Water desalination with application of selective solvent extraction
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to production of desalinated water and can be used for obtaining drinking water from sea and salt waters. Extraction of water from saline solution is carried out with application of selective solvent, containing carboxylic acid, which has carbon chain from 6 to 13 carbon atoms long. In order to realise the method saline solution emulsion in selective solvent is prepared, selective solvent is heated before and after contact with saline solution to obtain first phase, which includes selective solvent and water from saline solution, dissolved in selective solvent, and second phase, including highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution. After that, first phase is separated from second phase, first phase, including selective solvent and dissolved water, is extracted from highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution or highly-concentrated remaining part is extracted from saline solution from first phase. First phase is cooled after extraction to precipitate water from selective solvent and precipitated water is removed from selective solvent.
EFFECT: invention provides obtaining almost pure fresh water.
19 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex
It is expected that in this century, the shortage of fresh water will exceed the energy shortage as a global problem of mankind; and these two issues are inextricably linked. Fresh water is one of the most basic needs of humans and other organisms. Each person needs to consume at least two liters of water a day in addition to the tremendous needs in fresh water farming and industrial processes. Meanwhile, equipment for transporting fresh water or fresh water by desalination tends to be very demanding increasingly scarce reserves of energy available.
Risks associated with insufficient supplies of water, are particularly acute. The shortage of fresh water can lead to starvation, disease, death, mass forced migration, inter-regional conflict/war from Darfur to the South-West of America) and the destruction of ecosystems. Despite the criticality of the needs for fresh water and deep consequences of deficiency in it, fresh water resources are particularly limited. 97.5% of water on Earth is salty, and about 70% of the remaining enclosed in the ice (mostly ice caps and glaciers), leaving only 0.75% of all water on Earth is available fresh water.
Moreover, these 0,75% of the available fresh water is unevenly distributed. For example, in densely populated razvivaushih� countries such as India and China, there are many regions that depend on scarce supplies of water. Moreover, freshwater is often seasonally variable. Usually, being limited regional watershed, water is heavy, and its transportation is expensive and energy intensive.
Meanwhile, demand for fresh water is being tightened around the world. The tanks are running dry; aquifers are falling, rivers are dying, and glaciers and ice caps are shrinking. Population growth increases demand, as do changes in agriculture and increased industrialization. Climate change is still a threat in many regions. Consequently, the number of people facing water scarcity increases.
A huge amount of energy normally needed to produce fresh water from seawater (or to a lesser extent from brackish water), especially in remote areas. Reverse osmosis (ro) is currently the leading technology for desalination of water, but it is energy intensive and still relatively inefficient way due to the high pressure required for forcing water through a semi-permeable membrane and their tendency to contamination. In large enterprises the necessary energy/volume can be 4 kWh/m3at 30% recovery, compared with a theoretical minimum of about�olo 1 kWh/m 3although on a smaller scale PA system (for example, on Board ships) have much worse efficiency in the order of magnitude. Another popular method is a multistage single equilibrium distillation (IUF) is also energy-and capital-intensive process.
Instead of the extraction of clean water exist electrochemical methods such as electrodialysis (ED) and capacitive desalination (SW), easy to extract salt for drinking water (<10 mm). These large-scale systems electrochemical desalination less efficient than the GS plants for desalination of sea water (for example, 7 kWh/m3is the state of Affairs in ED), but be more efficient for brackish water (e.g., SW may reach 0.6 kWh/m3). In General, existing methods for removing salt from water, some of which have existed for centuries, as a rule, are expensive or complicated, or both.
Methods and devices for water desalination with use of selective extraction solvent described herein. Various embodiments of devices and methods may include some or all of the elements, features and steps described below.
Certain solvents such as edible oil (e.g. soybean oil) and some fatty acids obl�give unusual property of selectively dissolving water and does not dissolve the water-soluble salts, such as sodium chloride or admixtures, and at the same time to be insoluble or practically insoluble in water (e.g., water dissolves in the excess phase selective solvent, but the selective solvent is not soluble in excess aqueous phase in more than trace amounts). This phenomenon of selective solubility is used in the new method of temperature-controlled desalination brine in this document.
As an example of this method saline solution (e.g. sea water) are brought into contact with a selective solvent. Selective solvent may contain a carboxylic acid (for example, a compound containing a carboxyl group R-COOH), such as cekanova acid CH3(CH2)SOON. Saline solution and solvent is heated before or after contact to enhance selective dissolution of water in the solvent and, thereby, receive separate phases: the first phase, which contains the solvent and water from the salt solution, and a second phase that contains a highly concentrated the remaining part of the salt solution. The first phase is separated from the second, and extracted with. Alternatively, the second phase can be extracted from the first. After extraction the first phase is cooled to precipitate water from the solvent and precipitated water is then removed from the solvent. Ek�twagirimana water can be almost pure water (for example, suitable for industrial or agricultural use, or even to meet the requirements of the standards of purity of potable water, such as 99.95% of purity).
In the methods of this disclosure can apply low-quality heat that can come from land-based sources of heat from the ocean, from the sun or waste heat from other processes. These methods of water desalination can also be easy to use and can offer significant energy and economic savings compared to current methods of desalination.
Brief description of graphic materials
Fig.1 - schematic representation of the desalination process by extraction with a selective solvent in laboratory scale.
Fig.2 - the initial stage of the process in which salt water is mixed with a selective solvent.
Fig.3 is an image depicting the use of a stirrer to stir the mixture of salt water and solvent to create the emulsion.
Fig.4 is an image depicting the immersion of the emulsion in the tub with hot water to raise the temperature of the emulsion.
Fig.5 is an image depicting the separation of the heated emulsion on the upper layer of the solvent with the dissolved water and the bottom layer of highly concentrated salt water.
Fig.6 is an image depicting the decantation in�rnego layer of solvent and dissolved water in the pipe.
