Method of irrigation when ploughing on sod-podzol sandy loam soils of central non-black earth area
SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing, application into soil of water or liquid fertilizer, after harvesting the crop the field is prepared - decontaminated, neutralized and dehydrated sludge residue is scattered across the field, obtained during biological purification on the complex of livestock wastes, then before ploughing on the irrigated field soil disking is carried out to the depth of 5 cm, the passage is made in two directions, longitudinal and transverse, and ploughing is carried out not on the slope of the field, but perpendicular to the horizontals in direction of the slope, followed by application into the soil of liquid effluent across the width of the arable field with the sprinkler unit with the sprinklers equipped with the closed pipelines to transport the said effluent from the storage pond, after application of the liquid effluent and drying the sludge remaining after application of liquid effluent in the ploughed field, soil disking or cultivating is carried out, its smoothing and compacting is carried out with smooth water-filled rollers. The effluent through the ploughing and depth of the soil enters the drainage pipes, which communicate with the open collector.
EFFECT: increase in soil fertility.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The technical field TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES
The invention relates to agricultural land reclamation drainage-mist systems, water conservation activities, at the introduction of sewage and livestock waste.
The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY
Known method of irrigation when plowing and device for its implementation, including the formation of the furrow tillage body, the flow of water or liquid fertilizer and the subsequent closing of the furrow with soil, in which, in order to improve the performance and uniformity of liquid distribution in the soil, before closing the furrow, the soil, plowed under the previous passage, lift on the plow sole, which serves the water, displacing it from adjacent furrows (inventor's certificate SU # 1752280, CL A01G 25/00, from 07.08.1992).
The disadvantages of this method are the large energy consumption, uneven distribution of livestock waste and low technological reliability of a process of irrigation. In addition, when plowing each band, and the formation of the cavity, which directs the fluid from the furrow plow, requires sophisticated irrigation technologies and practical implementation of this technology decreases the work efficiency. Especially it should be noted that this technology does not take advantage of making a railway�fotovoltaica runoff for soils with shallow groundwater (1-3 m). The permeability fields for irrigation when plowing depends on how they make plowing, for example, across contours or along them in compliance with the relevant processing technology cultivated field mechanisms for enabling and unambiguous conditions for the development of culture around the field.
Known method of liquid fertilizer simultaneously with the plowing of the soil, including the formation of the furrow when plowing, fertilizing and closing of the furrow (Patent RU № 2080042, CL. AS 21/00, 23/00, AV 49/06 from 27.05.1997).
The technical disadvantage of this method: the inability and lack of depth make a volatile liquid components; the inability of making granular components - if necessary, the distribution component at different depths, the uncertainty of quality indicators fertilizers; higher costs for the implementation of the method. In addition, this method of liquid fertilizer on the field is carried out by sophisticated technology for multi-layered method that does not account for sod-podzolic sandy soils of the Central Chernozem region with shallow groundwater. The distribution at the same time the spreading of liquid and dry fertilizer, it is difficult in practical application, as wheeled machinery of making large ruts in the field, sinking and breaks the top of plodorodne�th layer of soil. Sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of Chernozem region for arable layer in most cases is 20 cm, it is in this layer it is necessary to make fertilizer, to its processing and better structurewhat, it is richer in humus than the underlying layers, must all be taken into account especially in drainage-humidifier systems with shallow groundwater table.
Known irrigation methods (inventor's certificate SU # 829049, CL A01G 25/00 from 15.08.1981; SU # 1576047, CL A01G 25/00 from 07.07.1990; SU # 1746947, CL A01G 25/00 from 15.07.1992).
The disadvantages of these methods are the inability and lack of depth make a volatile liquid components; the inability of making granular components - if necessary, the distribution component at different depths, the uncertainty of quality indicators for sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of Chernozem region, especially in those cases where there are areas with high groundwater levels on drying-moistening the land.
Also known method of irrigation when plowing, comprising the formation of the furrow tillage body, the flow of water or liquid fertilizer and the subsequent closing of the furrow in the soil before plowing on irrigated field carried deep loosening at the depth of 0.4-0.6 m increments between zones of loosening in the range of 1.1-1.4 m, with the direction of movement when loosening you�anaut angle of 15-45° to the subsequent directions in the formation of the furrow tillage body and the flow of water or liquid fertilizer is carried out by means of flooding or when the motion of the mobile unit is provided with a container for the transportation of the mentioned fluids and their distribution (Patent RU № 2246205, CL A01G 25/00 dated 20.02.2005).
