Extraction of soluble dissolved substance for reverse osmosis water treatment

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for desalting of sea, hard and/or contaminated water by direct osmosis desalting. To this end, contaminated feed solution with water at first osmosis pressure is forced through semi-permeable diaphragm to discharge side that has the flow of carrier solution with second osmosis pressure on discharge side of semi-permeable diaphragm. Diluted discharge solution is heated to agglomerate discharged diluted substance to two-phase flow containing liquid phase of agglomerated dissolved substance and liquid water phase. Then, agglomerated dissolved substance is separated to get enriched flow to be cooled to obtain cooled single-phase water-rich flow to be subjected to removal of residual dissolved substance to produce purified water.

EFFECT: higher quality and desalting and purification.

23 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

 

Cross-reference to related applications

This application confirms the priority of provisional patent application U.S. No. 61/517687, entitled "regeneration of the reversibly soluble solutes for pravastatina water treatment", registered on April 25, 2011, and provisional application for U.S. patent No. 61/572394, entitled "regeneration of the reversibly soluble solute for pravastatina water treatment", registered on 15 July 2011, which both are included by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

The technical field to which the invention relates

The present invention relates to the desalination of sea water, hard water, wastewater and/or polluted water. More specifically, the present invention relates to a direct osmotic desalination.

Background of the invention

Direct osmosis is known in the art and is the subject of recent research due to the probability of future shortages of fresh water and a corresponding increase in demand in a cost-effective technology for desalination and water treatment. Sea water, hard water or other contaminated water can be cleaned by holding water (solvent) across a semipermeable membrane, which selects salts and other impurities (solute). Provide during account creation�the natural way, or direct osmosis differs from the widely used reverse osmosis method, where water is passed through similarly valid semipermeable membrane under pressure. In pravastatina the ways water is conducted through a semi-permeable membrane with the use of output solution. Pravastatine method does not clean the water. Direct osmosis just moves the water from one group of solutes in another group of solutes.

Analysis and review pravastatina technology made in: Miller and Evens, Forward Osmosis, A new approach to water purification and desalination, Sandia Report SAND2006-4634, July 2006) which discusses the concept of using the excretion of solutes reversibly soluble polymers. The method of allocation of the dissolved substances from the water is not described.

Pravastatina system based on ammonia-carbon dioxide is described in U.S. patents №№7560029 and 6393295 (McGinnis), where the temperature dependent solubility of solutes is used for partial separation of dissolved substances from the water. Consider the precipitated solute are solid salts, and the balance of the allocation is achieved by distillation. The patent application U.S. serial No. 11/632994 (Collins) also describes the use of a temperature dependent solubility of salts to highlight the output of dissolved �of exista out of the water.

The patent application U.S. serial No. 11/796118 describes another pravastatina system that uses coated magnetic nanoparticles as the display of the solute. PCT/WO 2010/107804 describes the use of magnetic particles as a controlled osmotic agent.

U.S. patent No. 5679254 (Chakrabarti) describes the use of a temperature dependent solubility of polymers in water for the implementation of desalination, although without the help of forward osmosis.

U.S. patent No. 8021553 (Iyer) describes a system using a reversibly soluble polymer solute, and nanofilter for separation and extraction of the resulting micelles dissolved substances from the product water. Iyer defines an output solutes with hydrophobic and hydrophilic component. Iyer is also considering semi-batch extraction of solutes by collecting precipitated (or rasooldeen) allocated solute on nanofilter and extraction of the solute backwashing of nanofilter.

Here, we consider an improved system and methods pravastatina water treatment or desalination.

Brief description of the invention

Here, we consider an improved system and methods pravastatina water treatment or desalination. According to one embodiment includes�ivalsa method of cleaning contaminated water. The method comprises feeding the feed stream of contaminated liquid containing water and having a first osmotic pressure, on the supply side of a semipermeable membrane and to support a stream of output solution containing the output of the dissolved substance and having a second osmotic pressure, on the side of removing semi-permeable membrane. The water passes through a semipermeable membrane on the side of removing the obtainment of the diluted stream of output solution. The output of the dissolved substance in a diluted stream of output solution in order to form the exiting two-phase flow. The output of the dissolved substance in a two-phase effluent stream aglomerated with obtaining agglomerated effluent stream. Agglomerated displayed solute is separated from the agglomerated effluent stream with obtaining vodoemulsionnaja stream comprising water and residual output solute, and enriched with dissolved substance stream containing agglomerated displayed solute and water. Vodoobortnyh stream is cooled by dissolving the residual output of the solute and obtaining cooled single phase vodoemulsionnaja flow. Residual output solute is released from the cooled ognianov� vodoemulsionnaja stream to receive the stream of the residual of the extracted solute and the product stream of purified water.

The above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become more readily understood from the following detailed description of typical options, as discussed here.

Brief description of the drawings

Embodiments of the present invention are described only by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

figure 1 shows a typical pravastatine method according to one embodiment;

figure 2 shows a typical pravastatine method according to the second variant;

figure 3 shows typical pravastatine method according to another embodiment; and

figure 4 is a flow diagram of a typical pravastatina system according to one embodiment.

Detailed description of the invention

It should be noted that for simplicity and clarity of the show, when it's suitable, reference numbers may be repeated in all figures to indicate corresponding or analogous elements. In addition, numerous individual parts are provided to ensure full understanding of the typical variants described here. However, specialists in the art it will be clear that the typical variants described herein may be practiced without these individual parts. In other instances, methods, operations, and components are not openanimation, not to make obscure the options described here.

The present invention relates to improved systems with leading solution and to methods pravastatina water treatment or desalination. The system displays the solution and methods provide a device for separation of solutes of output from an aqueous solution of the solvent and the concentration of dissolved substances leading solution as part of a system pravastatina water treatment.

We consider here the output of the dissolved substance are reversible solubility. Solubility under consideration here, the output of solutes decreases significantly with temperature, but sufficient solubility in the surrounding environment, while ensuring the working of the osmotic pressure. We consider here the output of dissolved substances are preferably polymers specifically designed for use in the system and method pravastatina water treatment reversibly soluble substances.

In a typical embodiment, the output of the dissolved substance is statistical or alternating copolymer of low molecular weight diols, such as 1,2-PROPANEDIOL, 1,3-PROPANEDIOL and/or 1,2-ethanediol. Output solutes are acceptable osmotic pressure for the application of the special�your cleaning with a cloud point in the range from 40°C to 90°C and a molecular weight, high enough to provide fine-purifying filtering the dissolved polymer with the use of nanofilter and/or reverse osmosis membrane.

In a typical embodiment, the output of the dissolved substance is polyglycolic copolymer for use in the method of extracting the output of the dissolved substance, which contains a coagulant/separator for bulk extraction of a solute and nanofilter for final re-extraction of the solute.

We consider here the output of the dissolved copolymers consist of different ranks or orders diols, which give desirable properties of the solution. Osmotic pressure, cloud point, molecular weight and molecular structure regulated by the introduction or removal of various monomer units.

In a typical embodiment, the 1,2-ethandiol links are introduced in the output of the dissolved copolymer to increase the molecular weight and temperature of the cloud point of the resulting output of the dissolved copolymer. On the contrary, the introduction of 1,2-propandiol links displayed in the dissolved copolymer gives a lower pour point and higher molecular weight of the resulting output of the dissolved polymer.