Fig.7 is an image depicting the cooling desantiruemogo solvent and dissolved water for the deposition of small droplets of water from the solvent.
Fig.8 is an image depicting the use of dielectrophoresis for separation of water droplets from the solvent with a separate collection of water in the bottom of the tube.
Fig.9 is an image depicting the recovery of substantially pure water from the bottom of the tube.
Fig.10 is an image depicting the use of a stirrer for stirring the mixture of salt water and solvent decanoas acid to create a heated emulsion.
Fig.11 is an image depicting the separation of the heated emulsion on the top layer decanoas acid with the dissolved water and the bottom layer of highly concentrated salt water.
Fig.12 is an image depicting the decantation of the upper layer of the solvent and dissolved water in the tube, heated in a hot water bath.
Fig.13 is an image depicting the use of dielectrophoresis heated in the pipe for separation of water droplets from the solvent with a separate collection of water in the bottom of the tube.
Fig.14 - diagram of output of fresh water from the solvent decanoas acid, as a function of temperature.
Fig.15 - diagram of energy consumption for the desalination process with the use of decanoas acid as solvent�'el, as a function of temperature.
In the accompanying drawings the reference position indicate the same or similar parts in the various views. Graphic materials are not necessarily to scale, special attention is given to illustrate specific principles discussed below.
The previous and other features and advantages of various aspects of the invention (inventions) will be seen from the following, more specific description of various concepts and specific embodiments within the broader framework of the invention (inventions). Various aspects of the subject matter introduced above and discussed in more detail below, can be implemented in any of numerous ways, as the object of the invention is not limited to any particular method of implementation. Examples of specific implementations and applications are provided primarily for clarity.
Unless otherwise defined, the terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning in which they are usually understood by the person skilled in the art to which the invention belongs. Further, it becomes clear that terms such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that conforms to the�contributes to their meaning in the context of relevant prior art, and should not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense unless expressly defined herein. For example, if a particular composition is specified, practical and imperfect reality may be acceptable, for example, the potential presence of at least trace impurities (e.g., less than 0.1% by mass or volume) can be understood as within the description.
Although the terms first, second, third etc. may be used herein to describe various elements, these elements should not be limited by these terms. These terms are used only to distinguish one element from another. Thus, the first element, described below, can be termed a second element without departing from the essence of the illustrative variants of implementation.
Terms of spatial relations such as "above", "upper", "beneath", "below", "lower" and the like, may be used herein for ease of description to describe the relationship of one element to another element as illustrated in the figures. It should be borne in mind that the terms spatial relationships are intended to cover different areas of the device in the application or actuation in addition to the direction shown in the figures. For example, if �the device in the figures is turned, elements described as "below" or "beneath" other elements or parts aimed "above" the other elements or parts. Thus, it is cited as an example the term "above" may imply the direction of both the top and bottom. The device may be otherwise directed (e.g., rotated 90 degrees or in other directions) and the identifiers of the spatial relationships used herein interpreted accordingly.
Hereinafter in this description, when an element is referred to as "on", "connected to" or "connected with" another element, it can be directly on, connected or associated with another element or may have intermediate elements, unless otherwise indicated.
The terminology used herein is for describing particular embodiments and is not intended to limit the illustrative embodiments. As used herein, the singular is intended to include the plural, unless the context clearly should not return. In addition, the terms "includes", "including", "containing" and "comprising" specify the presence of these elements or steps, but do not preclude the presence or additions of one or more other elements or steps.
Raw material loading in laboratory scale illustrates the method of desalination in General, and it schematically depicts Fig.1 with different stages, which are depicted in more detail in Fig.2-9. This process can also be held in a larger, industrial scale with the use of a larger, automated devices. Moreover, the process can lead to continuous, incremental mode, in which the salt solution is continuously injected, and almost pure water continually sends.
Method of Fig.1 begin at the stage where adding saline solution 12 and the heat Q to a selective solvent 14 in the container 16. Selective solvent 14 and the saline solution 12 mixed 11 to obtain the emulsion 22, as shown in stage V. With the supply of a larger amount of heat Q water from the salt solution further 13 dissolved in the selective solvent at the stage C, and concentrated the remaining 30 salt solution 15 settles at the bottom of the container 16 at the stage D.
Then, the container 16 is removed from the heat source and the water solution in a selective solvent is drained 17 of the container in the support vessel at the stage E and allowed to cool to 19 deposition of water from the solution, as shown in stage F. the Precipitated water 21 settles at the bottom of the vessel at the stage of G, then it recuperou 23 as almost pure water from the bottom with�court at the stage N. As shown, the selective solvent can then reapply 25, as the whole process is repeated with additional saline solution.
In the revision stages of this method from the outset on a more specific example, from Fig.2 (stage A in Fig.1),: saline solution 12 is added to the container (e.g., in a laboratory beaker) 16 filled with a selective solvent 14 at a temperature of about room (e.g., 25-35°C). Saline solution 12 can be found in nature, e.g. in the form of salt water taken from the sea. Selective solvent 14 may be, for example, edible oil, e.g. soybean oil, palm oil, rapeseed oil, coconut oil or linseed oil, which contains fatty acids. Alternatively, the selective solvent may include, essentially, one or more selected fatty acids. Suitable fatty acids may include a carbon chain length of, for example, from 6 to 13 carbon atoms, such as cekanova acid which has a carbon chain length of 10 atoms. Fatty acid can also be solid at room temperature (e.g., at a temperature of about 30°C and/or below). Dekanovu acid is considered practically insoluble in water (for example, solubility in water is only about 40-50 parts per million); also Dec�new acid is relatively harmless to humans, since it is naturally found in milk. In the methods of separating water from saline hydrophilic hydroxurea fatty acids can form bonds with water from the salt solution.
