Composition for purification and remediation of soil from petroleum pollution

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition for purification and remediation of soil from petroleum pollution contains nitrogen-phosphorus fertiliser and zeolite-clayey rock in ratio 1:3. Vermiculite is used as Zeolite-clayey rock and organomineral product, formed after mechanical processing of sewage water sediments and active oil, is used as fertiliser.

EFFECT: sorption binding and utilisation of pollutant, reduction of remediation terms and increased degree of purification.

3 tbl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular, to the development of compositions for cleaning and remediation of soil from oil pollution.

Composition for cleaning soil contains vermiculite and waste in the form of compost, granular nitrogen-phosphate product formed after mechanical and chemical treatment of sewage sludge and activated sludge, stored in a sludge beds is not less than 2 months in a ratio of 1:3, respectively. The composition is entered in the amount of 10-30 tons per 1 hectare of soil, hoeing is carried out to a depth of 50-60 cm

This organic composition (5 hazard class) for purification and remediation of soils polluted by oil and oil products, allows sorption binding and disposal of the pollutant.

Known composition (Patent RU IPC B09C1/10 2238807, publ. 27.10.2004) containing oil-oxidizing microorganisms, the adsorbent and fertilizer. As adsorbent, and the source of the microorganisms it contains peat, and as fertilizer - nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers provided content in 100 g of absolutely dry matter: 12-15% nitrogen and 1.8-2.3% of the phosphorus and the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus of 1:0.15 in the following ratio of components, wt.%: nitrogen fertilizer 24.25-44.10, phosphate fertilizer 6.50-8.80, peat (dry substance) - 47.0-89.25.

Contained in the peat oil-oxidizing microorganisms and incoming� known in the fertilizer formulation designed to enhance the biodegradation of oil. Peat needs to retain oil and prevent its further spread in the soil due to their sorption properties. However, peat is a sorbent with along with significant hydrophobic hydrophilic properties that are unfavorable for efficient binding of petroleum hydrocarbons.

Known composition (Patent RU IPC B09C/00 2307707, publ. 10.10.2007) containing non-sterile horse sphagnum moss (CSM) or horse laboratoriesa sphagnum moss and organic activator, a natural polymer arabinogalactan when the content of components, wt. %: HSR - 99.9-99.5, arabinogalactan 0.5-0.1. Used moss or peat has a lower sorption capacity in relation to petroleum hydrocarbons than the lowland and intermediate peat due to low specific surface characteristic laboratoriesa plant materials. In addition, the use of a natural polymer of arabinogalactan for ecological purposes it is expedient due to low production volume and high cost.

A method of producing a sorbent (patent RU B09C 1/00 2191066, publ. 20.10.2002), namely that the peat with a moisture content of 35-40% is subjected to hydrophobization by heat treatment to a moisture content of 10-20%, then it is separated, and peat with a particle size from 0.5 to 3.0 mm pressed under a pressure of 16.0-18.0 MPa into pellets to a moisture content of 10-15%, with atomicparsley lowland peat and/or transition in a horse.

As gidrofobiziruyuschih agents in this case are water-insoluble carbonaceous products (bitumen, waxes, lignins) released along with the water from the solid organic matter of peat at a high temperature without access of air.

The disadvantages of this method are the high energy consumption for heat treatment and the need for expensive special equipment. In addition, obtained by heat treatment of the sorbent loses it contained microflora, including that required for the biodegradation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms.

The closest in technical essence to the achieved result to the described is the composition (Patent RF IPC B09C 1/00 2450879, publ. 20.05.2012), weight. %: lowland or intermediate peat filler 98, 98.9-84.79, nitrogen fertilizer urea, ammonium or potassium nitrate 1.0, 0.1-0.15, 15, phosphate fertilizer phosphates of alkaline and alkaline-earth metals P2O5- 0.01-0.06, zeolite - clay rock gidrofobizirovannym cationic surfactants 1-1.5, where the cationic surfactant is about 1 and 10% by weight of zeolite-clay rocks.