The disadvantage of this method of irrigation are: the complexity of the implementation technologies of processing of soil for the preparation of irrigation. Especially this irrigation technology does not foresee the difficulties of applying it on the surface of the earth with the complex topography of the irrigated field. The permeability of the field depends on the method of irrigation, for example, when plowing across the entire field contours or along them, subject to the appropriate processing technology cultivated field mechanisms, including disking, cultivation, compaction, improves water-air regime of the soil and creates the most favourable and unique conditions for the development of culture around the field, which cannot be attained in a known manner.
For sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of the non-black earth topsoil in most cases is 20 cm, it is in this layer are made of fertilizer, it is processed and better structure, richer in humus than the underlying layers. In addition, it is necessary to consider drainage-moisten lands with shallow groundwater, and to obtain high yields it is important that all supplied� liquid fertilizer remained in the topsoil evenly over the area in calculated layer of moisture and watering is carried out without dumping to protect environmental situation, and the lack of penetration into groundwater, and eventually into rivers, streams, lakes, causing there is a rapid growth of aquatic vegetation, microorganisms, algae blooms, as only 40...60% insertion of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus fertilizers are absorbed by plants, the remainder is fixed in the soil in unavailable for plant nutrition of their connections, i.e. to keep a long time in the soil the basic nutrients for plants and thus increase crop yields, solving the problem of the drainage system for collection of diverted excess water in the open reservoir and the collection of such waters in the basins of the tanks and their subsequent use for irrigation or when reaching a certain concentration, not to exceed the MCL, the reset is carried out in a spring flood in the spring, when there is an intensive melting of snow within 1-...15 days, depending on the accumulated volume of the sump).
The essence of the CLAIMED INVENTION
The claimed invention aims at solving the following problem: an effective and cheap method of irrigation when plowing on drainage of the mist system in drained soils and increase productivity.
The technical result: improvement of soil fertility, productivity and sustainability of cultivation of agricultural crops on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with og�aniconic material, labor and energy costs.
Said technical result is achieved in that the method of irrigation when plowing sod-podzolic sandy soils of the Central Chernozem region, including plowing, soil water or liquid fertilizer after harvesting crops training field - throw on the field decontaminated, detoxified and obesigenic sludge in biological treatment on the complex of pig effluent, then before plowing carried out on irrigated field disking of the soil to a depth of 5 cm with a do pass in two directions, longitudinal and transverse, and the ploughing is carried out according to the slope of the field, and perpendicular to the contour to the slope direction, with subsequent distribution and spreading of liquid flow in motion sprinkler Assembly with sprinklers width arable fields and is equipped with closed pipelines mentioned effluent from the storage pond, in addition, after making the liquid flow and drying of the sludge remaining in making liquid water in a plowed field, carry out loosening the soil by disking or tillage, spend it leveling and compacting smooth water-filled rollers.
In addition, filtering the runoff through the tillage, and the soil thickness enters drains�l pipe, which are connected to open collector-gatherer.
After aeration, the liquid mixture in the form of liquid manure (97% humidity) with small suspended particles through the discharge pipe under pressure is supplied initially in the pond (capacity drives) pig effluent throughout the year, runoff upheld only in the winter, there also occurs an unpleasant smell (in the form of methane), then gravity comes in the discharge piping to the side Staropramen the camera to the pumping station. Pumping station with a given design takes the pressure of the effluent in irrigation machines with sprayer drains through the conveying and irrigation pipes to the hydrants for irrigation disposal field (ISP). Supply the total volume of effluent for irrigation includes the following chemical compounds: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc., with liquid manure come in arable soil. This irrigation is used for sowing of perennial grasses and other crops according to agronomic requirements made of organic compound fertilizers with the safety regulations of the environmental situation around ISP.
After making the liquid flow and drying of the sludge remaining in making liquid water in a plowed field, it again performed loosening the soil by disking �whether the cultivation of the soil, spend it leveling and compacting smooth water-filled rollers.
Filtering the runoff through the tillage, and the soil thickness enters the drainage pipes, which are connected to open collector-gatherer or then given to the capacity of the drive, is hosted on the ISP by gravity, or mobile pumping station (RS).
