Method of sowing grain crops

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises alternate strip broadcast sowing seeds with loosening the soil to a depth of sowing on the whole working width. Continuous sowing seeds is carried out through a strip with intermittent sowing seeds on the strip sections with the length of 22.5-30 cm with unsown gaps of the same length within a given general seeding rate. The width of the space between the continuously sown strips is Lc=(2×lm-ls)>30 cm, and the width of the gap between the adjacent strips is la=(lm-ls)>22.5/2, where lm is row middle; ls is a strip width.

EFFECT: use of the invention enables to improve the harvesting capacity and quality of grain, as well as the level of profitability of grain production while reducing costs.

4 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods of planting crops and may find application in agriculture.

The known method of sowing I. E. Osinskogo /1/ based on the farming system with the regulation of plants when sown on the principle of "densely-empty": "...plants to produce a crop must grow very thickly, and from the sides to have a free space..." /1, p. 164/. In such crops, the plants have to intraspecific fighting, having at the same time an abundance of light and power within. Crops of grain led to a depth of about 5 cm belt width of about 30 cm on a wet base of the capillary soil layer, alternating with sown strips of the same width (Fig.1). The sowing was carried out by rows method according to six rows in each tape. The seedlings were treated equestrian poolname 2-3 times until you grow up grain crops planted on the tapes and will not create a blackout in the unseeded strip that, in turn, allows to suppress the growth of weeds and tantamount to harrowing effect.

This method of sowing is then provided (in the late 19th century) the germination of seeds without rain on the 6th day, accelerated development of grain for 2 weeks and increase yield up to two times. However, in modern conditions the implementation of this method with modern technical means is difficult, in particular because of damage to shoot�in the passage of heavy equipment. But this method gives an idea about optimal for the manifestation of the effect of "densely-empty" width seeding and culture of unused lanes and the need for special measures to suppress weeds in unused cereal bars.

The known method of sowing of crops across the lane at approximately equal to the width size (20-25 cm) seeding and unused strips /2/ and the device for its implementation (patent RF №2204891). The soil at seeding loosen the band across the width to the depth of planting and at the same time seeds placed randomly on the prepared bed. The top layer of loosened soil shift in unused bandwidth. The remainder, covering the seeds, the loosened soil is leveled and compacted, providing a thickness of 2.5-3.5 cm layer of soil over the seeds for the formation of a single node of tillering, which contributes, in particular, to strengthen the root system and increase yield. Laying remove most of the dry soil layer of sown sown strips on the strip in the form of a comb allows you to get more moisture that rolls down from the crest sown in lane and has a positive effect on the development of the grain. Weeds, covered with an additional layer of dry ground and not receiving atmospheric moisture, do not germinate for a long time, and the crops in the tillering period dim the unused p�low, creating the effect of harrowing. Production verification of the method was carried out in 2003-2004 on the area of 11 thousand hectares and has shown an increase wheat yields by 50 to 100 percent.

This method of sowing grain showed the possibility of the existence of the effect of "densely-empty" with a doubling of crop yields under strip planting and width of the bands (20-25 cm or 22.5 cm - - weighted average) less than Osinskogo I. E. (30 cm, 32 cm /1/), if you use the techniques with the effect equivalent to the harrowing sown strips.

To provide conditions for existence of the effect of "densely-empty" required width unused culture space Ls in the range of 22.5-32 cm /1, 2/, and Ls=(2×LM-l),

where LM - aisle;

l - band width.

When row spacing (LM) 22.8 cm and width of planting strip (l) 18-20 cm sagittal opener "Omichka", for example, we obtain Ls=26-28 cm

Currently, however, many designs sowing machines for sowing grain broadcast) are characterized by a large value of the aisle, determining the amount of space Ls>30-32 cm

The technical result, which directed the claimed invention is effective in the technical implementation of cultivation of spring and winter cereal machines for loosening soil and band sowing with row spacing of LM and width of the planting strip l and Ls=(2×LM-l)>30 cm with provide�the Directors for planted crops the manifestation of the effect of the "densely-empty", increased productivity and cost reduction per unit of production.

To achieve the said technical result in the cultivation of crops with tillage for seeding depth across the width of the capture sowing is carried out with a spacing of 1 m and a width of planting strip l at (2×LM-l)>30 cm strip with continuous seeding across the lane with intermittent seeding on segments (stripes), with a length of 22.5-30 cm with unused gaps of the same length, within a given total seeding rate. In this case, the gap between adjacent strips LC=(LM-l)>22,5/2 cm

In addition, when the technical implementation of the sowing in strips with continuous seeding and stripes with intermittent planting is carried out from individual grain sowing shafts of the machine or from the grain of the shaft carry out planting in strips with continuous seeding and strip with intermittent seeding - fertilizing shaft. When sowing is carried out, for example, upgraded tillage sowing machine class "Ob-4" /3/, with built-in ratchet mechanism in the drive to one of the sowing shaft.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 - scheme of planting I. E. Osinskogo;

Fig. 2 is an example of sowing in continuous strip 1 through intermittent lane 2.