The container 16 with the combined salt solution 12 and the selective solvent 14 are mixed to form the emulsion. As shown in Fig.3 (stage b In Fig.1), the scale of the laboratory setup, the mixing can be carried out on the magnetic stirrer 20 with the magnetic armature 18, which is placed in the container 16. Magnetic stirrer magnet 20 moves the magnetic armature 18 in the container 16 for vigorous mixing of the solvent 14 and the salt solution 12 for receiving the emulsion 22 of the two fluids. Agitation is carried out to the extent that when the emulsion 22 becomes cloudy appearance (for example, in this embodiment, the implementation for about 30 seconds).
Emulsion 22 in the container 16 is exposed to the heat source 24 (e.g., in the form of hot water baths), as shown in Fig.4 (stage C in Fig.1), and was preheated to a temperature of, for example, about 75°C, or in other embodiments, only to a temperature slightly above 40°C; however, with the increase of temperature increases the mercury column is depicted in the mercury thermometer 26. Alternatively, the solvent 14 and/or saline solution 12 is heated prior to contact�Ohm or stirring. Heat can be obtained, for example, heat loss from another process or from land-based sources of heat from the ocean or from simple heating by solar rays. Emulsion 22 is left on the heating from the heat source to maintain the temperature of pre-heating (e.g. during the day) to dissolve the water from the salt solution in emulsion droplets 22 in a selective solvent.
Solution 28 of the solvent with the dissolved water rises to the top of the container 16 and is transparent in appearance, while concentrated the remaining 30 salt solution 30 is allocated at the bottom of the container 16, as shown in Fig.5 (stage D in Fig.1).
Then, the container 16 is removed from the heat source 24, and a solution of 28 that includes a solvent and dissolved water, decanted from the container 16 to the auxiliary receptacles 32 (e.g., in the form of a conical tube), as shown in Fig.6 (stage E in Fig.1), and allowed to cool (e.g., atmospheric air) to room temperature, as shown in Fig.7 (stage F in Fig.1). Once the solution 28 has cooled down, the solution becomes cloudy 28 with the deposition of small drops of water, forming emulsion 34.
Optional, to accelerate the separation of precipitable water and separating water from the solvent emulsion 34 precipitable water and the solvent being in the pipe 32 in pozitii, may be dielectrophoresis, as shown in Fig.8 (step G in Fig.1). As can be seen, the power supply 40 are connected by connecting wires 38 with a pair of electrodes 35 and 36 located in the lower and upper parts of the vessel 32. The power source 40 produces a potential difference between the electrodes 35 and 36, where the uneven shape of the electrodes (for example, a flat plate on one end and needle at the other end) gives a non-uniform electric field that acts on the water droplets to separate them from the solvent. Consequently, almost pure water 42, which has a higher density than the solvent, is collected in the bottom of the vessel 32 and removed through the hole in the bottom of the vessel and is collected in the water tank 44 (in this embodiment, the implementation, in the form of laboratory glass), as shown in Fig.9 (stage H in Fig.1).
Virtually pure water 42 may have a mass ratio of the salt content, for example, less than 1.5%, less than 0.14%, or less than 0.05%. Optional, additional desalination can apply after the above methods of separation of water bring clean water to a higher degree. For example, the second stage desalination can be carried out in the form of reverse osmosis or a single equilibrium distillation.
In large systems, the heat recovery can be used to improve the efficiency of the system. Eg�measures the heat released during cooling to obtain pure water, can be applied for heating the emulsion salt-water in oil.
One application of these devices and methods used in the production of oil or natural gas, where the selective solvent can be used to separate salts and other components that are not soluble in the selective solvent from, for example, "produced water" (i.e. water produced along with oil and gas) or water from hydraulic fracturing" (i.e., water from hydraulic fracturing), which is obtained, in particular, in the extraction of oil from oil Sands or extracting gas from shale. Water from hydraulic fracturing may have a salt concentration three times greater than typical sea water and may include, for example, benzene and heavy metals. Typically, industrial water or water from hydraulic fracturing are transported to a remote processing and/or containment in ground pools.
As reverse osmosis and multi-stage single-entry equilibrium distillation show poor performance in recycling produced water or water from hydraulic fracturing, where significantly higher than the salinity of the produced water or water from hydraulic fracturing increases the energy consumption and leads to increased contamination of the membranes. Instead of mixing the produced water with selective solvents�the RER a large part of water can be extracted in substantially pure form with a comparatively small energy and heat, and at a reasonable price leaving a more concentrated and less waste and allowing the reuse of extracted water in the extraction process of oil, thereby offering significant environmental benefits from the point of view of curbing waste, reducing water requirements, less environmental pollution and improve efficiency.
Illustrative example 1
Materials, methods and observations
In the first experiment, soybean oil is used as a selective solvent. Soybean oil has a limit of water saturation of 0.3% by volume at 25°C, and the saturation limit, as expected, almost doubled at 60°C. Soybean oil is an inexpensive and easily available.
An aqueous solution of sodium chloride prepared to simulate sea water. The salt content in the solution was measured using the salt-meter Horiba and received 3,367%±0,115%.
About 6 ml of the salt solution was added to about 300 ml of soybean oil and vigorously stirred in the container on the mixer to obtain an emulsion of brine in oil. The mixture was stirred for about 30 seconds until the contents of the container does not become cloudy appearance.
The container with the emulsion then was placed in a hot water bath, preheated to 75°C. the Emulsion is left in the hot water bath for 24 hours (this incubation period can be easily reduce�Yong or increased to optimize the speed of processing or output), to dissolve water from the emulsion droplets in oil. Selective dissolution of water in the oil, as expected, yields the remaining drops with a high concentration of salt, and these droplets are expected to separate by gravity in the bottom of the container.