The new proposed method of irrigation when plowing has no mandatory directions loosening angled for cultivating machines: disking, cultivating, levelling and reconsolidation, as plowing depends mainly on the relief field conditions (slope, etc.) with the unit of distribution pipelines, irrigation and drainage. When plowing formed in the ridges (dumps) and deepening connected with the plow units, they become cladding strips to arrest liquid flow generated from sprinkler irrigation units with diffusers, which do not require special time-consuming methods of technology for deep loosening, determine the design value of the step between the zones of loosening, which is accompanied by softening and collapse of the soil. In the end, the plowing is performed across the contours (slope) field, and bring it after application of pig effluent to readiness, repeated disking, or cultivation, levelling and reconsolidation. This action� accompanied by destruction of the so-called "peel" from deposited on top of sludge, isolated from liquid runoff when watering and drying of the plowed field. In this case, will be coming out the excess methane that is always present in swine wastewater, and especially it accumulates in ponds filled with pig farm during the year, with a pungent odour.
The remaining organic matter and soil clods in a ploughed field shuffled between penetrating into the upper layer of soil, which for sod-podzolic sandy loam soils themselves, the topsoil in most cases is 20 cm, it is in this layer and is required to make fertilizer, it becomes richer in humus than the underlying layers.
BRIEF description of the DRAWINGS
The drawing shows a diagram for carrying out irrigation on drainage-humidifier system.
The scheme of realization of the method of irrigation when plowing includes: workshop separate solids 1, concrete pad 2, vertical clarifiers 3, 4 aeration tanks, secondary sedimentation tanks 5, costantina the container 6, sludge beds 7, the discharge pipe 8, the pond liquid fraction of swinstall 9, Staropramen chamber 10, is placed in front of the pump station 11, providing the intake and effluent flow in closed main pipeline 12 with a valve 13, a distribution pipe 14 with 15 hydrants for connection to a sprinkler Assembly (design its application can�t be different) with sprinklers and with the issuance of wastewater design flows (of water) in a plowed field. To collect drainage flow, for example water, has a closed open collector-collector with a capacity of 16 storage 17.
DETAILED description of the INVENTION
Method of irrigation when plowing sod-podzolic sandy soils includes the following operations:
- surplus activated sludge in biological treatment on an animal farm, is formed in the aeration tank, which is fed to a concrete pad 2, after passing it through a sieve and drain the liquid fraction in the conduit 8 with ponds 9 liquid fraction;
- drying within 6 months of sludge loaded with piles to a moisture content of 40...60%, which improves the environmental situation due to the complete cessation of discharge into the atmosphere of gases with a pungent odor, sediment which control the possibility of the absence of pathogenic microorganisms;
- the content of nutrients of the solid sludge is organic fertilizer, its export of machine-tractor transport box, and dropped after harvesting the crops, a field which accounts for plowing;
after dispersion of the solid sludge on the field to spend plowing disking the soil in shallow (5 cm), hoeing;
- spend ploughing across the contour lines on the slope field (perpendicular to the bias field);
there is a fluid flow with complex piping and pipeline 8 into the pond 9, where are they gravity comes in Staropramen chamber 10, is placed in front of the pump station 11 for pumping piggery wastewater through the pipeline 12 to the inlet conduit 13 14 hydrants, next to the sprinkler unit in move, with sprinklers;
- monitor the performance of wastewater (liquid fertilizer) aimed at pumping station;
- disking, or cultivation of a plowed field is performed after irrigation water and drying fields with destruction, forming the so-called "peel", after deposition of fine fractions of manure;
- carry out levelling and compacting smooth water-filled rollers.
The rate of solid sludge and pig effluent - hearth sprinkler unit with sprinklers, installed in accordance with the results of a test for compliance with the requirements of SanPiN as sludge and pig effluent components on characterizing the biological treatment of pig farming (livestock) waste at the complex.
For soil purification of the liquid fraction effluent prepare irrigation disposal field (ISP). To prevent pollution of underground water improvement of water-air regime of soil, constructed subsurface drainage. The entire runoff of the drainage flow is diverted into an open manifold, then stored in a specially�better engineered containers drives, accepted fields. Drainage water produced in the spring flood period in the period of intensive snow melting in 10-15 days depending on the accumulated drainage water, which are controlled by the responsible authorities for the environmental situation. In unfavorable low-water years drainage flows in the summer time can be served on mist irrigation for cultivation of perennial grasses and other crops.