In another typical embodiment, the 1,3-propanediamine or 1,2-ethandiol monomers zameŝa�t part 1.2-propandiol monomers of high molecular weight poly(propylene)glycol polymers with increased solubility and lowering the cloud point of the resulting polymer.

Osmotic pressure is a typical output of solutes depends on the application and extraction required. A typical output of dissolved substances require a higher osmotic pressure for high extraction in applications with streams containing higher concentrations of dissolved solids. Osmotic pressure leading solution required for typical systems and methods pravastatina of utoobasaurus sea water, typically greater than ~30 ATM (30 kg/cm2) with a minimum of more than ~40 ATM (40 kg/cm2), which is preferable to ensure a reasonable flow of product and extraction. In a typical embodiment, the solubility of the output of the solute decreases with temperature, which is enough (~10°C) above ambient temperature and enough (~10°C) below the boiling point.

In other words, the solubility of the output of the dissolved substance varies greatly, and the dependence of solubility on temperature increases in the range from 40°C to 90°C. Typical output of a solute with a strong dependence of solubility in the lower temperature interval (e.g., closer to 40°C) are preferred to minimize the operating temperature stages of regeneration in the manner and to minimize the resulting sweat�ü energy.

With the limitations of osmotic pressure and temperature turbidity chemical composition typical output of dissolved polymer are selected to adjust the molecular weight and/or physical structure of the polymer that gives a high (>90% and preferably >99%) posting the output of the dissolved substance by filtration. In addition, the chemical composition typical output of dissolved polymer is selected so as to minimize the back diffusion of the solute through pravastatina membrane. Preferably, for utoobasaurus salt osmotic pressure of the typical outputs of a solution containing 40% output copolymer dissolved in water, is more than 30 ATM (30 kg/cm2), preferably more than 40 ATM (40 kg/cm2), and, more preferably, more than 50 ATM (50 kg/cm2), whereas the molecular weight of the output of the dissolved copolymer is more than 500, preferably more than 1000, and more preferably more than 2000.

Example

Composition inferred solute

Subsequent non-limiting examples are provided to illustrate typical variations and are not intended to limit the scope of this invention.

The composition of the output of the dissolved copolymer containing statistical polyoxazolines were retseptoriani at concentrations from 30 to 70% m�SS. the output of the solute in the solution. The influence of the concentration of the output solution on the osmotic pressure at a typical operating temperature of the direct osmosis 25°C are shown in table 1. Osmotic pressure was measured directly in comparison with NaCl comparative benchmark using equilibrium dialysis.

Figure 1 shows a typical pravastatine method according to one embodiment. Thread 1 is from the source of hard water is supplied to the supply side of a semipermeable membrane in pravastatina module 3. Stream 18 output solution is fed in the direction of removing semi-permeable membrane in pravastatina module 3. The osmotic pressure of stream 1 from a source of hard water is less than the osmotic pressure of a stream 18 of output solution. The pressure differential causes the water from the stream 1 source of hard water to pass through a semipermeable membrane that gives the flow diluted 5 outputs of a solution and the flow 2 salt solution. Stream 5 diluted deducing the solution is passed through the network 4 of the heat exchangers, where the temperature increases enough to cause phase separation. Network 4 of the heat exchangers may contain one or more heat exchangers arranged in series or in parallel, to increase the tempera�URS diluted leading solution 5. Flow temperature, diluted 19 leading solution exiting as effluent from the network 4 of the heat exchangers is sufficient to create a two-phase exit stream.

Two-phase effluent stream 19 leading solution emerging from the network 4 of the heat exchangers is fed to the coagulator 6 with adjustable temperature for agglomerating the small droplets enriched with the dissolved substance, in network 4 of the heat exchangers. Coagulator 6 is designed to aggregate drops enriched with the dissolved substance, large enough to be separated in a subsequent method 8 of phase separation. In a typical embodiment, the coagulator 6 is designed to aggregate the droplets enriched with dissolved substance is larger than 10 μm, preferably more than 25 μm and, more preferably, more than 50 µm. The pressure drop caused by two-phase flows have passed through the coagulator 6, is significantly less than the pressure drop caused by two-phase flows have been through nanofilter. The use of coagulator 6 excludes introduce complexity and backwash required in semi-batch operations.

Coagulator 6 can also be divided into an upper section containing a hydrophobic coagulating elements for agglomerating the output of the dissolved substance, and the lower section containing �Hydrophilidae coagulating elements for aggregation of water. The degree of hydrophobicity of hydrophobic coagulation elements and the degree of hydrophilicity hydrophilic coagulating elements are selected to achieve a certain degree of agglomeration of the output of the solute is larger than 10 μm. In a typical embodiment, the degree of hydrophobicity of hydrophobic coagulation elements and the degree of hydrophilicity hydrophilic coagulating elements are selected for agglomerating output solutes larger than 10 microns.

The effluent 7 coagulator is fed to a gravity separator 8 with adjustable temperature, centrifuge, hydrocyclone or similar device, which accumulate enriched with dissolved substance drops from the coagulator. Gravity separator 8 is intended for separation of dissolved substances from water and produce a continuous enriched with dissolved substance flow 10 and continuous vodoemulsionnaja flow 9. In a typical embodiment, the operating temperature of the coagulator 6 and gravitational separator 8 is maintained below 150°C, preferably below 100°C and, more preferably, below 80°C, to establish a certain concentration of solute and osmotic pressure vodoemulsionnaja thread 9 exiting as effluent from the separator 8. In a typical embodiment, the operating temperature coagulator and gravitational separator 8 is selected to determine the concentration of solute in videobgame.com thread 9 less than 5%, preferably, less than 2% and, more preferably, less than 1% of the mass. the solute in the solution.

In a typical embodiment, the gravitational phase separator 8 is designed for concentrating solutes dissolved in the substance stream 10 to a concentration of more than 60%, preferably more than 80% and, more preferably, more than 90% of the mass. the solute in the solution.

Enriched with dissolved substance stream 10 exiting the phase separator 8 as the effluent is cooled in heat exchanger 16. Vodoobortnyh thread 9 exiting as effluent from the phase separator 8, is also cooled by a heat exchanger 11 with the provision of re-dissolving the residual solute and the creation of a single-phase chilled vodoemulsionnaja flow 12. Chilled vodoobortnyh stream 12 is the single-phase flow supplied to nanofilter 13, ultrafilter, or reverse osmosis module containing a semipermeable membrane, or similar device used to separate the residual solute from the product water. Nanofilter 13 is selected to separate the molecules of the dissolved substance on the basis of size or structure, ideally it skips much of the dissolved salt. The final stage of filtration in nanofilter 13, ultrafilter, obratlovci�Eskom module or similar device is used only for extraction of residual solutes in single-phase chilled videobgame.com stream 12. The dissolved substance is re-dissolved in a single phase refrigerated videobgame.com stream 12 to minimize the pressure drop across nanofilter 13 and to simplify the work. Permeate filter 14 water containing no solute, is a product of the method.

Enriched with dissolved substance stream 15 exiting nanofilter 13, is combined in mixer 17 with the cooled enriched with dissolved substance stream 10 exiting the heat exchanger 16, with a combined enriched with dissolved substance flow 18. The mixer 17 is used for complete dissolution of the solute in the resulting merged enriched with dissolved substance flow 18. The combined enriched with dissolved substance stream 18 is fed in pravastatine module 3 for purification or desalting stream 1 from the source in a continuous manner. Enriched with dissolved substance stream 10 exiting the phase separator 8 as the effluent is cooled in heat exchanger 16 to a certain temperature, which maintains the temperature of the combined enriched with dissolved substance flow 18 is quite low and provides complete solubility of the solute in the United enriched with dissolved substance stream 18, which enters pravastatine module 3.