After 24 hours of incubation, the container with the emulsion was removed from the bath with hot water. As expected, a significant amount of salt solution stood out in the bottom of the container, and the oil was at the top are transparent in appearance. This change from turbid to transparent indicates that the droplets of the emulsion or dissolved, or separated at the bottom of the container.
Oil above the separated salt solution was decanted into six 50 ml conical tubes and left to cool in air at room temperature. As expected, after several hours of cooling oil again became turbid, indicating the deposition of small drops of water.
To speed up the process of allocation of precipitable water and its extraction from oils, emulsions were subjected to dielectrophoresis. In the process of dielectrophoresis non-uniform electric field used for separation of particles (in this case, water droplets) containing a fluid (in this case oil). In particular, the mixture was subjected to an electric field of about 2 kV/cm for 5 minutes. There is a significant allocation of water �W oil. This dedicated and, apparently, distilled water was removed through a hole in the bottom of the conical tube. Was recuperable about 1.5 ml of water.
Recovered water was checked using the salimeter Horiba, and the final salt content was 0,5833%±0,0681%.
As expected, the salt content in the original salt solution decreased significantly after the application of demonstrated process.
Although the final concentration of salt was significantly less than the initial concentration, it does not meet the drinking water standard of 0.05%. The balance of salt in the recovered water is associated with the possibility that not all of undissolved water containing salt was separated before decantation and eventually mingled with pure water. The salt content can be reduced by exposure of the mixture to dielectrophoresis before cooling to improve the separation of microdroplets emulsified very salty water and therefore to further reduce the final concentration of salt in the recovered water. Alternative, even with the same salt content, this process may be used as the first stage (pre-processing) desalination in combination, for example, using the technology of allocating water on the basis of the membranes in the subsequent second stage. In this context, this process first studyjapanese reduce energy consumption and costs required to obtain high purity water in the second process stage.
Another area for improvement is a small amount of clean water that was recovered; recovered clean water was only about 0.5% of the volume of lubricant used. This limited recovery can make the process energy inefficient, and ineffective by volume. To solve this problem you can use other selective solvents such as cekanova acid, capable of dissolving large quantities of water.
Despite these areas that may be subject to improvement, the results of this experiment are considered as highly promising and suggest that this method of alleged changes, can provide clean water, saving energy and efficiency by volume.
Illustrative example 2
In an attempt to access a more efficient method was carried out a second experiment in which the above-described experiments were repeated with the use of decanoas acid as the solvent. Cekanova acid dissolves about 3.4% of the water (i.e., the solution contains about 3.4% of the dissolved water) at 33°C and about 5.1% of water at 62°C. Pure cekanova acid is a solid below 30°C.
Dekanovu acid initially heated slightly (to about 30°C) to melt it before doba�'it saline, and the stirrer 20 is heated to heat the mixture (as shown, with the use of thermometer 26, reflecting an increase of temperature) during the formation of the emulsion 22, as shown in Fig.10. After stirring the emulsion is left on heater/stirrer 20 for separation of the solvent and a solution of 28 dissolved water from the remaining portion of the highly concentrated salt solution 30, as shown in Fig.11.
Then phase containing dekanovu acid and a solution of 28 dissolved water was transferred into a conical tube 32 is placed in a bath of 48 with water, as shown in Fig.12, where the contents allowed to cool and left to stand for several hours before the final allocation of almost pure water. Further, as shown in Fig.13, the heating is carried out by resistive heating element 46 during dielectrophoresis to save decanoas acid above 30°C to prevent solidification. Finally, almost pure water 42, which has a density of more than cekanova acid, is collected in the bottom of the vessel 32 and it is removed through the hole in the bottom of the vessel 32, and is collected in the water tank 44, as shown in Fig.9. This second experiment involves a trial stages at which the emulsion is heated to temperatures 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80°C. Starting with the initial salt content of 3.5% in the ratio of mass to m�CCE (mass/mass), desalinated water contained from 0.06% to 0.11% salt with a yield of 0.4% mass/mass, up to 2% mass/mass, desalinated water from the emulsion (where the output is the mass of recovered water divided by unit mass of the employed solvent), depending on the upper boundary of the operating temperature. Thus, not only the solvent significantly more effective (than soy oil used in the first experiment), but also the removal of salts is also much more efficient with decanoas acid. The salinity of the recovered water is in the range of standards of water for agriculture and drinking water. Fig.14 summarizes the results, where the outputs (circles) 49 and the salinity of recovered water (triangles) for 50 different experiments. Also the experimental outputs (squares) 52, when pure water was dissolved in decanoas acid. The dotted lines 54 represent the calculated output of data on the solubility of S. Hoerr, et al., "The Effect of Water on Solidification Points of Fatty Acids," Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Vol.19, 126-128 (1942). Finally, showing the limits of salinity EPA dash-dotted line 56 in the bottom of the chart with salinity according to the who, shown as a second dashed line 58 directly above it.
In addition, another advantage of applying decanoas acid as the solvent that dukanova acids� is solid below 30°C, and therefore, if the solvent remains in the recovered water as an impurity, it can be easily removed by cooling the mixture below 30°C and separation of water from solids.
The energy consumption is calculated on a method for industrial water desalination with use of decanoas acid as a selective solvent and summarized in Fig.15, where the energy consumption from the experimental results (circles) at a temperature of 60 preheating 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80°C in comparison with those in the literature values of the energy consumption of reverse osmosis (empty triangles) 62 single and multi-stage equilibrium by distillation (rhombs) 64. These charts of energy consumption represent the maximum number of equivalent electrical work, which is used to remove salt from sea water. In addition, depicts the actual consumption of thermal energy source in a reverse osmosis (filled triangles) 66 under the condition that electricity comes from power plants at high temperatures. To extrapolate the experimental results to the values for continuous industrial process, the efficiency of the heat exchanger was assumed 80%. Energy for conversion of work for the proposed process is completed with the Carnot efficiency, which is �eroticheski the maximum achievable with thermal engine. Actually, no heat engine, is effective at low temperatures that is used here, and the actual equivalents of electrical work will be much lower than calculated. The dashed line 68 is also based on energy consumption, calculated according to the solubility of S. Hoerr, et al., "The Effect of Water on Solidification Points of Fatty Acids," Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Vol.19, 126-128 (1942).