According to the certificate of compliance and test results for compliance with the requirements of SanPiN 220.127.116.110-96 on the pig farm CJSC pig "Vladimir" to determine environmentally safe area of recycling of the liquid fraction in the ponds after industrial treatment facilities should include indicators MAC: hydrogen index (PH) - 6,5...8,5.% mg/l; ammonia nitrogen - 0.39 mg/l; nitrate nitrogen is 9.1 mg/l; nitrite nitrogen - 0.02 mg/l; dry extract - 100 mg/l, a sulfite - 100 mg/l; chloride 300 mg/l; phosphorus - 0.2 mg/L.
Implementation of the specified technical task and the technical result provides the need for increased humus formation and soil fertility. Actually both components of fertilizer - solid fraction of sludge and the liquid fraction effluent - only in conjunction with plowing solves the technical problem and declamation to those�technical. This is facilitated by the periods of implementation of the method and introduction to the different depth of the components and ease of incorporation into the soil when plowing. Characteristic pungent smell (methane) vanishes, which contributes to the method of fertilizer application in the processing of organic matter, including organic matter in the sludge the sludge and liquid effluents at the depth of the plow layer. All these processes are interrelated and occur in the complex. As such a method of irrigation when plowing in sod-podzolic sandy loam soils are the operations specified above with the rate of solid sludge and liquid effluent, spend the last sprinkler units with sprinklers. Irrigation duration of a plowed field under irrigation pipelines is determined by the function of sprinklers connected to the sprinkler unit, and the sprinklers can have nozzles of different diameter, which will also maintain the uniformity of the distribution layer of precipitation runoff or water when plowing the soil. This method of irrigation used for the first time without cutting furrows on sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of Chernozem region.
Thus, given the terrain, plowing, tillage, fertilizer rate, the network diagram, sprinkler irrigation, techniques of water management in drainage of the mist system leads not only to eco�ohmiya and limit labor and energy costs, but environmental requirements to the quality of water discharged through drains into public sewers and watercourses defense. The proposed method extends the use of animal waste to improve soil fertility, i.e. high technical result is largely a consequence of interaction of components of complex organic origin fertilizers that are specifically made before and after plowing.
Ultimately, these processes before and after plowing the fields and watering when plowing the soil contribute to humus formation and soil fertility, and, consequently, crop yields. It should be emphasized that the described processes and neoplasms lead to compliance with science-based application rates of sludge solids and liquid fractions when plowing. Increases performance.
1. Method of irrigation when plowing sod-podzolic sandy soils of the Central Chernozem region, including plowing, soil water or liquid fertilizer, characterized in that after harvesting the crops training field - throw on the field decontaminated, detoxified and obesigenic sludge in biological treatment on the complex livestock waste, then before plowing on irrigated field conducting disk�their soil to a depth of 5 cm, when doing this, the pass in two directions, longitudinal and transverse, and the ploughing is carried out according to the slope of the field, and perpendicular to the contour to the slope direction with subsequent distribution and spreading of liquid flow in motion sprinkler Assembly with sprinklers width arable fields and is equipped with closed pipelines mentioned effluent from the storage pond, in addition, after making the liquid flow and drying of the sludge remaining in making liquid water in a plowed field, carry out disking, or cultivation of the soil, it undergoes levelling and compacting smooth water-filled rollers.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the filtering runoff through the tillage, and the soil thickness enters the drainage pipes, which are connected to open collector-gatherer.
SUBSTANCE: method of production of organic mineral fertiliser from sediments of urban wastewaters is reactant treatment of urban wastewater sediments followed by composting the mixture, and the reagent is used as the organic mineral composition containing calcium oxide and lowland peat in a weight ratio to the sediments of urban wastewater equal to (25-75):(2-3.5):10, respectively, the sediments of urban wastewaters: calcium oxide: lowland peat, and the treated sediments are composted for at least 7 days in air.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the potential hazard of environmental contamination with heavy metals during sediment storage, to obtain organic mineral fertiliser at lower cost, to involve the wastes into secondary use.
