Downcomer

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: downcomer contains input and main sections with walls limited by surfaces of rotation. Walls of input and main sections are provided with internal superhydrophobic film coating. Wall of the main section is made in form of connected power mesh and internal superhydrophobic film with system of microholes. Axes of the microholes make with the pipe axis directed from input section to output of the main section the angle from 90 to 160 degrees.

EFFECT: reduced lifting force.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of renewable energy and fresh water and hydraulic piping systems.

In the works Fedyaevsky K. K. Reduction of frictional resistance by changing the physical constants on the wall. Reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 9-10, 1943, and Kornilova, V. I. the Use of microwave air through the porous wall to reduce friction on a flat plate. Bulletin of the Novosibirsk University. Vol. 5, issue. 3, 2010. the described method of reducing friction (45-47%) of a solid surface by gas injection into the boundary layer. This is a very effective way to reduce hydraulic friction used to record the high-speed Russian torpedo type "Squall" (Kaptsov O. "is There a torpedo dangerous "Squall"? Military review, 20.06.2013). However, the input gas with a streamlined head portion of the liquid body can provide a gas film at a relatively small distance from the gas inlet, is incomparably smaller than the length of the pipeline. In addition, required a large expenditure of energy to maintain the gas film, and also dramatically increases the hydraulic resistance in case of accidental release part of the solid surface from the gas film when maneuvering torpedoes.

Known technical solution, the closest to consider is the patent RU 2073129 "the Remedy of reduction of friction resistance of bodies in W�dcoi environment the device for its implementation," IPC F15D 1/06, publ. 27.04.1993, ed. Denisov E. P., Grigor'ev V. Yu., Doroschenko AV, etc. In it to reduce the hydraulic resistance on the inner surface of the pipe is applied hydrophobic coating. However, the reduction of hydraulic resistance is substantially less than in the previous case.

The object of the present invention is a significant reduction of hydraulic friction in diplegs, allowing you to skip the high costs of liquid through a small passage cross-section with minimum energy losses and to maintain low hydraulic friction at random oscillations of the pipe. This allows the diplegs of renewable energy and fresh water from the clouds (patent RU 2407914 C1 "Method and apparatus of renewable electricity and clean water", IPC F03B 13/00, publ. 27.12.2010, ed. Bibikov S. A. and patent RU 2500854 C1 "AERO HPP", IPC E02B 9/00, F03B 13/00. Publ. 10.12.2013, ed. Kazantsev A. N.), connecting the aerial and ground, use a pipe with a minimum outside and respectively pass sections, which achieves minimal aerodynamic wind resistance and the weight of the water in the pipe with minimum hydraulic losses. This allows to reduce the required lifting force and volume of the supporting balloons and loads in tethered cables.

This is achieved by in�execution of the main pipe section of two layers: in the form of interconnected power grids and internal solid superhydrophobic films imbued with a system of tiny holes, with their axes make with the axis of the pipe directed from the inlet portion to the outlet of the primary area, the angle from 90 to 160 degrees, or solid walls with inner superhydrophobic coating with a similar system of through pinholes.

Fig. 1 and 2 shows a device dipleg.

A vertical standpipe (see Fig. 1) includes the initial non-perforated bounded by surfaces of revolution phase 1 with internal superhydrophobic coating 2. Attached to it and continues the main limited similar surfaces (in particular cylindrical) core area, the wall of which is made of bonded power of the grid 3 and the inner superhydrophobic film 4. Through perforation superhydrophobic film on the main plot, as shown in Fig. 2, in the form of a dense grid of tiny holes 5. The angle between the axes 6 of the microapertures, directed from the inside of the pipe, and the axis 7 of the tube coinciding with the direction from the inlet portion to the outlet of the core, is in the range from 90 to 160 degrees. The main area 3 may also be designed as power solid pipe with an inner hydrophobic coating 4. Perforation on the main plot in this case, as shown in Fig. 3 made in the form of a dense grid of through pinholes with about�s 6.

Pipe restraint attached to the balloon rope 8 mesh yoke 9.

The water supplied in the initial phase 1 vertical dipleg under the action of gravity is accelerated up to speed, does not cause significant pressure loss due to reduction of hydraulic friction due to the superhydrophobic coating 2. Accordingly, increasing the speed decreases the flow area of the pipe.