In �epichem version shown in figure 1, coagulator 6 and/or the phase separator 8 can be heated to operating temperature additional external heat source (not shown).

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 1, coagulator 6 and phase separator 8 are combined into one physical device. Alternatively, instead of coagulator 6 can use the surface area in network 4 of the heat exchangers and the piping between the network 4 of the heat exchanger and phase separator 8.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 1, instead of maintaining the temperature based on the concentration of the solute, the temperature of the coagulator 6 and phase separator 8 is adjusted with the maintenance of osmotic pressure vodoemulsionnaja flow 9 below 50 mOsm, preferably below 25 mOsm, and more preferably, below 15 mOsm.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 1, the solute concentration in the stream 5 diluted solution regulated output using the flow rate of stream 5 diluted outputting solution or combined enriched with dissolved substance flow 18. Given the concentration in the stream 5 diluted solution regulated output with minimum consumption in pravastatina module 3, at least 4 l/(m2.h.).

In another typical variation�those shown in figure 1, the concentration of the microorganism in the stream 5 diluted solution regulated output UV sterilizer or the introduction of a pesticide.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 1, an improved method of oxidation or adsorption system is used to remove residual output solute permeate from filter 14.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 1, nanofilter 13, ultrafilter, or reverse osmosis filter is selected to obtain a cutoff molecular weight of less than 2000, preferably less than 1000 and, more preferably, less than 500; diversion of NaCl less than 50%, preferably less than 25% and, more preferably, less than 10%; and the discharge of solute greater than 95%, preferably more than 99% and, more preferably, greater than 99.9% of the mass. the solute in the solution.

Example

Working conditions coagulator

It was investigated the effect of operating temperature on the coagulant concentration flow method and the osmotic pressure in pravastatina the method shown in figure 1. In use the preferred method of bringing the solution containing statistical polyoxazolines. When heated in the coagulator 6 osmotic pressure of the flow of diluted 5 outputs of a solution decreases, and the solution is separated into enriched Sol�best guarantee substance phase and vodoemulsionnuyu phase. The effluent 7 coagulator is fed to a gravity separator 8, where the gravitational phase separator 8 allocates a solute from water with obtaining continuous dissolved substance flow 10 and continuous vodoemulsionnaja flow 9. Osmotic pressure vodoemulsionnaja thread 9 (which sets or limits the ultimate power filter 13) and the composition of the solute dissolved substance flow 10 (which sets or limits the flow rate of the membrane and the maximum concentration of salt solution processed in pravastatina module) are determined as a function of the operating temperature of the coagulator. The results are presented in table 2.

The operating temperature of the coagulator 6 is adjusted with the establishment of a certain osmotic pressure in videobgame.com thread 9 exiting as effluent from the separator 8. The operating temperature of the coagulator 6 is also regulated with the establishment of the concentration of a solute dissolved in a substance flow 10. As shown in table 2, the increase of the working temperature of the coagulator 6 reduces the osmotic pressure vodoemulsionnaja stream 9, so reducing the energy required to filter konechnostei 13 filtration. The increase in operating temperature of the coagulator 6 also gives an increase in the concentration of a solute dissolved in the substance of the effluent coagulator, therefore providing an increased flow rate of the membrane and the maximum concentration of salt solution processed in pravastatina module 3.

Figure 2 shows a typical pravastatine method according to another embodiment. Stream 200 from the source of hard water is supplied to the supply side of a semipermeable membrane in pravastatina module 202. Stream 240 output solution is fed in the direction of removing semi-permeable membrane in pravastatina module 202. The osmotic pressure of the stream 200 from the source of hard water is less than the osmotic pressure of the stream 240 that outputs a solution. The pressure differential causes the flow 200 from the source of hard water to pass through a semipermeable membrane with the receiving stream 206 diluted leading solution and stream 204 salt solution.

The flow of diluted 206 outputs of the solution can be divided into two streams 206 diluted leading solution and fed into the network of heat exchangers containing two or more heat exchangers 208, 210, 214. One stream is diluted 206 outputs of the enriched solution is fed into the dissolved substance, the heat exchanger 208, and another thread 206 times�ablanovo output solution is fed into vodoobortnyh the heat exchanger 210. Both streams are diluted 206 outputs of the solution are heated in the respective heat exchangers 208, 210, and receive the flow of heated output solution is recombined with the formation of the combined stream 212 diluted deducing the solution. The ratio of flowrates of streams diluted 206 outputs of the solution is regulated so that the temperature difference between two streams 206 diluted leading out of the solution leaving the heat exchangers 208, 210 in the network of heat exchangers is less than 5°C, preferably less than 3°C and, more preferably, less than 1°C. the combined stream 212 diluted leading solution may be passed through an additional complete heat exchanger 214, in which an external heat source waste heat, solar heat source or a heat source from combustion of fuel (not shown) is introduced to control the temperature and compensate for heat loss method.

The threads 206 of the diluted output solution and the combined stream 212 outputs of the solution are heated in the network of heat exchangers 208, 210, 214 is sufficient to initiate phase separation. The temperature of the combined stream 212 diluted leading solution exiting as effluent from complete heat exchanger 214 is sufficient to create a biphasic effluent� 212.

Two-phase effluent stream 5 output solution emerging from complete heat exchanger 214, is fed to the coagulator 216 with adjustable temperature for agglomerating small enriched with dissolved substance drops, the network of heat exchangers 208, 210, 214. Coagulator 216 is designed to aggregate enriched with dissolved substance drops, large enough for the Department in the subsequent processing in the phase separator 218. In a typical embodiment, the coagulator 216 is designed to aggregate enriched with dissolved substance droplets larger than 10 microns, preferably 25 microns and, more preferably, more than 50 µm. The pressure drop caused by two-phase flow of the flow passing through the coagulator 216, is substantially less than the pressure drop caused by two-phase flow of the flow passing through nanofilter. The use of coagulator 216 eliminates the additional complexity and backwash required in semi-batch operations.

Coagulator 216 can also be divided into a top section containing hydrophobic coagulating elements for agglomerating the output of the dissolved substance, and the lower section containing hydrophilic coagulating elements for aggregation of water. The degree of hydrophobicity of hydrophobic coagulation elements and the degree hydrofilm�STI hydrophilic coagulating elements are selected to achieve a certain degree of agglomeration of the output of the solute is larger than 10 μm. In a typical embodiment, the degree of hydrophobicity of hydrophobic coagulation elements and the degree of hydrophilicity hydrophilic coagulating elements are selected for agglomerating output solutes larger than 10 microns.

Output stream 220 coagulator is fed to a gravity separator 218, temperature controlled, centrifuge, hydrocyclone or similar device, which accumulate enriched with dissolved substance drops from the coagulator.