4 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: heating, drying.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to drying equipment. A drying method of paste-like materials, namely mud deposits of waste water cleaning stations involves two drying stages, in which the first drying stage is implemented by the first drying device (1) of an indirect type, fed with fluid medium being a heat carrier; this first stage ensures pre-dried mud deposits and water vapour obtained at outlet (1a, 1b); a formation stage of mud deposits at the outlet of the above said first drying device; the second drying stage implemented by the second drying device (7) for already pre-dried mud deposits, which are subject to heating by means of heating gas, namely hot air; with that, the same second drying stage ensures finally dried mud deposits obtained at outlet (7b). With that, pre-dried mud deposits supplied from the first drying device (1) are added to extruder (6) for mud deposits, which can shape cords from these mud deposits or the like shapes that enter the second drying device (7); dried mud deposits supplied from the second drying device (7) are subject to mechanical action (19) to provide them with a granular shape, and at least some part of the obtained granules is subject to combustion (23) to generate heat energy and at least some part of such energy is used for heating of fluid medium being the heat carrier in the first drying device.
EFFECT: invention shall ensure energy consumption reduction.
11 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of increasing the efficiency of action of deposits of urban sewage waters as organo-mineral fertiliser comprises semi-fusty cattle (cattle) manure, and for increasing the efficiency of action of deposits of urban sewage waters (DUSW) as organo-mineral fertiliser the semi-fusty cattle manure is added to DUSW at a ratio of 1:1 and is applied at the rate of: DUSW - 40 t/ha, cattle manure - 40 t/ha.
EFFECT: invention enables to enrich additionally the deposits of urban sewage waters with organic substances of natural origin, a wide range of macro- and microelements, beneficial microflora, which enables as a whole to increase the efficiency of DUSW as fertiliser.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the application of fertilizing - complex compost, comprising half-fire-fang BC manure, phosphogypsum and vegetative residue - straw wheat, wastes of animal feeding, vegetative residue of corn, sunflower and sugar beet taken in identical proportions. An interrelation of components in the compost is as follows (by mass %): phosphogypsum - 8-9, vegetative residue - 15-16, half-fire-fang BC manure - the rest. The components are previously stacked by layers and held 1.0-1.5 months. Then in the summer period within 2.0-3.5 months they are periodically mixed and humidified up to 35-40 % of humidity. Then in the autumn ammoniac saltpeter is brought at a rate of 190 kg/ha, and complex compost is brought in a dose 65-70 t/ha with consequent disking and spring sowing of sugar beet.
EFFECT: method allows to improve agronomical properties of soil, save its fertility and increase productivity of sugar beet and its sugar content.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes the application of fertilizing in the form of compost, consisting of organic and mineral components, pre-plant soil treatment and seeding. Meanwhile in the composition of the complex compost the organic components are half-fire-fang manure of the black cattle (BC), wheaten straw, wastes of animal feeding and grain treatment, sunflower peelings and raspings, and mineral components are phosphogypsum and leach, at the following interrelation of components (by mass %): phosphogypsum - 6-7, leach - 1-2, wheaten straw - 2-3, wastes of animal feeding - 2-3, wastes of grain treatment - 2-3, sunflower peelings - 2-3, raspings - 2-3, half-fire-fang manure of BC - rest, which are composted from the middle of April during 5 months, with monthly mixing by to ensure the aeration of composted heap until maturing. Then the obtained compost is brought into the soil in middle of September in a dose 70 t/ha with aftertreatment of soil to the depth 15-18 cm and sowing of winter wheat in the second decade of October.
EFFECT: method allows to improve environment performance at the expense of decrease of NO3 infiltration, N2 denitrification, improve soil properties, fertility, productivity of agricultural crop at continuation of the operation and aftereffect of the complex compost within 5 years, rational use of wastes of industry and agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the application of fertilizing before the main soil treatment. For the main fertilizing the complex compost is used, consisting of half-fire-fang manure of the black cattle, phosphogypsum, straw, wastes of animal feeding, wastes of grain after its final purification, post-harvest vegetative residues of sunflower and sugar beet, sediments of waste water and poultry dung at the following interrelation of components (by mass %): phosphogypsum - 7-8, straw - 2-3, wastes of animal feeding - 2-3, wastes of grain final purification - 2-3, vegetative residue of sunflower and sugar beet - 3-4, sediments of waste water - 6-7, poultry dung - 3-4, half-fire-fang manure of the black cattle - the rest, which are composted in a spring-summer-fall period within 4-5 months, mixing in middle of May a manure, straw, phosphogypsum, various types of wastes of animals feeding and grain after its final purification, sediments of waste water and poultry dung with adding of the vegetative residue of sunflower in August - September and sugar beet in the beginning of September, with its mixing each month - month and a half up to maturing. Then the obtained complex compost is brought into the soil in the second half of October in a dose 65-70 t/ha with its consequent embedding down to the depth 15-18 cm , and in spring the grain corn is seeded.