In the described embodiments, specific terminology is used for clarity. For purposes of description of the different terms meant, at least to cover technical and functional equivalents that use the same way to achieve a similar result. In addition, in some cases, when a particular variant embodiment of the invention contains many of the elements of the system or of the method steps, those elements or steps may be replaced by a single element or step; likewise a single element or step may be replaced by a set of elements or steps that serve the same purpose. In addition, if the parameters for various properties are specified herein for embodiments of the invention, these parameters can be adjusted up or down as 1/100, 1/50, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 3/4 etc. (or up by a factor of 2, 5, 10, etc.), or by rounding them close�I, if not specified otherwise. Moreover, since this invention has been shown and described with reference to its specific embodiments of, specialists in this field will understand that various substitutions and changes in form and details may be made without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, other aspects, features and advantages are also within the framework of the invention, and all embodiments of the invention do not necessarily have to achieve all of the benefits and have all the characteristics described above. In addition, stages, elements and features discussed in this document in connection with one of the embodiments may also be applied in combination with other variants of implementation. The content of links, including links to texts, journal articles, patents, applications for patents, etc. as referenced in the text of this document, included as references in their entirety; and the corresponding components, stages and characteristics of these references can be optional or may not be included in embodiments of the invention. In addition, the components and steps defined in the "Background" section, are an integral part of this disclosure and may be applied in combination or replaced components and steps described in the disclosure within the scope of the invention. � the formula that way where the stages are listed in a specific order, with or without consistent guidance numbers added for ease of reference, the stage should not be interpreted as temporarily restricted the order in which they appear, unless otherwise specified or does not arise from terms and phrases.
1. A method of separating water from the salt solution using a selective solvent, wherein the method includes:
the provision of a selective solvent and salt solution comprising water and at least one salt, where the selective solvent contains a carboxylic acid having a carbon chain length from 6 to 13 carbon atoms;
the preparation of the emulsion of the salt solution in a selective solvent;
the selective heating of the solvent before or after contact with salt solution to obtain a first phase comprising selective solvent and water from the salt solution, dissolved in the selective solvent and a second phase comprising concentrated the remaining part of the salt solution;
providing the possibility of separating the first phase from a second phase;
extracting a first phase comprising selective solvent and dissolved water from remaining portion of the highly concentrated salt solution or extracting the remaining portion of the highly concentrated salt solution from the first �basics;
the first cooling phase after extraction to precipitate water from the selective solvent; and
the removal of precipitable water from the selective solvent.
2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the selective solvent contains a compound, solvent water, but not dissolving water-soluble salts and impurities, and which is fully or substantially completely insoluble in water.
3. A method according to claim 1, wherein the carboxylic acid contains a hydrophilic hidrocloruro, which communicates with the water from the salt solution.
4. A method according to claim 1, wherein the carboxylic acid contains dekanovu acid.
5. A method according to claim 1, wherein the selective solvent is a solid at temperatures of 30°C and below.
6. A method according to claim 1, further comprising mixing a selective solvent and salt solution to obtain an emulsion prior to heating of the selective solvent and salt solution.
7. A method according to claim 1, further comprising mixing a selective solvent and salt solution to obtain an emulsion after heating selective solvent.
8. A method according to claim 1, further comprising the use of dielectrophoresis for separation of the precipitated water from the selective solvent.
9. A method according to claim 1, wherein the selective solvent is heated using energy from the medium-temperature heat source is not above 75°C.10. A method according to claim 1, wherein the selective solvent is heated using energy from a low temperature source of heat not exceeding 40°C.
11. A method according to claim 1, wherein the selective solvent and the salt solution is heated using energy from another process.
12. A method according to claim 1, wherein the selective solvent and the salt solution is heated using geothermal or solar heat.
13. A method according to claim 1, wherein the extracted precipitated water has salt in a weight ratio of less than 1.5%.
14. A method according to claim 1, wherein the extracted precipitated water has salt in a weight ratio of less than 0.14%.
15. A method according to claim 1, wherein the extracted precipitated water has salt in a weight ratio of less than 0.05%.
16. A method according to claim 1, where the separation of water from salt solution using a selective solvent is the first stage in the multistage process of desalination, the method further includes the exposure of precipitable water, after extraction, the second stage desalination in order to achieve a higher level of purity.
17. A method according to claim 16, where the second stage desalination include reverse osmosis or a single equilibrium distillation.
18. A method according to claim 1, further comprising re-using a selective solvent to repeat the way allocat�of moving water from the salt solution.
19. A method of separating water from the salt solution using a selective solvent, wherein the method includes:
the provision of a selective solvent and salt solution comprising water and at least one salt;
the preparation of the emulsion of the salt solution in a selective solvent;
the selective heating of the solvent before or after contact with salt solution to a temperature of 80°C to obtain a first phase comprising selective solvent and water from the salt solution, dissolved in the selective solvent and a second phase comprising concentrated the remaining part of the salt solution;
providing the possibility of separating the first phase from a second phase;
extracting a first phase comprising selective solvent and dissolved water from remaining portion of the highly concentrated salt solution or extracting the remaining portion of the highly concentrated salt solution from the first phase;
the first cooling phase after extraction to precipitate water from the selective solvent; and
the removal of precipitable water from the selective solvent.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for desalting of sea, hard and/or contaminated water by direct osmosis desalting. To this end, contaminated feed solution with water at first osmosis pressure is forced through semi-permeable diaphragm to discharge side that has the flow of carrier solution with second osmosis pressure on discharge side of semi-permeable diaphragm. Diluted discharge solution is heated to agglomerate discharged diluted substance to two-phase flow containing liquid phase of agglomerated dissolved substance and liquid water phase. Then, agglomerated dissolved substance is separated to get enriched flow to be cooled to obtain cooled single-phase water-rich flow to be subjected to removal of residual dissolved substance to produce purified water.