Gravitational phase separator 218 is intended for separation of dissolved substances from water and produce continuous vodoemulsionnaja stream 222 and continuous dissolved substance flow 224. In a typical embodiment, the operating temperature of the coagulator 216 and gravity separator 218 is maintained below 150°C, preferably below 100°C and, more preferably, below 80°C, to establish a certain concentration of solute and osmotic pressure vodoemulsionnaja stream 222, exiting as effluent from the separator 218. In a typical embodiment, the operating temperature of the coagulator 216 and gravitational phase separator 218 is selected to determine the concentration of solute in videobgame.com stream 222 is less than 5%, preferably less than 2% and, more preferably, less than 1% of the mass. dissolved prophetic�STV in solution. In a typical embodiment, the gravitational phase separator 218 is designed for concentrating solutes dissolved in the substance stream 224 to a concentration of more than 60%, preferably more than 80% and, more preferably, more than 90% of the mass. the solute in the solution.

Vodoobortnyh stream 222, exiting as effluent from the separator 218, passes through vodoobortnyh the heat exchanger 210 where it is cooled by the flow of diluted 206 outputs of the solution, and the flow of diluted 206 outputs of the solution, in turn, heats vodoemulsionnym stream 222. Enriched with dissolved substance stream 224 exiting as effluent from the separator 218, passes through a dissolved substance, the heat exchanger 208 where it is cooled by the flow of diluted 206 outputs of the solution, and the flow of diluted 206 outputs of the solution, in turn, heats enriched with dissolved substance stream 224. Therefore, a network of heat exchangers 208, 210, 214, mainly assigns/removes a significant heat from outgoing flows of gravitational phase separator 218, including continuous vodoobortnyh stream 222 and continuous dissolved substance stream 224. Continuous vodoobortnyh stream 222 and continuous dissolved substance stream 224 is cooled �a few degrees working temperature pravastatina module 202, while the ow of diluted 206 outputs of the solution, respectively, are heated.

Vodoobortnyh stream 222, exiting as effluent from the separator 218 is cooled vodoemulsionnym heat exchanger 210 with provision for re-dissolving the residual solute and the creation of a single-phase chilled vodoemulsionnaja stream 226. Chilled vodoobortnyh stream 226 is a single-phase flow supplied to nanofilter 228, ultrafilter, reverse osmosis module containing a semipermeable membrane, or similar device used to release the residual solute from the product-water. Nanofilter 228 is selected to separate the molecules of the dissolved substance on the basis of size or structure, ideally it skips much of the dissolved salt. The final stage of filtration in nanofilter 228, ultrafilter, reverse osmosis module or similar device is used only for extraction of residual solutes in single-phase chilled videobgame.com stream 226. The dissolved substance is re-dissolved in a single phase refrigerated videobgame.com stream 226 to minimize the pressure drop across nanofilter 228 and to simplify the work. Permeate water filter 230, containing a dissolved substance which is a product of the method.

In a typical embodiment, shown in figure 2, the coagulator 216 and/or the phase separator 218 can be heated to operating temperature additional external heat source (not shown).

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 2, to�egulator 216 and the phase separator 218 are combined into one physical device.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 2, instead of maintaining the temperature based on the concentration of the solute, the temperature of the coagulator 216 and phase separator 218 is adjusted with the maintenance of osmotic pressure vodoemulsionnaja stream 222 below 50 mOsm, preferably below 25 mOsm, and more preferably, below 15 mOsm.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 2, the concentration of a solute in a stream of diluted 206 outputs of the solution is adjusted using the flow rate of the stream 216 diluted outputting solution or combined enriched with dissolved substance flow 240. Given the concentration in the stream 206 dilute solution regulated output with minimum consumption in pravastatina module 202, at least 4 l/(m2.h).

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 2, the concentration of the microorganism in the stream 206 dilute solution regulated output UV sterilizer or the introduction of a pesticide.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 2, the advanced oxidation method or an adsorption system is used to remove residual output of dissolved substances from the permeate filter 228.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 2, nanofilter 228, ultrafi�ltr or a reverse osmosis filter is selected to obtain a cutoff molecular weight of less than 2000, preferably less than 1000 and, more preferably, less than 500; diversion of NaCl less than 50%, preferably less than 25% and, more preferably, less than 10%; and the discharge of solute greater than 95%, preferably more than 99% and, more preferably, greater than 99.9% of the mass. the solute in the solution.

Figure 3 shows a typical pravastatine method according to another embodiment. Stream 300 from the source of hard water is supplied to the supply side of a semipermeable membrane in pravastatina module 304. Stream 318 of output solution is fed in the direction of removing semi-permeable membrane in pravastatina module 304. The osmotic pressure of the stream 300 from the source of hard water is less than the osmotic pressure of the stream 318 of output solution. The pressure differential causes the flow 300 from the source of hard water to pass through a semipermeable membrane to receive the stream 306 of diluted leading solution and stream 302 salt solution.

Stream 306 diluted deducing the solution is passed through the network 308 heat exchangers, where the temperature increases enough to cause phase separation. Network 308 heat exchangers can contain one or more heat exchangers arranged in series or in parallel, to increase the temperature of the flow of diluted 306 displays dissolve�and. Flow temperature, diluted 30 leading solution exiting as effluent from the network 308 heat exchangers is sufficient to create a two-phase exit stream.

Two-phase effluent stream 340 outputs of the solution emerging from the network 308 heat exchangers, served in the main coagulant 310 with adjustable temperature for agglomerating small enriched with dissolved substance drops, 308 in the network of heat exchangers. The primary coagulant 310 is designed to aggregate enriched with dissolved substance drops, large enough for the Department in the subsequent processing in the phase separator 312. In a typical embodiment, the primary coagulant 310 is designed to aggregate enriched with dissolved substance droplets larger than 10 microns, preferably 25 microns and, more preferably, more than 50 µm. The pressure drop caused by two-phase flows of currents passing through the primary coagulant 310, is significantly less than the pressure drop caused by two-phase flow of the flow passing through nanofilter. The use of coagulant 310 eliminates the additional complexity and backwash required in semi-batch operations.

The effluent 314 main coagulator is fed to a gravity separator 312, a centrifuge, g�procylon or similar device, which accumulate enriched with dissolved substance drops from the primary coagulant 310. Gravitational phase separator 312 is intended for separation of dissolved substances from water and produce continuous vodoemulsionnaja stream 342 and continuous dissolved substance flow 316. In a typical embodiment, the operating temperature of the primary coagulant 310, and gravitational phase separator 312 is maintained below 150°C, preferably below 100°C and, more preferably, below 80°C, to establish a certain concentration of a solute in videobgame.com stream 342 exiting as effluent from the separator 312. The working temperature of the primary coagulant 310, and gravitational phase separator 312 may also be maintained to determine the concentration of solute in videobgame.com stream 342 is less than 5%, preferably less than 2% and, more preferably, less than 1% by mass of solute in solution. In a typical embodiment, the gravitational phase separator 312 can be designed and can work for concentrating a solute dissolved in the substance stream 316 to a concentration of more than 60%, preferably more than 80% and, more preferably, more than 90% of the mass. the solute in the solution. Enriched with dissolved substance p�current 316, emerging from the phase separator 312 as the effluent is cooled in the heat exchanger 320.