The disadvantage of this structure is quite a long time reduce the concentration of the pollutant, which was not less than 97% of the original (with a high degree of contamination 50 g of petroleum hydrocarbons per 1 kg of soil, and it is unacceptable to use cationic surfactants, gidrofobizirovannym Quaternary ammonium salts, where R1R3 - pyridinium or alkyl group with a carbon chain length of from 1 to 4 atoms or benzyl, the anion of a halogen Hal is chloride or bromide, the content of cationic surfactant is 1-10% by weight of zeolite-clay rocks. The disadvantage is that the presence in the composition of a surfactant with said amines and their salts, which have a toxic effect, causing irritation of the skin, Central nervous system and digestive tract of humans and animals (Hazardous materials industry. A Handbook for chemists, engineers and doctors. Volume 2 - Leningrad: Khimiya, 1976).

As a result, during the operation of a given composition, sharply reduced its efficiency and contamination of the soil environment and ground water toxic components. Salt pyridinium decompose under the influence of moisture and dissolving will flow into the groundwater and contaminate water and land.

The aim of this technical solution is to provide a cleaner composition (5 hazard class) intended for localization and biodegradation of hydrocarbon pollutants (oil and oil products) in the soil.

Thus implemented the two most important to protect the process environment: sorption binding and recycling of pollutant and St�stump up to 100% are achieved in a shorter time.

The technical result is achieved in that the composition for the cleaning and remediation of soil from oil pollution, including nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, and zeolite-shale, characterized in that the zeolite-clay rocks contain vermiculite, and as fertilizer use of organic product (waste), formed after mechanical and chemical treatment of sewage sludge and activated sludge, taken in the ratio 1:3.

The unique technical properties of vermiculite - high adsorption properties, chemical inertness, provide great opportunities for the achievement of the technical result. Vermiculite is a mineral deposits of which in Russia is high and the organic product formed in the amount of 1 million tons per year.

Organic product (waste) refers to 5 hazard class and has the following composition:

Appearance: granular solid substance from grey to black.

Mass fraction of organic matter (on dry),% not less than 20.

The content of total phosphorus (P2O5), %, in recalculation on dry substance, not less than 1.5.

The total nitrogen content, %, in recalculation on dry substance, not less than 0.6.

Silicon dioxide, % dry matter, not more than 20.

pH 7.21

Humidity - 67.7

Organic product (waste) is produced when IU�onicescu and reagent processing of sewage sludge and activated sludge.

The content of activated sludge in organic product at least 50%. Organic product (waste) has increased activating the ability due to the content in the biologically-activated sludge bacterial microflora, which biodestruction, which decomposes organic compounds and petroleum by-products to carbon dioxide and water.

Vermiculite meliorant absorbs hydrocarbons petroleum oil, creates an environment for the development of soil oxidizing bacteria present in natural biocenosis of the region. Vermiculite ameliorant is additionally air-entraining, water-holding and pH adjusting additive to the organic product and soil substrate.

Vermiculite is a natural mineral from the group of hydromicas layered structure, which has the unique ability to swell (to increase in 6-15 times).

Vermiculite is a product of low-temperature hydrothermal process and subsequent weathering.

Mica chemical composition are complex aluminosilicates.

The chemical composition of a natural mineral (vermiculite), (www.vermikulite.com.) presented in table 1.

Table 1
Chemical compositionSiO 2Al2O3MgOCaOK2OFe2O3
The percentage composition38-4510-1614-251-51-66-13

Grain of exfoliated vermiculite are kuroobraznye form and grain of hydromicas - plate.

Material obtained by firing vermiculite concentrate is loose, lightweight, highly porous material in the form of scaly particles of silver, yellow or Golden color. Non-toxic, does not rot, prevents the spread of mold, no smell. Unique technical property of vermiculite - high adsorption capacity. This is biologically stable material that is chemically inert and does not emit harmful substances at elevated temperatures. The average density of vermiculite 65-150 CT/m, moisture content of 3-5%, pH of water extract 6.8-7.0, non-flammable, TPL1330 deg.C, water absorption up to 450% by weight, the particle size of 0.1-2.8 mm.

For removal of oil it is advisable to use vermiculite with a grain size of not less than 1.25 mm, while the sorption capacity ranges from 1.9-59 yoy.

Vermiculite - organic material from the group of hydromicas, which due to the content of oxides of minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, aluminum, iron, silicon, is an effective biostimulant plant growth. With its high sorption and aeration properties, vermiculite is an excellent regulator of air and humid environment, positively influencing the development of the root system. It easily absorbs moisture (over 400%) and gives it to the plant, creating an optimal moist environment for the supply of roots.

