.
EFFECT: produced sorbents make it possible to multiply increase the capacity of reservoirs for the storage and transportation of natural gas.
15 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: graphite-containing component is mixed with a kaolin-based filling agent, dry mixing with simultaneous dispersion successively in a drum and centrifugal mixers is carried out. After that, a magnetised water solution of an alumoborophosphate concentrate, containing a surface-active substance, is introduced, and a wet batch in a screw mixer is carried out. After that, the obtained mass is processed in a tribochemical disperser under conditions of vacuuming and all-around compression to a pressure of 5-20 MPa. The tribochemical disperser includes a hermetic hollow cylindrical case 40, which has flanges 41 and 42 on butt ends, a permeable piston 44 with a rod 45, a drive 46 of reciprocating movement, means for the cavity vacuuming 43, two vacuum gate valves 471 and 472. The piston 44 represents a packet of adjoining each other pairs of metal nets which have the different cell size, located between two protective grids 445. The products are moulded from processed mass with their further thermal processing.
EFFECT: reproducibility of specific electric resistance in the products is provided, with the nanocomposite mass acquiring isotropic properties and ductility.
20 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: first, particles of thermally expanded graphite are obtained by heating particles of hydrolysed graphite nitrate with specific melt energy equal or higher than 4.7 kJ/g in the atmosphere of products of combustion of liquid or gaseous fuel in air with the coefficient of air excess counted per fuel λ=0.8-1.1. Obtained thermally expanded graphite is compacted to the seeming density from 0.03 to 0.1 g/cm3 by rolling or uniaxial pressing. After that, the material is cut into measured blanks. At least, two measured blanks are subjected to joint compression with obtaining a monolith material. The finished low-density material is made in the form of long-measuring product up to 1500 mm wide.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain the low-density heat-conducting material, possessing high bending strength and elasticity modulus and characterised by the absence of acidic corrosion-active additives.
10 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for producing thermally expanded graphite includes a feeding device 1, a circular waveguide 6, a storage hopper 19, a device for feeding blow-down carbon dioxide gas or air, magnetron generators, a belt conveyor with lower 2 and upper 3 belts formers 4 and 5. The circular waveguide 6 is provided with gas valves 15, longitudinal slits 14, communication windows 11 with insulating quartz inserts 12, insulating quartz rings 7 and 16 and is divided into sections having horn radiators 9 and 10. A layer of oxidised graphite undergoes microwave treatment for 0.1-0.5 s with power which provides temperature of 1500-1800°C, which is then lowered to provide temperature of 500-1000°C for 3-10 s.
EFFECT: high chemical purity and specific surface area and low packed density of thermally expanded graphite.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and is intended for use in creation of modern thin-film semiconductor devices and structures of nanoelectronics. In the method of production of fluorographene layer the layer of desired thickness is separated from the volume graphite and is placed on the substrate. Then a fluorination operation is carried out using hydrofluoric acid under conditions enabling to obtain fluorographene layers with thickness up to 10-15 nm. At that the silicon substrate is used. On its working surface a silicon oxide layer can previously be grown. Fluorination is carried out in the aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid with the content of 3-7% HF with the treatment duration up to 30 minutes, but not less than tcr, where the conductivity of fluorinated layers is changed. At that, when fluorination the temperatures up to 60°C are used.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of fluorographene layers is achieved, reduction of defectiveness, reduction of duration of the process, increase in ecological compatibility.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to electronic graphene device. Flexible and stretchable translucent electronic device contains the first graphene electrode, the second graphene electrode, graphene semiconductor and control graphene electrode located between the first and second graphene electrodes and being in contact with graphene semiconductor. Each of the above electrodes has porous graphene layer with a number of pores, at that each of the above electrodes has porous graphene layer and power supply source. Graphene semiconductor, the first and second graphene electrodes are configured so that current from power supply source between the first location at the first graphene electrode and the second location at the second graphene electrode sets difference of potentials between the first and second locations and this difference of potentials remains permanent when the first or second location changes.