When planting a single crop in a strip with continuous seeding 1 through lane with intermittent seeding 2 of the same culture pochvoobrabotki�ing sowing machine "Ob-4", for example (with row spacing LM=36 cm, width of planting strip l=20 cm), the distance between adjacent bands is 1 (the value Ls) will be 52 cm, the width of the gap between adjacent strips 1 and 2 will be (LM-l)=16 cm and approximately half of the unused strips at Osinskogo /1/, creating the possibility of the existence of the effect of "densely-empty for bands 1, if we eliminate (or weaken) the effect of germination on bands 2 teaching resources supply gap. The latter is achievable with interrupted seeding (lane 2) with the unused gaps with a length of 22.5-30 cm between the planted strip segments.

Example 1 of the method

On tillage sowing machine "Ob-4" with swept openers with the bandwidth seeding 18-22 cm and a row spacing of 36 cm /3/ grain seeding machines the selection of gears of the gearbox, the working length of the row of coils are configured in a conventional manner, for example, seeding 4/3 predetermined normal seeding rate grain crop. The hopper is loaded with seeds, for example, spring wheat and carry out sowing in normal for spring time.

For widespread planting after emergence (and later) in the early stages of their development, the shading of the soil and sprouting weeds on unseeded the intervals between the bands is not ensured. But with the release of grain to the stage of booting (the proposed method) plants of bands 1 and is the increased intraspecific competition (due to the increased density of plants, 1/3) rapidly master the power and resources of sunlight on the intervals (and breaks bands), seeking the closure of the stalk, inhibiting the germination of weeds in the gaps (and breaks bands). When earing and ripening grain used additional resources of sunlight and food gaps (and breaks bands) with the manifestation of the effect of "densely-empty and the corresponding increase of the yield (without fertilizer), stability of standing crop to lodging.

Thus, the claimed method of cultivation of grain crops when sown in the lane with continuous seeding across the lane with intermittent seeding has the potential to increase yields, providing favorable conditions for accelerated growth and maturation of not only spring, but winter grain.

This is achieved by planting a strip of continuous sowing through lane with intermittent seeding openers combined machines for tillage and strip planting ("mechanical") with the manifestation of the effect of "densely-empty at elevated values of the aisle, is characteristic of most modern designs. Increased crop yield, resistance loaves to lodging, accelerated aging of the loaves. In the end reducing the cost per unit of output, increases the profitability of grain production. And all this is possible b�W application of fertilizers (and other chemicals), that corresponds to the concept of organic farming.

The effectiveness of the technical implementation of the claimed method is achieved by relatively simple technical solutions, for example, when tuning serial tillage sowing machine under the claimed method of sowing is carried out by modernization with the installation of a ratchet mechanism in the drive of the sowing shaft. While only required that the machine had at least two separate seeding shafts.

Individual elements of the technology incorporated in the inventive method, it is checked in several farms of the Novosibirsk region and showed good results, increasing the stability of the loaves to lodging, in particular, and the possibility of increasing the yield of spring wheat, for example, to 1.5 times.

The proposed method is able to ensure the production of ecologically pure (organic) cereal products, sold in "civilized" countries many times more than high prices, which becomes relevant when the country's membership in the WTO and the prospect of exports from Siberia to Southeast Asia.

Sources of information

1. Owsinski I. E. a New system of agriculture. - Kiev, type. S. V. Kulzhenko, 1899.

2. RF patent №S, CL. 7 A01C 7/00, A01B 79/02, 2004.

3. Rules of carrying out of works in tillage and sowing of crops in Novosibirsk about�Asti: Methodical recommendations / RAAS, Sib. -DEP. Wildebeest Cibima. - Novosibirsk, 2003. - 88 p.

1. Method of planting seeds of cereal crops, including terespolsky broadcast seeding with tillage for seeding depth for the entire width of the gripper, characterized in that the continuous seeding was carried out in a lane with intermittent seeding bands on segments with a length of 22.5-30 cm with unused gaps of the same length within a given total seeding rate, and width of the space between continuously sown stripes Ls=(2×LM-l)>30 cm, and the width of the gap between adjacent strips LC=(LM-l)>22,5/2,
where LM - aisle;
l - band width.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the intermittent and continuous seeding of the strip is performed in sowing elements from separate shafts sowing machines.

3. A method according to claims. 1 and 2, characterized in that the seeding is carried out sowing machine class "Ob-4" installed on one grain of the shaft of the ratchet mechanism, or Assembly of these machines.

4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the continuous seeding is carried out seed cups from grain sowing shaft of the machine, and intermittent seeding - sowing fertilizer distributing machines from the shaft.



 

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FIELD: agriculture.

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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FIELD: agriculture.

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3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

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13 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: environment protection.

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EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

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