EFFECT: method allows to improve efficiency of cultivation of grain corn, to improve environment performance at the expense of recycling of domestic wastes, industrial and agricultural wastes, and also to improve for 4-5 years agronomical properties of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method of improvement of fertility of soil for tree and grass cultures includes extraction of silt from places of its formation, after production of silt it is treated to remove excess moisture content, and then placed into containers for consequent transportation, before planting of woody plants or grass cultures in soil a trench is made and there the layers of extracted silt and removed soil are laid sequentially, after that tree or grass cultures are planted. A trench along the future planting of tree or grass cultures is formed down to the lower level of fertile soil, and sequential backfilling of layers of extracted silt and removed soil is performed after the beginning of forming of the trench. Then between trenches before the future planting of tree or grass cultures an additional trench is formed and there the sand is backfilled, then several parallel sequences of troughs are stacked, above which at a capillary clearance a sequence of tightly connected plastic pipes with the lower long slots is placed, a beginning of plastic pipes and their end are connected to the pipeline for supply of irrigation water and to the pipeline for air removal from plastic pipes, then layers of silt and removed soil are backfilled sequentially, in additional trench in places of backfilling of silt and removed soil the holes are formed periodically, which are filled by water and injected by biological organisms for conversion of silt and improvement of soil fertility, after this procedure tree or grass cultures are planted.
EFFECT: improvement of soil fertility.
SUBSTANCE: method of improvement of fertility of soil for tree and grass cultures includes extraction of silt from places of its formation, after production of silt it is treated to remove excess moisture content and placed into containers for consequent transportation, before planting of woody plants or grass cultures in soil a trench is made and there the layers of extracted silt and removed soil are laid sequentially, tree or grass cultures are planted. A trench is formed between longitudinal rows of tree cultures down to the lower level of fertile soil, then the troughs are stacked in one or several parallel sequences, above which at a capillary clearance a sequence of tightly connected plastic tubes with the lower long slots are located. The beginning of plastic tubes and their end are connected to the pipeline for supply of irrigation water and pipeline for air removal from plastic tubes, then layers of extracted silt and removed soil are sequentially backfilled and in places of backfilling of silt and removed soil the holes are formed periodically, which are filled by water and injected by biological organisms for conversion of silt and improvement of soil fertility.
EFFECT: improvement of soil fertility.
SUBSTANCE: method of preparation compost from sewage sludge comprises mixing of fresh sewage sludge with the retention period of less than 3 years with the organic component, which is used as sawdust of any tree species, with the addition of bioactivator and subsequent aerobic composting of the resulting mixture, and prior to mixing the components the layering of sawdust with humidity of 30-40% and sewage sludge, which humidity is 79-81% is carried out, in a ratio of 3:1, at that the dust is subjected to bioactivation by spraying with the working solution of preparation EM-1 "Baikal" at a consumption rate of 5 liters per 1 t at its concentration in the working fluid of 0.0001%, in addition, the aerobic composting of the resulting mixture is carried out in storage pits, at that when the temperature of the composted mixture reaches 50-60°C the mixture is incubated for 20 days, after which the break-in of the storage pit is repeatedly carried out for 2 months with the intervals of 15-20 days, followed by aging of compost for 14-15 days.
EFFECT: invention enables to provide the low-cost environmentally friendly organic fertiliser, to resolve the problem of disposal of sewage sludge.
4 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: sludge with moisture content of 20-40%, which is fermented in natural conditions for at least three months, is mixed with a binder additive and mineral components, granulated at temperature of 45-95°C and the granules are then dried to moisture content of 8-16%. The binder additive - sodium humate - is used in amount of 2-3% of the dry mass of the sludge, and mineral components: nitrogen source - carbamide and potassium source - potassium chloride - are used in amount of 5-7% and 5-6% of the dry mass of the sludge, respectively.