Vermiculite is highly porous mineral, which is between the scales is the air. This structure allows for the necessary aeration properties in which the land does not cake, does not form a crust on its surface, the surface remains loose.

Thus, the use of vermiculite in agriculture and for reclamation of oil polluted lands, allows you to: improve the structure of light (sandy) and heavy (clay and loam) open soils, adjust the air and humidity, actively promote the growth of the root system and the plant as a whole, to lower the acidity by 8-14%, to increase the effectiveness of fertilizers by 12-17%, reduce the disease of the root system rot.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. In this example, we investigate the effect of the components, namely, vermiculite and organic product (waste) on the degree of purification of soil from oil pollution, which was used real soil refinery, having different levels of oil pollution.

In the flask 500 cm3put 100 g of soil, oil content 180.0 mg/kg Soil taken from the site of treatment facilities of the refinery. Add 200 ml water, stirred for 15 minutes, added in different ratios vermiculite (then) and organic-product (waste) (the HMO) - within 120 days (WOMO).

UOMO - composition for cleaning and remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum products.

After tillage with different compositions of VOMO determined the degree of purification of the soil. The data are summarized in table 2.

82
Table 2
The ratio of components, mass.h.UOMOThe degree of purification, %
UOMO 10.5:2.088
VAMO 21:0.580
VAMO 32:1
VOMO 41:184
VAMO 50.5:181
UOMO 61:399
UOMO 73.5:183

The oil content of the original soil 180.2 mg/kg, the processing time of 120 days, the dose of the reagent 0.25 mg/g of soil.

From the table 2 that the highest efficiency at a given dose of the reagent compositions have VAMO with a 1:3 ratio.

The claimed weight ratio of mineral meliorant vermiculite (1 h) and organic-product (waste) (3 h) - waste in the form of compost, granular nitrogen-phosphate product formed after mechanical and chemical treatment of sewage sludge and activated sludge, stored in a sludge beds is not less than 2 months, which is entered in the amount of 10-30 tons per 1 hectare of soil, and loosening is carried out to a depth of 50-60 cm, is optimal, since in this ratio observed equivalent ratio of the reactive groups, the content of trace elements, the ratio K:N:P that leads to the formation of the composition with the best sorption performance.

When IP�olshanii meliorant in combination with organic product for the remediation of soil, contaminated with oil and oil products, in the ratio of 1:1 and soil in quantities less than 10 tons per 1 ha, reduces the degree of extraction of oil and oil products and can not achieve the desired indicators of soil quality: pH, humidity, the ratio of K:N:P and makroelementnogo, and most importantly, does not allow to provide the desired degree of purification of soil from oil pollutants.

Example 2 according to the results of industrial tests. The composition is prepared as follows: a suspension of vermiculite 1 h is mixed with a sample in 3 hours organic product (waste). Then define the boundary of the contaminated oil or petroleum of soil, depth of contaminants and their concentrations, this structure make the method of loosening (zapihivanija) to a depth of 50-60 cm in the amount of 1.0-3.0 kg per 1 m2(10-30 tons per 1 ha), the soil is moistened by moisture organic product when the ambient temperature is 20-25 degrees.With, the conditions of vital activity of bacterial microflora within 1-3 months.

Results purification of soil contaminated with oil, with the use of ameliorant in amounts of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kg at 1 m2given in table 3.

Table 3
The duration of the month. 122.53
The number of ameliorant, kg, with a ratio of 1:3, 1 m2groundThe efficiency of extraction of organic substances from the soil, %.The efficiency of extraction of organic substances from the soil, %.The efficiency of extraction of organic substances from the soil, %.The efficiency of extraction of organic substances from the soil, %.
1.052747989
2.061829092
2.5658499100
3.06788100100

Analyzing the data obtained in example 1, we can conclude that the number of WOME in the ratio 1:3 and in the amount of 30 t/ha of soil allows to increase the degree and�attraction of oil and oil products up to 100% for 3 months, that significantly reduces the time of cleaning and remediation of soil from oil pollutants.

Composition for cleaning and remediation of soil from oil pollution, including nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, and zeolite-shale, characterized in that the zeolite-clay rocks contain vermiculite, and as fertilizer use of organic product formed after mechanical and chemical treatment of sewage sludge and activated sludge, taken in the ratio 1:3.



 

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