EFFECT: improving charge-carrier mobility, ensuring ballistic transport, increasing current density and specific conductivity and possibility to control electric performance of the device.
15 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed is carbon-containing material, obtained by pyrolysis of xarogel from hydrophilic polymer of polyhydroxybenzol/formaldehyde type and nitrogen-containing latex. Polymer and latex are co-crosslinked. Material represents carbon monolith, containing from 0.1 to 20% of graphite by weight of total material weight. Material contains system of pores, at least, 10% of which are mesopores, with pore volume constituting from 0.4 to 1 cm3/g. Material is characterised by presence of, at least, 3 successive characteristic peaks in the spectrum of X-ray diffraction. Claimed are: method of material obtaining and gel for its obtaining. Claimed material is used for production of electrodes and as filling agent in production of electric current-conducting components.
EFFECT: obtaining material with controlled porosity and reduction of material resistivity.
14 cl, 2 dwg, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in making high-heat areas of structures subjected to aggressive oxidative media. A graphite workpiece is subjected to vacuum embedding with high-temperature coal-tar pitch at temperature higher than the melting point of the pitch. Simultaneous saturation and carbonisation is then carried out at pressure of (80-105) MPa at temperature (700-750)°C, while maintaining said pressure and temperature for at least 4 hours and high-temperature vacuum treatment is carried out while maintaining temperature of (2100-2300)°C for at least half an hour.
EFFECT: high density and strength of the obtained material while still enabling the manufacture of large components from said material.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronics and nanotechnology and cab be used in production of composite containing laminar graphite- and molybdenum sulphide-based materials. TEG or oxidised graphite and thiomolybdate are used as initial compounds. Note here that thiomolybdate is decomposed in the mix with TEG or oxidised graphite at heating or subjected to decomposition in solution with acid medium. Formed product containing TEG or oxidised graphite and precursor of molybdenum sulphide are flushed and heated in vacuum to 350-1000°C to obtain composite including molybdenum sulphide on graphite layers pile of composition MoxSy, where x=1-3, y=2-4. Note also that TEG or oxidised graphite are pre-dispersed while molybdenum precursor represents molybdenum tri-sulphide.
EFFECT: possibility to vary size, morphology and phase composition of nanoparticles on graphite surface.
4 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for electrode industry. Carbon products are laid between current leads with formation of electric circuit. Electric connection between current leads and carbon products is realised by means of graphite bridges. Power mechanism for compression of carbon products by technological effort, directed longitudinally with respect to their axes, is interacted with back current leads. Upper and lower graphite bridges are rigidly connected both to each other and to current leads with detachable connection via graphite plates, installed with their bases into slots of upper and lower bridges. Carbon products are heated to temperature of graphitisation by transmitting electric current through them. Device for graphitisation of carbon products contains electric resistance furnace, located in it graphitisation chambers, which include oppositely located current-conducting modules, consisting of graphite bridges with current leads movably installed between them, and a couple of frontal current leads, connected with electric energy source. Device is also provided with guides for oriented laying of modules on them and slots for current leads, made in each module from the side of butt ends of upper and lower bridges.
EFFECT: increased reliability of device operation, increased service term of bridges and inter-repair cycle, simplified preparation of furnace to work.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining a composite material includes the influence on a mixture of a carbon-containing material, filler and sulphur-containing compound by a pressure of 0.1-20 GPa and a temperature of 600-2000°C. As the sulphur-containing compound applied is carbon bisulphide, a compound from the mercaptan group or a product of its interaction with elementary sulphur. As the carbon-containing material applied is molecular fullerene C60 or fullerene-containing soot. As the filler applied are carbon fibres, or diamond, or nitrides, or carbides, or borides, or oxides in the quantity from 1 to 99 wt % of the weight of the carbon-containing material.
EFFECT: obtained composite material can be applied for manufacturing products with the characteristic size of 1-100 cm and is characterised by high strength, low density, solidity not less than 10 GPa and high heat resistance in the air.