EFFECT: higher quality and desalting and purification.
23 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of purification of phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk includes preliminary desiliconisation of phenol-containing sewage waters by their processing with hydrochloric acid with precipitation of solid and separation from solution of silicon-containing product and electrochemical oxidation in presence of chloride ions in electrolytic cell with application of direct current. Process of electrochemical oxidation is carried out with concentration of chloride ions 0.10-0.11 mol/l in non-diaphragm electrolytic cell with application of ruthenium-titanium oxide anode and titanium cathode for 70-90 min with current density 100-150 mA/cm2 with constant mixing. Required concentration of chloride ions is provided by dilution with water of phenol-containing sewage waters after their desiliconisation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase degree of purification of polydisperse concentrated phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk from phenol and other organic pollutants.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a flotation device, a frame, a hydraulic drive. On the frame the longitudinal rods are pivotally mounted, and on their cantilever portion the linkage for attachment of the drum is mounted with the ability of movement in a vertical plane. The drum is mounted with the ability of replacement of the drum holder, at that the drum is rotated by the hydraulic motor through the belt drive in the direction opposite of the flotation device movement.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of the implementation of the technological process of cleaning the water reservoirs from blue-green algae and reduction of energy intensity.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for biological purification of household and close to them in composition industrial sewage waters from organic compounds and nitrogen of ammonium salts. Initial sewage water is processed in alternating zones with reduced oxygen regime and aerobic regime with further settling biologically purified water and recirculation of active silt. First, sewage water is processed in two zones with reduced oxygen regime, where growth of attached microorganisms is performed on planar inert material with specific area of its surface in first zone 17 m2/m3 and in second- 21 m2/m3 and hydraulic load in first zone not higher than 1.38 m3/m2 of carrier and in second - 0.43 m3/m2 of carrier. After that, processing is carried out in two aerobic zones with specific surface of inert charge material 24 m3/m2 and hydraulic load 0.32 m3/m2 of carrier in each. Recirculated mixture of sewage water and active silt from last aerobic zone is supplied to beginning of first zone in amount 120-150% of volume of supplied sewage water. Concentration of oxygen in zones with reduced oxygen regime is supported in amount 0.5 mg/l, and in aerobic zones - 4-5 mg/l. Settling of purified water is realised for 1-1.5 hours.
EFFECT: method provides increased stability of purification processes, reduction of energy consumption for air supply, twofold reduction of volume of secondary settling tanks.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 cl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, namely the preparation of wastewaters in irrigated agriculture for irrigation and fertilising of plants. The biological stabilisation storage pond comprises a closed water intake water reservoir area in the form of a storage pond 1, having a water-supply tube 2 with the fed collector 21, and a water distribution device at the inlet of the discharge pipeline 4. The water distribution device has two concentrically arranged rings, the inner 5 of which is connected to the pipeline of the outlet, and the outer 6 - to the pipeline of inlet and is located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inlet opening of the ring 5 is provided with an air pipe 9 with a valve 10, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline 4, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. The source of pressurised air and gas emitted from the wastewaters is made in the form of a mixing chamber 11 with the mesh cloth 12 at the upper part, sequentially arranged on the discharge pipeline 4 below its input. The chamber 11 is connected by the tube 13 with the perforated tubes 14 located in the cavity of the inner ring 5. In the side walls of the inner rings 5 there are air-gas slotted openings 16. In order to regulate the conditions of discharge of the wastewaters into the pond and their removal from the side of the grid 8 at filling the pond 1 a shield 19 can be mounted with an inclination towards the bottom of the pond. The shield 19 can be mounted on a horizontal axis of rotation 20 and is connected by the rods with the drive of vertical movement. According to the second embodiment the storage pond comprises successive water reservoirs with inclined bottoms and water distribution devices. The water distribution devices are formed as two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected with the discharge pipeline and the outer - with the pipeline of feeding of flows, located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inner ring is provided with an air pipe with a vent, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. In the side walls of the inner ring there are air-gas outlet openings. The water distribution devices are connected on the discharge pipeline with the mixing chambers.
EFFECT: device improves the efficiency of protection of intake of wastewaters from entering floating debris and simultaneous contributes to decontamination when feeding wastewaters for irrigation The design of the device enables to mix the air due to the organisation of the process of air-gas connection and discharging it from the chamber, which is in the gaseous state.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes anaerobic fermentation of organic substances in a methane tank with electrical activation of the medium with dc voltage of 0.2-36 V while stirring and bubbling the mass with the released biogas. The organic substances are fed into the methane tank with moisture content of 40-95%. Monitoring is carried out by measuring the value of current in the electrical circuit, calculating conductivity of the system, measuring the volume flow rate of the formed biogas and determining the current content of carbon dioxide gas in the biogas in the upper part of the methane tank. Electrical activation of methanogenesis is controlled by controlling current by setting a new value of current at the level of the sum of the present and calculated maximum current.
EFFECT: high content of methane in biogas, intensification of the process of producing biogas, high process stability and obtaining an end product with accurately defined parameters.