Vodoobortnyh stream 342 exiting as effluent from the separator 312, may be passed through the auxiliary coagulator 322, a temperature-controlled, designed for the dispersed phase with low concentration of solute. Auxiliary coagulator 322 is designed to aggregate enriched with dissolved substance drops in videobgame.com stream 342 and receiving enriched with dissolved substance flow 324, exiting as effluent from the auxiliary coagulator 322. Thanks to the "flooding" of coagulator caused by high concentrations of solute, the use of dense coagulation of the matrix is not viable or in front of the main coagulant 310. As a result, small droplets enriched with dissolved substance phase can be kept dispersed in the effluent 314 main coagulator. These small dispersed enriched with dissolved substance drops will increase the osmotic pressure of the exit stream 314 coagulator and, accordingly, require high pressure and energy consumption for end-stage filter 330. Vodoobortnyh stream 342, supply auxiliary coagulator 322, will have a low concentration p�created substances, ensuring the use of dense coagulating matrix with fewer elements in the auxiliary coagulator 322, which results in smaller droplets, be aggregated and allocated from vodoemulsionnaja stream 342 before he goes to the final stage filter 330. Design, material and configuration of the matrix on the coagulant is selected on the basis of the chemical properties of the solute and the size of dispersed drops.

Enriched with dissolved substance stream 324, exiting as effluent from the auxiliary coagulator 322, is recycled and introduced into the effluent 340 outputting two-phase solution emerging from the network 308 heat exchangers upstream from the primary coagulant 310. Vodoobortnyh stream 338, exiting as effluent from the auxiliary coagulator 322, cooled by a heat exchanger 326 with provision for re-dissolving the residual solute and obtaining single-phase chilled vodoemulsionnaja stream 328. The temperature of the auxiliary coagulator 322 are controlled independently, when required, to determine the concentration of a solute in a single-phase chilled videobgame.com stream 328 is less than 5%, preferably less than 2% and, more preferably, less than 1% of the mass. the solute in the solution.

Single-phase cooled in�doobery stream 328 is fed into nanofilter 330, ultrafilter, reverse osmosis module containing a semipermeable membrane, or similar device used to release the residual solute from the product-water. Nanofilter 330 is selected to separate the molecules of the dissolved substance on the basis of size or structure, ideally it skips much of the dissolved salt. The final stage of filtration in nanofilter 330, ultrafilter, reverse osmosis module or similar device is used only for extraction of residual solutes in single-phase chilled videobgame.com stream 328. The dissolved substance is re-dissolved in a single phase refrigerated videobgame.com stream 328 to minimize the pressure drop across nanofilter 330 and to simplify the work. Permeate 332 water filter that does not contain the solute, is a product of the method.

Enriched with dissolved substance stream 334 emerging from nanofilter 330, is combined in the mixer 336 cooled, enriched with dissolved substance flow 316 with a combined enriched with dissolved substance flow 318.

The mixer 336 is used to completely dissolve the solute in the resulting merged enriched with dissolved substance flow 318. The combined enriched with dissolved substance Potok served in pravastatine module 304 for purification or desalting stream 300 from the source in a continuous manner. Enriched with dissolved substance stream 316, emerging from the phase separator 312 as the effluent is cooled in the heat exchanger 320 to a certain temperature, which maintains the temperature of the combined enriched with dissolved substance flow 318 low enough to ensure complete solubility of the solute in water in pravastatine module 304.

In a typical embodiment, shown in figure 2, coalescers 310, 322 and/or the phase separator 312 can be heated to operating temperature additional external heat source (not shown).

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 3, the primary coagulant 310, and a phase separator 312 are combined into one physical device. Alternatively, the surface area 308 in the network of heat exchangers and the piping between the network 308 exchanger and phase separator 312 may be used instead of the primary coagulant 310 and its work.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 3, instead of maintaining the temperature based on the concentration of the solute, the temperature of the primary coagulant 310, auxiliary coagulator 322 and phase separator 312 is adjusted with the maintenance of osmotic pressure vodoemulsionnaja stream 338 below 50 mOsm, preferably below 25 mOsm, and more preferably, below 15 mo�M.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 3, the concentration of a solute in a stream of diluted 306 outputs of the solution is adjusted using the flow rate of the flow of diluted 306 outputting solution or combined enriched with dissolved substance flow 318. Given the concentration in the stream 306 of the diluted solution regulated output with minimum consumption in pravastatina module 304, at least 4 l/(m2.h).

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 3, the concentration of the microorganism in the stream 306 of the diluted solution regulated output UV sterilizer or the introduction of a pesticide.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 3, an improved method of oxidation or adsorption system is used to remove residual output of dissolved substances from the permeate filter 332.

In another typical embodiment, shown in figure 3, nanofilter 330, ultrafilter, or reverse osmosis filter is selected to obtain a cutoff molecular weight of less than 2000, preferably less than 1000 and, more preferably, less than 500; diversion of NaCl less than 50%, preferably less than 25% and, more preferably, less than 10%; and the discharge of solute greater than 95%, preferably more than 99% and, more preferably, greater than 99.9% �ACC. the solute in the solution.

The system and method pravastatina purification or water desalination, reviewed here, initiate phase separation upon heating, the resulting dispersed two-phase system is aggregated using the coagulator, and the mass of solute is extracted using a phase separator. Finally, we get vodoobortnyh stream is cooled by dissolving any residual dispersion of the solute, and the single-phase flow with low concentration of dissolved substances is sent to the filter (for example, nanofilter) for finite continuous filtration processing. Nanofilter or similar device is used to separate two-phase system at the final stage of filtration.

Figure 4 presents a typical flow diagram of a typical pravastatina system according to one embodiment. At stage 401, the flow of contaminated feed solution containing water and having a first osmotic pressure is supplied to the supply side of a semipermeable membrane and the flow of output solution containing the output of the dissolved substance and having a second osmotic pressure, is provided on the side of removing semi-permeable membrane. At stage 402 contaminated water from the feed solution gets the opportunity come�ü through a semipermeable membrane on the side of removing the obtainment of the diluted stream of output solution containing water and output of dissolved substance on the side of removing semi-permeable membrane.

At stage 403, the diluted stream of output solution was heated enough to create a two-phase exit stream.

At stage 405 of the output of the dissolved substance in a two-phase effluent stream aglomerated with obtaining agglomerated effluent stream. At stage 406 agglomerated displayed solute is separated from the agglomerated effluent stream with obtaining vodoemulsionnaja stream comprising water and residual output solute, and enriched with dissolved substance stream containing agglomerated displayed solute and water.

At stage 407 vodoobortnyh stream is cooled by dissolving the residual output of the solute and obtaining cooled single phase vodoemulsionnaja flow. At stage 408, the residual output of the dissolved substance separates from the cooled single phase vodoemulsionnaja stream to receive the stream of the residual output of the dissolved substance and the product stream of purified water.

The method may additionally include the stage of being redrawn and recycling of output solution. At stage 409 enriched with dissolved substance stream is cooled with getting klaeden�th enriched with dissolved substance of the thread containing the output solute and water. At stage 410, the flow of the residual output of a solute is combined with the cooled enriched with dissolved substance flow with obtaining personalnego deducing the solution. At stage 411 personalny deducing the solution is recycled to the side of removing semi-permeable membrane.

Typical options described above, consider an improved system and methods pravastatina purification and desalination of water. Various modifications of and deviations from typical variants will be obvious to those skilled in the art. Consideration, which is designed to match the essence of this invention in the following claims.