EFFECT: obtained granules contain a balanced set of nutrients in an easy-to-assimilate form for a wide range of crops.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, namely the preparation of wastewaters in irrigated agriculture for irrigation and fertilising of plants. The biological stabilisation storage pond comprises a closed water intake water reservoir area in the form of a storage pond 1, having a water-supply tube 2 with the fed collector 21, and a water distribution device at the inlet of the discharge pipeline 4. The water distribution device has two concentrically arranged rings, the inner 5 of which is connected to the pipeline of the outlet, and the outer 6 - to the pipeline of inlet and is located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inlet opening of the ring 5 is provided with an air pipe 9 with a valve 10, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline 4, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. The source of pressurised air and gas emitted from the wastewaters is made in the form of a mixing chamber 11 with the mesh cloth 12 at the upper part, sequentially arranged on the discharge pipeline 4 below its input. The chamber 11 is connected by the tube 13 with the perforated tubes 14 located in the cavity of the inner ring 5. In the side walls of the inner rings 5 there are air-gas slotted openings 16. In order to regulate the conditions of discharge of the wastewaters into the pond and their removal from the side of the grid 8 at filling the pond 1 a shield 19 can be mounted with an inclination towards the bottom of the pond. The shield 19 can be mounted on a horizontal axis of rotation 20 and is connected by the rods with the drive of vertical movement. According to the second embodiment the storage pond comprises successive water reservoirs with inclined bottoms and water distribution devices. The water distribution devices are formed as two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected with the discharge pipeline and the outer - with the pipeline of feeding of flows, located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inner ring is provided with an air pipe with a vent, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. In the side walls of the inner ring there are air-gas outlet openings. The water distribution devices are connected on the discharge pipeline with the mixing chambers.
EFFECT: device improves the efficiency of protection of intake of wastewaters from entering floating debris and simultaneous contributes to decontamination when feeding wastewaters for irrigation The design of the device enables to mix the air due to the organisation of the process of air-gas connection and discharging it from the chamber, which is in the gaseous state.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to crop production. In the method tomato seedlings are grown with water irrigation. To obtain increase in early harvest the tomato seedlings are watered additionally with 0.23% aqueous solution of potassium nitrate KNO3.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain an increase in early harvest by storing the first inflorescences of tomato seedlings.
SUBSTANCE: for desalination of heavy saline lands, water is supplied to the desalinisation site, the slits 3 are cut, the irrigation pipes 6 with droppers 7 are placed along the central axis of the inter-slit bands, the inter-slit bands are covered with waterproof screens. Then the wash water is fed through the droppers 7, the soil with salt is moved from the walls of the slits 3 at their bottom after the termination of washing, and the slits 3 are poured. Before cutting the slits 3 the deep loosening 2 is carried out. The slits 3 are cut with a bias of the bottom towards the collector and matched with it. Along the central axis of the inter-slit bands the troughs 5 are formed by compacting, in which the pipes 6 with droppers 7 are placed. After moving to the bottom of the slits 3 of soil with salt they are poured first with gravel as the layer of 0.2-0.3 m, then with sand of the field surface. Then, the site surface is levelled and ploughing is carried out with the formation of the arable layer.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of desalination of heavy saline lands with minimal cost of water, diversion of excess precipitation with removal of salts beyond the desalinisation site.
SUBSTANCE: in the method the mechanical removal of the top grass layer of a lawn with the organic material to the sand is performed, 10% hydrogen peroxide solution is applied in the remaining substrate with the root system and the organic material by the 4-step sprinkler irrigation. And the first irrigation is carried out at the rate of 20 tons of hydrogen peroxide solution per 0.8 hectares. The mass of the organic material exfoliated on the surface is removed, then the next three irrigations are performed within two days, as the appearance of dark spots of organic material on sand, to obtain on the substrate surface of clean sand without the organic material. Two washing irrigations are carried out, and sand is poured for subsequent sowing seeds of sod-forming grasses in it.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the intensity and to reduce the time of formation of a strong root system of grass lawn cover, to reduce the recovery times of the lawns.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of the upper layer of the substrate of outdoor sports grounds with aqueous reagent solution. The reagent is used as 1% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. Treatment of the upper layer of the substrate of sports grounds with grass surface is carried out by sprinkler irrigation with the cycle of 5 irrigations a day in amount of 20 tons per one irrigation. After treatment with the reagent the organic mass exfoliated on the surface of outdoor sports grounds is removed, a break of two days is maintained in the treatment. Then the cycle of treatment of the grass surface is repeated also by sprinkler irrigation with 1% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and, if necessary, overseeding of seeds of sod-forming grasses is carried out to restore the grass surface of outdoor sports grounds.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the intensity and to reduce the time of formation of grass surface and to simplify the maintenance of grass surface.