11 cl, 3 dwg, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inorganic chemistry, namely to obtaining silicon-carbide materials and products, and can be applied as thermal-protective, chemically and erosion resistant materials, used in creation of aviation and rocket technology, carriers with developed surface of heterogeneous catalysis catalysts, materials of chemical sensorics, filters for filtering flows of incandescent gases and melts, as well as in nuclear power industry technologies. To obtain nanostructures SiC ceramics solution of phenolformaldehyde resin with weight content of carbon from 5 to 40% with tetraethoxysilane with concentration from 1·10-3 to 2 mol/l and acidic catalyst of tetraethoxysilane hydrolysis id prepared in organic solvent; hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane is carried out at temperature 0÷95°C with hydrolysing solutions, containing water and/or organic solvent, with formation of gel. Obtained gel is dried at temperature 0÷250°C and pressure 1·10-4÷1 atm until mass change stops, after which carbonisation is realised at temperature from 400 to 1000°C for 0.5÷12 hours in inert atmosphere or under reduced pressure with formation of highly-disperse initial mixture SiO2-C, from which ceramics is moulded by spark plasma sintering at temperature from 1300 to 2200°C and pressure 3.5÷6 kN for from 3 to 120 min under conditions of dynamic vacuum or in inert medium. Excessive carbon is burned in air at temperature 350÷800°C.
EFFECT: obtaining nanostructured silicon-carbide porous ceramics without accessory phases.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: what is presented is a method for preparing submicron biphasic tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite ceramics involving synthesis of single-phase powder of calcium salts and ammonium hydrophosphate, disaggregation, moulding and annealing. According to the invention, the calcium salt is presented by calcium acetate in the form of an aqueous solution of the concentration of 1M - 2M in Ca/P ratio applicable for initial salts and falling within the range of 1.5-1.6. The synthesis procedure involves single-step pouring of an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrophosphate to the aqueous solution of calcium acetate and mixing of the above solutions for 10-20 minutes, and separating the precipitate. The products are annealed at a temperature falling within the range of 1,050-1,150°C and kept at the above temperature for 0.5-1.5 hours. The produced ceramics contains β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite with a grain size of 400-600 nm.
EFFECT: preparing the submicron biphasic ceramics having a uniform microsctructure.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forming a digital imaginary image of the surface of a nano-object in a scanning tunnelling microscope. An imaginary image of a nano-object is its topography, which is different from the true topography, but retains distinctive features. A method of forming an imaginary image of the surface of a nano-object in a scanning tunnelling microscope includes scanning the surface of the analysed substance with a metal needle in direct current mode, for which, at each scanning point, the needle is moved vertically relative to the analysed surface such that tunnelling current at each scanning point is equal to the tunnelling current at the first scanning point. Data on the microstructure of the surface of the analysed substance are obtained by recording movement of the needle. A plane, which is parallel to the surface of the substrate, which is higher than the initial roughness of the substrate but lower than the transverse radius of the nano-object, is subtracted from the experimental topography of the surface with nano-objects on the substrate. The obtained image of the nano-object is scaled by multiplying with a coefficient greater than one.
EFFECT: high selective resolution and efficiency of scanning tunnelling microscopy of nano-objects, for example, polymer molecules, enabling use of the method to determine the fragmentary sequence thereof.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device is used to determine spectrum of size of suspended particles in gases, comprising the following components installed along the analysed gas flow: an inlet nozzle with supply channels; diffusion batteries of meshed type for passage of aerosol particles of certain size; an aggregating device of condenser growth; a counting volume; a vacuum pump; temperature sensors, a heater, a cooler and a microcontroller for control of heating and cooling processes in the aggregating device of condenser growth; an optical system comprising a pulse source of radiation, a lighter and lenses for focusing of optical radiation in the field of counting volume of particle flow and generation of images on a CCD array; an analogue-digital converter and a PC for control of the microcontroller of thermostatting, the vacuum pump and processing of six images of aggregated particles for analysis of the spectrum of their size. The device makes it possible to process simultaneously six images of aggregated particles on a PC, which characterise various size ranges of nanoparticles.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce time of measurements and to increase their accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to pharmaceutical engineering, and concerns a method for the quantitative estimation of chemically combined organic substances, first of all, biologically active and medical substances with a nanodiamond surface in its conjugate. The method is based on using the method for the qualitative IR-spectroscopy of the conjugate and model mixtures of the organic substance with the nanodiamond to be detected. IR-spectrum signal intensity/amount of the model mixture organic substance calibration curves are constructed to determine its content in the conjugate.