1. Method for cleaning polluted water, which contains:
- flow of the feed stream of contaminated liquid containing water and having a first osmotic pressure, on the supply side of a semipermeable membrane;
- ensuring the flow of output solution containing the output of the dissolved substance and having a second osmotic pressure on the side of removing semi-permeable membrane;
- the water passing through the semipermeable membrane on the side of removing the obtainment of the diluted stream of output solution;
- heating the flow of razbam�enny leading solution to initiate phase separation and obtaining a two-phase exit stream, containing a liquid phase output of a solute and a liquid aqueous phase;
- agglomerating the output of the dissolved substance in a two-phase effluent stream with obtaining a sintered two-phase effluent stream comprising a liquid phase sintered displayed solute and a liquid aqueous phase;
- Department of agglomerated output of a solute from a sintered two-phase exit stream with obtaining vodoemulsionnaja stream comprising water and residual output solute, and enriched with dissolved substance stream containing agglomerated displayed solute and water;
- cooling vodoemulsionnaja flow with getting chilled single-phase vodoemulsionnaja stream; and
- allocation of the residual output of dissolved substances from the cooled single phase vodoemulsionnaja stream to receive the stream of the residual output of the dissolved substance and the product stream of purified water.

2. A method according to claim 1, which further comprises:
- cooling of the dissolved substance flow with getting chilled enriched with dissolved substance stream containing output solute and water;
- Association stream of residual output solute � chilled enriched with dissolved substance flow with obtaining personalnego output solution; and
- recycling personalnego leading solution on the side of removing semi-permeable membrane.

3. A method according to claim 1, wherein heating the diluted output solution contains the heated diluted leading solution in the network of heat exchangers.

4. A method according to claim 1, wherein agglomerating the output of the solute contains agglomerating the output of the solute in the coagulator.

5. A method according to claim 1, wherein the separation of agglomerated output of a solute from a sintered two-phase exit stream contains a compartment agglomerated output of a solute from agglomerated facing two-phase flow in a gravitational phase separator.

6. A method according to claim 1, wherein the cooling vodoemulsionnaja stream contains cooling vodoemulsionnaja flow in the network of heat exchangers.

7. A method according to claim 1, wherein the separation of the residual output of a solute from the cooled single phase vodoemulsionnaja flow contains the separation of the residual output of a solute from the cooled single phase vodoemulsionnaja flow nanofilter, ultrafilter, or reverse osmosis module.

8. A method according to claim 2, wherein the cooling of the dissolved substance flow provides cooling obog�saturated dissolved substance flow in the network of heat exchangers.

9. A method according to claim 4, wherein the cloud point of the output of the dissolved substance is in the range from 40°C to 90°C and the temperature of the coagulant is less than 150°C.

10. A method according to claim 1, wherein the concentration of the residual output of a solute in videobgame.com flow is less than 5 wt.% the solute in the solution.

11. A method according to claim 1, wherein the osmotic pressure of the cooled single phase vodoemulsionnaja flow is less than 50 mOsm.

12. A method according to claim 1, wherein the concentration of the solute dissolved in the substance flow is more than 60 wt.%. the solute in the solution.

13. A method according to claim 1, wherein the output of the dissolved substance is statistical or alternating copolymer of low molecular weight diols.

14. A method according to claim 13, in which the molecular weight of statistical or alternating copolymer is more than 500 and the osmotic pressure of 40 wt.% the solute in solution is more than 30 ATM (30 kg/cm2).

15. A method according to claim 13, in which low-molecular dialami are ethanediol and PROPANEDIOL and cloud point temperature, the solubility and osmotic pressure of the output of the dissolved substance regulated by regulating the ratio of ethanediol/propandiol and regulation of molecule�Noah the inferred mass of the solute.

16. A method according to claim 1, which further includes determining the concentration or osmotic pressure of the residual output of a solute in videobgame.com the flow and the regulation of the concentration or osmotic pressure of the residual output of the dissolved substance by adjusting the operating temperature of the coagulant.

17. A method according to claim 1, which further comprises regulating the flow rate of the flow of output solution with maintaining a predefined concentration of the output of the solute in the diluted stream of output solution.

18. A method according to claim 4, wherein the coagulant
is divided into an upper section containing a hydrophobic coagulating elements for agglomerating the output of the dissolved substance, and the lower section containing hydrophilic coagulating elements for aggregation of water, where the degree of hydrophobicity of hydrophobic coagulation elements and the degree of hydrophilicity hydrophilic coagulating elements are selected for agglomerating output solutes larger than 10 microns.

19. A method according to claim 3, wherein the network of heat exchangers comprises at least two of the heat exchanger.

20. A method according to claim 7, in which nanofilter, ultrafilter, or reverse osmosis module contain a cutoff molecular weight of less than 2000, abduction NaCl �Aeneas, the 50 wt.% the solute in the solution and discharge of the output solute more than 95 wt.% the solute in the solution.

21. A method according to claim 1, wherein the concentration of microorganisms output of the solute in the way regulated by the UV sterilizer or a pesticide.

22. A method according to claim 7, in which method the oxidation or adsorption system is used to remove residual output of dissolved substances from the permeate filter nanofilter, ultrafilter or reverse osmosis module.

23. The contaminated water treatment system, which comprises: a semipermeable membrane having side power
- receive the stream of contaminated feed solution containing water and having a first osmotic pressure, and the side of the launch to receive the stream of output solution containing the output of the dissolved substance and having a second osmotic pressure, where the semi-permeable membrane to be used for transmission of water from a stream contaminated feed solution on the side of removing the obtainment of the diluted stream of output solution;
the first heat exchanger is designed for heating the diluted stream of output solution to initiate phase separation and obtaining a two-phase effluent stream comprising a liquid phase output of a solute and a liquid aqueous phase;
- coagulator intended for agglomerating the output of a solute in�oke diluted deducing the solution to obtain sintered two-phase exit stream, containing a liquid phase sintered displayed solute and a liquid aqueous phase;
- gravitational phase separator designed for separation of agglomerated output of the dissolved substance is made of sintered two-phase exit stream with obtaining vodoemulsionnaja stream comprising water and residual output solute and dissolved substance stream containing agglomerated displayed solute and water;
- a second heat exchanger designed for cooling vodoemulsionnaja flow, to obtain cooled single phase vodoemulsionnaja stream; and
- a reverse osmosis module for allocating the residual output of dissolved substances from the cooled single phase vodoemulsionnaja stream to receive the stream of the residual output of the dissolved substance and the product stream of purified water.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of purification of phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk includes preliminary desiliconisation of phenol-containing sewage waters by their processing with hydrochloric acid with precipitation of solid and separation from solution of silicon-containing product and electrochemical oxidation in presence of chloride ions in electrolytic cell with application of direct current. Process of electrochemical oxidation is carried out with concentration of chloride ions 0.10-0.11 mol/l in non-diaphragm electrolytic cell with application of ruthenium-titanium oxide anode and titanium cathode for 70-90 min with current density 100-150 mA/cm2 with constant mixing. Required concentration of chloride ions is provided by dilution with water of phenol-containing sewage waters after their desiliconisation.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase degree of purification of polydisperse concentrated phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk from phenol and other organic pollutants.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a flotation device, a frame, a hydraulic drive. On the frame the longitudinal rods are pivotally mounted, and on their cantilever portion the linkage for attachment of the drum is mounted with the ability of movement in a vertical plane. The drum is mounted with the ability of replacement of the drum holder, at that the drum is rotated by the hydraulic motor through the belt drive in the direction opposite of the flotation device movement.