4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used in membrane electrolytic production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide for removing silicon from aqueous compositions containing sodium chloride. The method includes adding, to an aqueous composition of sodium chloride containing silicon, an aluminium-containing compound to obtain molar content of aluminium higher than molar content of silicon in said aqueous composition; Monitoring and maintaining pH of the composition at a first level higher than or equal to 8 and lower than or equal to 10 to obtain a first precipitate; Monitoring and maintaining pH of the obtained aqueous composition at a second level higher than or equal to 4 and lower than or equal to 7 to obtain a second precipitate; separating the formed precipitate from the aqueous suspension to obtain a purified aqueous composition. According to the second version of the method, the precipitate is separated at each formation step thereof. A method of producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide includes electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution purified from silicon using the disclosed methods using a membrane cell.
EFFECT: invention reduces content of silicon in the purified solution which contains sodium chloride, with aluminium content in the purified solution lower than 1 mg/l.
14 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during HCs production from natural or associated petroleum gas. Method of oxygenates cleaning from reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes conversion of even part of the contained oxygenates under conditions of syngas chilling by even part of the reaction water at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion. Further syngas cooling temperature below 400°C is performed by the cleaned water injection in the syngas flow. Method of use of the reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes its cleaning of the oxygenates under conditions of the syngas chilling at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion, cleaned water degassing. The cleaned degassed water is used to cool the syngas to temperature below 400°C and produce the water steam.
EFFECT: invention ensures effective cleaning of the reaction water of the oxygenates, and use of the produced cleaned water as feed water for boilers and water steam production.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filter to be incorporated with waster filtering assembly. Water filtering assembly comprises filter of, mainly, a flat profile. Water filtering assembly comprises container for filtered water, intake funnel to be fitted in said container and to intake unfiltered water. This filter can be fitted in intake funnel for filtering of water fed therein. The filter makes the exit from intake funnel for filtered water to get into aforesaid container. The filter makes the intake funnel bottom and as a result water filtering goes over the entire intake funnel bottom. The filter comprises case with water intake and filtered water outlet. Note here that filtering medium is arranged between said intake and said outlet. Water filtering medium includes the ply of ion-exchange resin and ply of material filled with activated carbon. Note that said plies are separated in said case.
EFFECT: higher filtering rate.
22 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: desalination multistage adiabatic plant additionally comprises a thermosoftener (52) which serves for the generation of sludge particles in the feed water heated in a steam heater (26) and taken from a pipeline to supply the feed water to the inlet of a multi-stage adiabatic evaporator (4), as well as a two-section feed water receiver (76) to reduce supersaturation in the sea water being evaporated due to the usage of sludge particles as "seed crystals" in the supersaturated solution volume. The thermosoftener (52) comprises a perforated membrane (56) built-in in the casing (53) under the cover, a dome-shaped horizontal partition (61) installed with a gap in respect to the inner casing wall, vertical cylindrical shells, a manifold to withdraw the vapour (62) under the dome-shaped partition, a branch pipe for water withdrawal is united with the sludge particle removal and is mounted in the casing bottom, and the branch pipe for steam supply is built-in in the casing cover.
EFFECT: lower rate of scale formation on working surfaces of the plant elements.
2 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analytical chemistry. A method of extracting indium (III) ions includes extraction thereof from aqueous solutions with a derivative from a pyrazolone group, followed by complexometric determination of indium (III). The derivative from a pyrazolone group used is antipyrine. Extraction is carried out with an organic reagent containing antipyrine and sulphosalicylic acid with addition of a salting-out agent at medium pH of 2.0. The salting-out agent used is sodium sulphate or ammonium sulphate. The indicator used during complexometric determination of indium (III) is xylenol orange.
EFFECT: invention improves selectivity of extracting indium (III) without using volatile, inflammable and toxic organic solvents.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of Novocain extraction from water solutions includes the preparation of an aqueous salt solution of Novocain by its dissolution in a saturated solution of a salting-out agent, extraction and analysis of an equilibrium water phase, with the application as an extragent of a solvotrophic reagent solution in chloroform with the concentration of 10 wt %, for which purpose the aqueous salt solution of Novocain with pH 8.0±0.5 is prepared due to the application of a saturated ammonium sulphate solution as the salting-out agent and addition of an ammonium buffer solution, Novocain is extracted for 5-7 minutes with the solution of the solvotrophic reagent in chloroform with the ratio of volumes of the aqueous salt solution of Novocain and extragent of 5:1, then the aqueous saline phase is separated from the organic one and analysed by a method of UV-spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 291 nm, the concentration of Novocain in the water solution is found by means of a calibrating graph; the coefficient of distribution (D) and the degree of extraction (R, %) of Novocain is are calculated by formulae.
EFFECT: method for the extraction of Novocain from the water solution, which is characterised by expressiveness, makes it possible to realise the practically complete single extraction of Novocain from the aqueous salt solution and can be applied in the analysis of Novocain-containing water solutions.
SUBSTANCE: in order to extract iron (III) from water solutions diphenylguanidine (DPG) is applied as the first organic reagent. As the second organic reagent, salicylic acid (SA) is applied, and as solvent of organic phase chloroform is applied. In organic phase complex with molar component ratio DPG: Fe3+:SA, equal 1:1:1, is extracted. Process of iron (III) extraction is carried out at medium acidity pH=1.5-2.5 with the following detection of iron (III) by trimetric method.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase selectivity and simplify process of extraction and detection of iron from water solutions.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of purifying acidic salt solutions, in particular, those that are formed in complex processing of apatite with obtaining rare-earth metals concentrate (REM), from admixtures of phosphorus, fluorine and alkali metals. Method includes sedimentation of phosphorus, fluorine in form of phosphates and fluorides of calcium, and alkali metals in form of siliconfluorides, and before sedimentation of phosphates and fluorides of calcium and siliconfluorides of alkali metals acid is simultaneously with REM selectively extracted into organic extragent, with re-extraction of valuable component from organic extract, and after sedimentation of phosphates and fluorides of calcium and siliconfluorides of alkali metals acid is re-extracted from extract into water solution.