EFFECT: improving the method.
3 tbl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutics and represents a suspension for treating psoriasis, containing calcipotriol monohydrate in the form of nanocrystals having the particle size distribution within the range of 200-600 nm; the particles are dispersed in an aqueous phase containing a non-ionic polymer surfactant specified in a group consisting of a surfactant in the form of poloxamers or polysorbates, in the amount of 0.01-5 wt % calculated using a suspension for preventing development of aggregation and/or calcipotriol monohydrate nanocrystal growth; the calcipotriol monohydrate nanocrystals are produced in the suspension by processing the suspension by a method involving the stages of reduction in crystalline calcipotriol monohydrate particle size in an aqueous phase to form microparticles having the particle size distribution within the approximate range of 5-20 mcm and the average approximate particle size of 10 mcm; the suspension is exposed to three high-pressure homogenisation cycles for 7-15 minutes each; in the first, second and third cycles, the pressure makes 300-800 bars, 800-1,200 bars and 1,200-1,700 bars respectively.
EFFECT: invention provides creating the local composition containing calcipotriol as an active agent, however being free from propylene glycol as a solvent.
34 cl, 8 ex, 5 tbl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electrochemical installation intended to shape nanosized coating and may be used in semiconductor and electronics industry. The installation contains a computer, a controller and manipulator 1 mounted at the rack 2 rotatable around vertical axis and equipped with holder 3 for a processed sample 4. Around the manipulator 1 rack there are electrochemical cells 5 with electrodes connected to one pole of current source. The sample 4 submerged to electrochemical cells is connected to the other pole of current source. Holder 3 is installed so that it can be moved in regard to manipulator 1, and at that sample 4 in downwardmost position of holder 3 is placed in one of electrochemical cells. One of electrochemical cells is made as measuring cell 7 to control parameters of the processed sample 4. The installation is equipped with tube-type furnace 8 intended for thermal processing of the sample.
EFFECT: potential determining and setting of the required parameters for obtained nanomaterial against absolute value and conditions of their change.
SUBSTANCE: proposed shutter comprises locally smelting or evaporating mirror metal film located in focal area of the lens and secured by translucent substrate. On radiation side said substrate includes also the ply of translucent liquid of solid sol with nanoparticles in size smaller than radiation wavelength. Mirror film is arranged on said substrate on radiation side or opposite side.
EFFECT: lower threshold of shutter operation.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treating the surface of crystalline silicon by electrochemical etching in hydrofluoric acid solution with concentration of 20-30% while supplying current with surface density of 750-1000 mA/cm2 for 5-30 s to obtain hydrophobic silicon or supplying current with surface density of not more than 650 mA/cm2 for 5-30 s to obtain hydrophilic silicon.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain a surface with multimodal nano- or microporosity in a single step.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to synthesis of diamond nanoparticles, which can be used in various fields of technology. Claimed method of synthesis of ultradispersed diamonds includes generation of carbon plasma from carbon-containing substance and its condensation with cooling liquid under conditions of cavitation. As plasma-generating substance any hydrocarbon gas or organic carbon-containing liquid, including one which additionally contains substances, containing heteroatoms, as well as dispersions of carbon particles of non-diamond allotropic shape in organic fluids or water, can be used. Flow of liquid inside flow cavitation apparatus, providing additional cavitation impact on cooling liquid, is used as cooling liquid.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase energy efficiency of realised synthesis of nanodiamonds and provides possibility of managing properties of synthesised nanodiamonds.
3 dwg, 1 tbl