EFFECT: improvement of quality of the implementation of the technological process of cleaning the water reservoirs from blue-green algae and reduction of energy intensity.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for biological purification of household and close to them in composition industrial sewage waters from organic compounds and nitrogen of ammonium salts. Initial sewage water is processed in alternating zones with reduced oxygen regime and aerobic regime with further settling biologically purified water and recirculation of active silt. First, sewage water is processed in two zones with reduced oxygen regime, where growth of attached microorganisms is performed on planar inert material with specific area of its surface in first zone 17 m2/m3 and in second- 21 m2/m3 and hydraulic load in first zone not higher than 1.38 m3/m2 of carrier and in second - 0.43 m3/m2 of carrier. After that, processing is carried out in two aerobic zones with specific surface of inert charge material 24 m3/m2 and hydraulic load 0.32 m3/m2 of carrier in each. Recirculated mixture of sewage water and active silt from last aerobic zone is supplied to beginning of first zone in amount 120-150% of volume of supplied sewage water. Concentration of oxygen in zones with reduced oxygen regime is supported in amount 0.5 mg/l, and in aerobic zones - 4-5 mg/l. Settling of purified water is realised for 1-1.5 hours.

EFFECT: method provides increased stability of purification processes, reduction of energy consumption for air supply, twofold reduction of volume of secondary settling tanks.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 cl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, namely the preparation of wastewaters in irrigated agriculture for irrigation and fertilising of plants. The biological stabilisation storage pond comprises a closed water intake water reservoir area in the form of a storage pond 1, having a water-supply tube 2 with the fed collector 21, and a water distribution device at the inlet of the discharge pipeline 4. The water distribution device has two concentrically arranged rings, the inner 5 of which is connected to the pipeline of the outlet, and the outer 6 - to the pipeline of inlet and is located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inlet opening of the ring 5 is provided with an air pipe 9 with a valve 10, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline 4, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. The source of pressurised air and gas emitted from the wastewaters is made in the form of a mixing chamber 11 with the mesh cloth 12 at the upper part, sequentially arranged on the discharge pipeline 4 below its input. The chamber 11 is connected by the tube 13 with the perforated tubes 14 located in the cavity of the inner ring 5. In the side walls of the inner rings 5 there are air-gas slotted openings 16. In order to regulate the conditions of discharge of the wastewaters into the pond and their removal from the side of the grid 8 at filling the pond 1 a shield 19 can be mounted with an inclination towards the bottom of the pond. The shield 19 can be mounted on a horizontal axis of rotation 20 and is connected by the rods with the drive of vertical movement. According to the second embodiment the storage pond comprises successive water reservoirs with inclined bottoms and water distribution devices. The water distribution devices are formed as two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected with the discharge pipeline and the outer - with the pipeline of feeding of flows, located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inner ring is provided with an air pipe with a vent, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. In the side walls of the inner ring there are air-gas outlet openings. The water distribution devices are connected on the discharge pipeline with the mixing chambers.

EFFECT: device improves the efficiency of protection of intake of wastewaters from entering floating debris and simultaneous contributes to decontamination when feeding wastewaters for irrigation The design of the device enables to mix the air due to the organisation of the process of air-gas connection and discharging it from the chamber, which is in the gaseous state.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes anaerobic fermentation of organic substances in a methane tank with electrical activation of the medium with dc voltage of 0.2-36 V while stirring and bubbling the mass with the released biogas. The organic substances are fed into the methane tank with moisture content of 40-95%. Monitoring is carried out by measuring the value of current in the electrical circuit, calculating conductivity of the system, measuring the volume flow rate of the formed biogas and determining the current content of carbon dioxide gas in the biogas in the upper part of the methane tank. Electrical activation of methanogenesis is controlled by controlling current by setting a new value of current at the level of the sum of the present and calculated maximum current.

EFFECT: high content of methane in biogas, intensification of the process of producing biogas, high process stability and obtaining an end product with accurately defined parameters.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used in membrane electrolytic production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide for removing silicon from aqueous compositions containing sodium chloride. The method includes adding, to an aqueous composition of sodium chloride containing silicon, an aluminium-containing compound to obtain molar content of aluminium higher than molar content of silicon in said aqueous composition; Monitoring and maintaining pH of the composition at a first level higher than or equal to 8 and lower than or equal to 10 to obtain a first precipitate; Monitoring and maintaining pH of the obtained aqueous composition at a second level higher than or equal to 4 and lower than or equal to 7 to obtain a second precipitate; separating the formed precipitate from the aqueous suspension to obtain a purified aqueous composition. According to the second version of the method, the precipitate is separated at each formation step thereof. A method of producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide includes electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution purified from silicon using the disclosed methods using a membrane cell.

EFFECT: invention reduces content of silicon in the purified solution which contains sodium chloride, with aluminium content in the purified solution lower than 1 mg/l.

14 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during HCs production from natural or associated petroleum gas. Method of oxygenates cleaning from reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes conversion of even part of the contained oxygenates under conditions of syngas chilling by even part of the reaction water at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion. Further syngas cooling temperature below 400°C is performed by the cleaned water injection in the syngas flow. Method of use of the reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes its cleaning of the oxygenates under conditions of the syngas chilling at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion, cleaned water degassing. The cleaned degassed water is used to cool the syngas to temperature below 400°C and produce the water steam.

EFFECT: invention ensures effective cleaning of the reaction water of the oxygenates, and use of the produced cleaned water as feed water for boilers and water steam production.

4 cl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filter to be incorporated with waster filtering assembly. Water filtering assembly comprises filter of, mainly, a flat profile. Water filtering assembly comprises container for filtered water, intake funnel to be fitted in said container and to intake unfiltered water. This filter can be fitted in intake funnel for filtering of water fed therein. The filter makes the exit from intake funnel for filtered water to get into aforesaid container. The filter makes the intake funnel bottom and as a result water filtering goes over the entire intake funnel bottom. The filter comprises case with water intake and filtered water outlet. Note here that filtering medium is arranged between said intake and said outlet. Water filtering medium includes the ply of ion-exchange resin and ply of material filled with activated carbon. Note that said plies are separated in said case.

EFFECT: higher filtering rate.

22 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: desalination multistage adiabatic plant additionally comprises a thermosoftener (52) which serves for the generation of sludge particles in the feed water heated in a steam heater (26) and taken from a pipeline to supply the feed water to the inlet of a multi-stage adiabatic evaporator (4), as well as a two-section feed water receiver (76) to reduce supersaturation in the sea water being evaporated due to the usage of sludge particles as "seed crystals" in the supersaturated solution volume. The thermosoftener (52) comprises a perforated membrane (56) built-in in the casing (53) under the cover, a dome-shaped horizontal partition (61) installed with a gap in respect to the inner casing wall, vertical cylindrical shells, a manifold to withdraw the vapour (62) under the dome-shaped partition, a branch pipe for water withdrawal is united with the sludge particle removal and is mounted in the casing bottom, and the branch pipe for steam supply is built-in in the casing cover.

EFFECT: lower rate of scale formation on working surfaces of the plant elements.

2 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device and a method of detecting the quality of a liquid, which are used in water treatment devices. The detector "renders" the quality of water in the form of visible radiation instead of converting intensity of UV radiation into digital form and comprises a first detection window coated with a first material for converting first received UV radiation emitted by a UV source and transmitted through the liquid into first visible radiation. The device additionally mixes the first visible radiation with second visible radiation to produce third visible radiation. A different colour of the third visible radiation reflects different quality of water.

EFFECT: invention simplifies the device and method owing to absence of UV sensors in water, which detect UV intensity.

14 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: clinical hematology.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cartridge is constructed in the form of single device allowing multistep hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration, wherein, disposed in the same cartridge, first hemodiafiltration step has first filter elements and second hemofiltration step has second filter elements. Cartridge can be used in a system with intermediate, preliminary or consecutive dilution.