EFFECT: claimed method makes it possible to eliminate admixtures of phosphorus, fluoride and alkali metals, extract REM without loss and regenerate acid.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to versions of composition for heat transmission. One of composition versions contains (i) from about 20 to about 90 wt % of R-1234yf; (ii) from about 10 to about 60 wt % of R-134a and (iii) from about 1 to about 20 wt % of R-32. Invention also relates to a number of versions of composition application.
EFFECT: composition has lower value of global warming potential and at the same time is characterised by productivity and energy efficiency.
56 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a multi-stage bubbling extractor and can be used in chemical, petrochemical, food, pharmaceutical and other industries. The multi-stage bubbling extractor comprises a vertical housing divided by partitions into sections-settlers with the mixing devices located inside, made in the form of two concentric pipes, the gas distribution nozzles with holes, nozzles for heavy fluid flow and overflow pipes for light fluid with holes. In each section-settler the outer pipe of the mixing device is mounted on the lower partition, and its upper edge is located at mid-height of the section-settler. The inner pipe of the mixing device is mounted with a gap to the lower partition, and in its upper end the holes are made for the gas discharge from the mixing device. The gas distribution nozzle is made in the form of an inverted cup with holes in the upper cover located above the lower edge of the inner pipe of the mixing device. The lower edge of the gas distribution nozzle is located below the holes for gas discharge from the mixing device of the underlying section-settler. In the web of the upper cover of the gas distribution nozzle concentrically to the mixing device the overflow pipe for light fluid is mounted, the lower edge of which is located below the holes for gas discharge from the mixing device of the underlying section-settler, and the holes in its upper part are located inside the nozzles for heavy fluid flow, the lower edge of which is located below the holes for gas discharge from the mixing device.
EFFECT: result is to increase technological capabilities of the extractor by using it for processing of fluid systems in which light fluid undergoes dispersion and heavy fluid is a continuous medium.
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining vanadyl sulphate includes extraction from sulphuric acid of vanadium (IV) with undiluted di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in the presence of sodium sulphate and further filtration under vacuum. Extraction is carried out with the ratio of water and organic phases equal (2.5÷3.0):1. After that, the organic phase is separated from the water phase, the organic phase is cooled to 0±0.5°C with an exposure at the said temperature for 20-30 min. After that, xylol is added to the organic phase with a ratio, equal to 1:(0.5÷1.0); the obtained product is washed with hexane.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the output of vanadyl sulphate trihydrate.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fluid treatment. Proposed device comprises phase components feed and discharge means and tubular flow extraction chamber with fluid and carrier gas feed and discharge pipes. Extraction chamber is placed vertically in thermostat. It features hydrophilic inner surface and taper at top end aligned with capillary pipe so that a round slot is formed, or with funnel furnished with hollow cone secured so that a circular slot is formed between funnel surface and cone surface. Gas unions are arranged at acute angle to chamber axis while relative to chamber surface they are fitted tangentially. Method of extraction comprises feed of components into extraction chamber in countercurrent and discharge of carrier gas therefrom enriched in volatile components. Note here that tubular extraction chamber temperature is stabilised. Fluid flow forced into said chamber is converted into coaxial flow flowing over its concave surface in thin film while carrier gas flow is swirled in upward spiral. Mass exchange is executed at countercurrent of phase components or at stationary has phase.
EFFECT: increased extraction and higher sensitivity of analytic systems.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for gas-fluid extraction. Proposed method comprises management of fluid and carrier gas flows, formation of phase interphase and mass exchange with subsequent separation of extracted fluid and carrier gas enriched in volatile components. Fluid axial flow incoming to the chamber is transformed into two coaxial flows separated by carrier gas. Extraction in analytical systems is carried in one step whereat fluid and gas phases migrate or in two steps. First, sample is forced via chamber at stationary gas phase normal or decreased pressure. Then, at concentration phase equilibrium, formed cloud saturated with volatile components of carrier gas vapour-gas mix is pushed from said chamber into analyser gas cell whereat carrier gas pressure equals barometric pressure. Device comprises flow-through tubular mass exchange chamber arranged vertically and having coaxial cavity with hydrophilic surface connected at top end with diverging coaxial slit.
EFFECT: higher degree of extraction, sensitivity and accuracy of these systems.
4 cl 7 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in radiochemical production for cleaning and separation of radioactive fluids, and in chemical, metallurgical and pharmaceutical industries. Rotary extractor comprises housing with mixing chamber, light phase discharge chamber and heavy phase discharge chamber with partition, rotor with separation chamber and conveying device, hydraulic lock and light phase discharge pipes and drive mounted at housing cover. Top part of heavy phase discharge chamber is equipped with the pocket secured to housing inner wall. Aforesaid partition arranged concentrically in gap between said pocket and drive is connected with housing cover. Partition bottom edge is located under pocket top edge while said cover is a turning design.
EFFECT: perfected design.
FIELD: petrochemical industry; devices for a liquid by a liquid extraction.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to a device for a liquid by a liquid extraction. The invention is dealt with a multiplate device for realization in a vertical column of multistage an extraction of a liquid by a liquid using a counterflow principle. The device contains: plates, and each plate after a fine setting in a column takes a horizontal position and is supplied with a seal ring, which adjoins the inside surface of the column; a perforated working area; a chordal up-going channel located on one side of a plate and a vertical bead retaining a liquid and surrounding the working area of the plate and spaced apart from the plate periphery closer to its center. The height of the upward directed bead is sufficient to retained a heavy liquid on a working area of the plate preventing is appearance on the edge of the plate, where a leakage downwards is possible because of availability of a gap between the edge of the plate and then inside surface of the wall of the column. The invention ensures more efficient prevention of the heavy liquid leakages through the tightness along the edge of the plate.
EFFECT: the invention ensures more efficient prevention of the heavy liquids leakages through the sealing-in along the edge of the plate.
6 cl, 5 dwg