Then the water enters inside the 4 main perforated section. Just as in the ejector (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ejector in the water jet pressure is lower than that of the surrounding air, penetrating through the through holes 5 in the film or solid wall pipe to the flowing water. The air and creates a gas layer between the fluid and the wall, reducing friction losses. As in the ejectors, this contributes to a blowing gas in the direction of flow through oblique relative to the wall of the micro-holes 5. This became possible when using recently developed technology for production of track membranes on the accelerators of ions, which, penetrating into the solid material, change the structure of the material along the ion path, creating a direct or subsequently vytravlivaetsya the microchannels (Reutov, V. F., Dmitriev S. N. Ion-track nanotechnology. Russian chemical journal, vol. XLVI, 5, 2002). This technology delivers equally high�the dimension of the position and orientation of the pinholes. In accordance with the increasing speed of the flow area of the pipe continues to decline. Due to the direct transformation of energy received by a thread in the speed encountered a slight pressure differential between the atmosphere and the flow is perceived as the power element: mesh or solid wall. The stability of superhydrophobic tube promotes the film or covering 4, which repels water molecules in the gap between the flow and penetrate the wall of the air molecules. This saves gas film even in case of accidental movements of the pipe in the wind, which can affect the long drop tube installation for renewable energy production and fresh water.

This effect, as well as the force of the jet on an obstacle does not allow the possibility of a collapse of the pipe from external pressure. Aerodynamic and propulsion forces acting on the pipe, perceives tie wire 7 of the balloon, rigidly mounting the tube using mesh yoke 8.

The specific implementation of the invention may be illustrated by the example of the dipleg renewable energy source and water, the main area which has a length of 3000 m, passing 350 cubic meters per hour of water. When a valid (in terms of energy loss) of the input speed of 2 m/s inlet inner diameter of the main teaching�TKA 250 mm. In accordance with the acceleration of the flow under the action of gravity pipe diameter varies approximately inversely proportional to the root of the fourth degree of the entrance. At the output of the pipe inner diameter of 22.5 mm. In the inner film of hydrophobic polyethylenterephtalate (on the above-mentioned patent RU 2073129) is a network of through pinholes with a diameter of 5 μm, using ion-track technology (see above). The axis of the holes comprise an obtuse angle with the direction of flow, which provides an ejector effect of the suction of air from the surrounding atmosphere. Power load perceives attached to the outer film of the power mesh of polyester yarns, which are made of standard aerodyne balloons.

In the case of a substantial increase in the power of the accelerators used in the ion-track technology, there is the possibility of making tiny holes in hard materials of greater thickness and through perforation in a solid pipe walls together with internal superhydrophobic coating. Since the pressure drop in the water flow and the ambient atmosphere is negligible, the thickness of the pipe wall may be minimal.

Standpipe is attached to the tethered rope of a balloon net clamps of polyester filaments, slightly impeding the access of air, allowing you to transfer aerodynamic�ski wind and power load of the pipe to the wire. This design provides the internal diameter of the pipe to a height of 2 km less than 30 mm. This ensures minimal aerodynamic resistance in the densest layers of the atmosphere, the weight of the water in the pipe.

The technical result of the proposed device is the reduction of energy losses at high water velocities, reducing the diameter and cost of the standpipe external aerodynamic drag and weight of the water in the pipe. This can significantly reduce the lifting force needed and the cost of the balloons holding the dipleg and the diameter and cost of the tethers.

Of course, the proposed design solution for the main plot can be used to reduce hydraulic friction in a long high-speed pipelines stationary hydraulic systems low pressure, to reduce weight and cost.

1. Standpipe installations for renewable energy production and fresh water containing the input and main areas with walls, limited by surfaces of revolution, with internal superhydrophobic film coating, characterized in that the wall of the main section is made in the form interconnected power grid and inner superhydrophobic films, imbued with a system of micro holes, the axes of orifice� make with the axis of the pipe, directed from the inlet portion to the outlet of the primary area, the angle from 90 to 160 degrees.

2. Standpipe according to claim 1, characterized in that the solid wall of the primary area together with internal superhydrophobic coating is permeated by a system of through pinholes.



 

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