EFFECT: increased degree of filtration and efficiency in removal of toxins.

26 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for water purification according to the principle of reverse osmosis. The device for the production of superpure water according to the principle of reverse osmosis contains a reverse osmosis filter which is divided into a primary chamber and a secondary chamber, a primary circuit, through which raw water is supplied to the primary chamber and through which a concentrate is discharged from it, and a secondary circuit for the supply of a permeate to at least one consumer, preferably to a dialysis apparatus. A pump is built into a pipeline of the primary circuit, and a valve with a drain is built into the pipeline of the primary circuit concentrate. In or on the primary circuit and/or secondary circuit placed is a device for the registration of organic and/or inorganic deposits, connected with the device of data processing, with an elastic, extendable buffer vessel, adapted for carrying out reverse washing of a membrane with the permeate, being built into the secondary circuit. The device for the registration of organic and/or inorganic deposits is made with a possibility of initiating reverse washing in case of a respective degree of contamination.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce expenditures for the device exploitation due to refusal from periodic cleaning of the membrane and automatic determination of a necessity of the pipeline disinfection.

10 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of super pure water by reverse osmosis process. Proposed device comprises reverse osmosis filter module (6) divided by membrane (8) into primary chamber (7) and secondary chamber (9) and supply tank (3) with atmospheric vent including water feed pipe (1). Pipe (5) with built-in pump (4) extends from bottom end of supply tank (3) to primary chamber (7). Return concentrate pipe (14) extends from primary chamber (7) to supply pipe (3) while permeate pipe (28) extends from secondary chamber (9). Venturi pump (20) with converging chamber (21) and diverging chamber (22) is built in return pipe (14) and includes suction hose (18) to be selectively connected by plug joint (17, 26) with tank (27) containing disinfectant or with return concentrate pipe (14) upstream of Venturi pump 20. Plug joint (17, 26) comprises two plug-in connectors. The latter when disconnected make fixed part automatically close while connection or disconnection of suction hose (18) is registered and used as a control signal for reverse osmosis.

EFFECT: disinfection process can be notably automated.

11 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: heat-and-power engineering; the methods of the deep desalinating of the sweet and brackish waters.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the heat-and-power engineering, in particular, to the method of the deep desalinating of the sweet and brackish waters and may be used for production of the deep desalinated water from the sweet and desalinated waters. The method of deep desalination of the sweet and brackish waters includes the sequential processes including the following stages: clarification, treatment of the clarified water with the ion-exchange filters and desalting at the reverse osmosis stage with the concentrate withdrawal from each stage of purification. At that the process of the reverse osmosis desalination is conducted at least, within two stages at the higher pressure of the purified water at each subsequent stage of desalting using the corresponding to the preset pressures diaphragms and the ratio of consumptions of permeate to the concentrate at the reverse osmosis stage in the whole within the limits of n = 7-99, and withdrawal of the concentrate is conducted from the reverse osmosis stage at each stage at regeneration of the ion-exchange filters. At the heightened contents of the organic compounds the clarified water is additionally subjected to Cl-ionization at the filters loaded with the organo-absorbing anionite, withdrawal of the concentrate from the reverse osmosis installation is conducted at the regeneration of the Cl-ionite filter and then - at the regeneration of the H-Na-cationite filter, but the withdrawal of the alkaline solution - at additional regeneration of the Cl-ionite filter. The method ensures the significant output of the permeate, the reduced consumption of the concentrate. At that the quality of the desalted water is improved and the escape of the concentrate at the stages of desalting is reduced and the consumption of the water by the installation is also reduced.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the significant output of the permeate, reduced consumption of the concentrate, improved quality of the desalted water, reduced escape of the concentrate at the stages of desalting, reduced consumption of the water by the installation.

4 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex

The invention relates to desalination of natural salt and brackish water reverse osmosis

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of fighting microorganisms in a water system. The method includes the processing of the water system with an effective quantity of a formula I compound, where the water system has the pH value of 6.9 and higher. In formula I X represents a halogen; R and R1 represent, respectively, hydroxyalkyl and cyanoradical (-C≡N), or R and R1 represent, respectively, hydrogen and amidoradical of formula .

EFFECT: method makes it possible to effectively fight microorganisms in water systems with the higher pH value.

8 cl, 7 dwg, 6 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of fighting microorganisms in water system. Claimed method includes processing of water system with efficient amount of formula I compound, with water system containing reducing agent in amount at least 10 ppm. In formula X represents halogen; R and R1, respectively, represent hydrogen and aminoradical of formula Invention also relates to application of formula (I) compound for fighting microbes in water system, containing reducing agent.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to efficiently fight microorganisms in water systems under deactivating conditions, created by presence of reducing agent.

10 cl, 4 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: device contains a receiving reservoir, the main forcing pump, an input three-way high-speed valve, a connecting pipe for input of water to be purified, a membrane unit, a connecting pipe for output of the purified sewage, an output three-way high-speed valve and a reservoir of the purified sewage, successively connected to each other by a pipeline for operation in a sewage purification mode. In their turn, the reservoir of the purified sewage, an additional pump, the output three-way high-speed valve, the connecting pipe for output of the purified sewage, the membrane unit , the input three-way high-speed valve and a settling tank are successively connected by an additional pipeline to operate in a mode of reverse osmosis membrane purification. The membrane unit is connected to an ultrasonic generator. A control unit, provided in the device, is connected to the input and output three-way high-speed valves, additional pump and ultrasonic generator.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of periodic purification of filtering elements and increase of their service term.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment and can be used in whatever field. Initial water is filtered through sorbent containing graphene and/or carbon nanotubes and membrane including cylindrical or conical through 0.0050.3 mcm-dia pores. Proposed device comprises sorbent containing graphene and/or carbon nanotubes and membrane including cylindrical or conical through 0.0050.3 mcm-dia pores. Filtration element membrane is a track membrane. Membrane cylindrical pores are composed by carbon nanotubes. Invention allows to up efficiency and reliability of water treatment and to down costs.

EFFECT: conserved useful mineral elements, higher biological activity.

14 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment membrane-type plants with filtration rate of lower than 1 liter per minute. Proposed plant comprises fluid feed means, fluid treatment unit, treated fluid discharge means, free-flow cleaned fluid intake container, treated fluid level control means and treated fluid flow control means. It differs from known plants in peculiar design of treated fluid flow control means, container, treated fluid level control means and their arrangement in the plant. Note here that treated fluid flow control means is arranged at the container body or cover while treated fluid level control means allows retaining the latter in open position and is arranged inside container or fluid treatment unit.

EFFECT: higher reliability and performances, simplified design.

37 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed unit comprises tank, oil pump, hydraulic control valve operated by limit switches to direct oil flows into right or left chambers of larger-diameter cylinder accommodating plunger with rod rigidly jointed with those of smaller-diameter hydraulic cylinder. Precleaners are fitted in smaller-diameter hydraulic cylinder suction and delivery lines. Smaller-diameter hydraulic cylinder is connected with disk tubular filter. Additional parallel arrangement of precleaners and disk tubular filters allows detachment of filters, without stopping the operation, their repair and washing. Water treatment unit may operate as high-pressure water pump and high-pressure dispensing pump.

EFFECT: higher quality of water treatment, reduced vibration and noise.

7 cl, 6 dwg

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