SUBSTANCE: method includes perforating half of strips of a synthetic film; folding in two and using said strips to cover strips of the surface of an irrigated area; feeding irrigation water under the film; spreading ammonium nitrate on the perforated parts of the strips of the of the synthetic film; depositing binder on the layer of ammonium nitrate; folding the strips of the synthetic film in two; using said strips to cover the surface of the irrigated area and feeding irrigation water under the film.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of the method by feeding ammonium nitrate into the soil during irrigation.
SUBSTANCE: aqueous solution of polyacrylamide is added into a pore fluid. The drop flow of water is created, and then the rain drops are slowed down in the medium of the pore fluid. The pressure in the pore fluid is measured. The erosion hazard of rain is controlled by the m pressure level.
EFFECT: functional capabilities of erosion-preventive control of soil are extended.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparation of a field ditch and an irrigation furrow with opening the shoulder of the field ditch, into the shoulder of the field ditch a plastic bottle with the volume of 1.5-2 litres with a truncated bottom at the height of 3 cm is placed, the bottom is placed in the cut place of the bottle with the reverse side, the bottom serves as the means of water start and turning off the water flow into the irrigation furrow, and at low flow rates of water the start and turning off the water after finishing watering is carried out by the bottle lid.
EFFECT: simplification of the method and improvement of the quality of irrigation.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler plant with a sprinkler with irrigation along the quadrangle, containing a gearbox of the sprinkler and the sprinkler head vibrationally rotating around a horizontal axis of rotation. The sprinkler plant with irrigation along quadrangle is surrounded by mine housing limited from above with the surface of the lid. The sprinkler head is made with the ability of vertical motion relative to the mine housing between the lowered initial position and the raised working position. In the surface of the lid a cut-out is formed covered by the sprinkler head in its original position.
EFFECT: elimination of problem of partial opening or closing the rotating lid through the cut-out in the surface of the lid, reduction of destruction of the jet by the plant cover due to vertical raising the sprinkler head from the initial to the operating position above the surface of the lid.
17 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises an air chamber (1), a tight vessel (3), installed below the level of water surface of a water supply source, an additional tight vessel (8), an air pipeline (4), which connects the chamber (1) with the upper part of the vessel (3), two mixers-batchers, the first (5(I)) of which is installed on the water surface of the power supply source, and the second (5(II)) and the connected end of an injection pipeline (7) are placed in the vessel (3), and supply (6) and lifting (9) pipelines. The first mixer-batcher (5(I)) and the lower part of the vessel (3) are connected with the pipeline (6). The second mixer-batcher (5(II)) and the lower part of the vessel (8) are connected with the pipeline (7). The lower end of the lifting pipeline (9) is introduced into the vessel (8) with installation of the cut above the cut of the pipeline (7). The pipeline (7) is equipped with an upright section (10) placed above the vessel (8). The chamber (1) is a hollow stiff or air-supported (inflated) item with low air permeability. The objective of the invention is hidden watering of decorative plants to due suction of a flow of alternating portions of water and air of low density at night time into a vessel (3) embedded into water or earth, where water and air are separated, spending one part of the air arriving to the vessel (3) for compensation of air leak via a thin shell of the chamber (1), conversion of the other part of air and water accumulated in the vessel (3) at day time into a flow of alternating portions of air and water of higher density, which is supplied into the watering point, and release of unused air portion into atmosphere upon completion of accumulated water drain, and the chamber (1) has the shape that performs the decorative function (statue, inflated figure, decorative stone).
EFFECT: expanded field of device application.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: self-propelled agricultural fertiliser distributor comprises a chassis, wheels and engine. The chassis comprises a longitudinal beam. On the beam the wheels are suspended. The engine is located on one side of the beam and between the two wheels on one side of the machine. The engine has an output drive shaft. The output drive shaft is located transversally.
EFFECT: decrease of the minimum turning radius.
18 cl, 9 dwg