Composition for purification and remediation of soil from petroleum pollution
SUBSTANCE: composition for purification and remediation of soil from petroleum pollution contains nitrogen-phosphorus fertiliser and zeolite-clayey rock in ratio 1:3. Vermiculite is used as Zeolite-clayey rock and organomineral product, formed after mechanical processing of sewage water sediments and active oil, is used as fertiliser.
EFFECT: sorption binding and utilisation of pollutant, reduction of remediation terms and increased degree of purification.
3 tbl, 2 ex
The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular, to the development of compositions for cleaning and remediation of soil from oil pollution.
Composition for cleaning soil contains vermiculite and waste in the form of compost, granular nitrogen-phosphate product formed after mechanical and chemical treatment of sewage sludge and activated sludge, stored in a sludge beds is not less than 2 months in a ratio of 1:3, respectively. The composition is entered in the amount of 10-30 tons per 1 hectare of soil, hoeing is carried out to a depth of 50-60 cm
This organic composition (5 hazard class) for purification and remediation of soils polluted by oil and oil products, allows sorption binding and disposal of the pollutant.
Known composition (Patent RU IPC B09C1/10 2238807, publ. 27.10.2004) containing oil-oxidizing microorganisms, the adsorbent and fertilizer. As adsorbent, and the source of the microorganisms it contains peat, and as fertilizer - nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers provided content in 100 g of absolutely dry matter: 12-15% nitrogen and 1.8-2.3% of the phosphorus and the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus of 1:0.15 in the following ratio of components, wt.%: nitrogen fertilizer 24.25-44.10, phosphate fertilizer 6.50-8.80, peat (dry substance) - 47.0-89.25.
Contained in the peat oil-oxidizing microorganisms and incoming� known in the fertilizer formulation designed to enhance the biodegradation of oil. Peat needs to retain oil and prevent its further spread in the soil due to their sorption properties. However, peat is a sorbent with along with significant hydrophobic hydrophilic properties that are unfavorable for efficient binding of petroleum hydrocarbons.
Known composition (Patent RU IPC B09C/00 2307707, publ. 10.10.2007) containing non-sterile horse sphagnum moss (CSM) or horse laboratoriesa sphagnum moss and organic activator, a natural polymer arabinogalactan when the content of components, wt. %: HSR - 99.9-99.5, arabinogalactan 0.5-0.1. Used moss or peat has a lower sorption capacity in relation to petroleum hydrocarbons than the lowland and intermediate peat due to low specific surface characteristic laboratoriesa plant materials. In addition, the use of a natural polymer of arabinogalactan for ecological purposes it is expedient due to low production volume and high cost.
A method of producing a sorbent (patent RU B09C 1/00 2191066, publ. 20.10.2002), namely that the peat with a moisture content of 35-40% is subjected to hydrophobization by heat treatment to a moisture content of 10-20%, then it is separated, and peat with a particle size from 0.5 to 3.0 mm pressed under a pressure of 16.0-18.0 MPa into pellets to a moisture content of 10-15%, with atomicparsley lowland peat and/or transition in a horse.
As gidrofobiziruyuschih agents in this case are water-insoluble carbonaceous products (bitumen, waxes, lignins) released along with the water from the solid organic matter of peat at a high temperature without access of air.
The disadvantages of this method are the high energy consumption for heat treatment and the need for expensive special equipment. In addition, obtained by heat treatment of the sorbent loses it contained microflora, including that required for the biodegradation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms.
The closest in technical essence to the achieved result to the described is the composition (Patent RF IPC B09C 1/00 2450879, publ. 20.05.2012), weight. %: lowland or intermediate peat filler 98, 98.9-84.79, nitrogen fertilizer urea, ammonium or potassium nitrate 1.0, 0.1-0.15, 15, phosphate fertilizer phosphates of alkaline and alkaline-earth metals P2O5- 0.01-0.06, zeolite - clay rock gidrofobizirovannym cationic surfactants 1-1.5, where the cationic surfactant is about 1 and 10% by weight of zeolite-clay rocks.
The disadvantage of this structure is quite a long time reduce the concentration of the pollutant, which was not less than 97% of the original (with a high degree of contamination 50 g of petroleum hydrocarbons per 1 kg of soil, and it is unacceptable to use cationic surfactants, gidrofobizirovannym Quaternary ammonium salts, where R1R3 - pyridinium or alkyl group with a carbon chain length of from 1 to 4 atoms or benzyl, the anion of a halogen Hal is chloride or bromide, the content of cationic surfactant is 1-10% by weight of zeolite-clay rocks. The disadvantage is that the presence in the composition of a surfactant with said amines and their salts, which have a toxic effect, causing irritation of the skin, Central nervous system and digestive tract of humans and animals (Hazardous materials industry. A Handbook for chemists, engineers and doctors. Volume 2 - Leningrad: Khimiya, 1976).
As a result, during the operation of a given composition, sharply reduced its efficiency and contamination of the soil environment and ground water toxic components. Salt pyridinium decompose under the influence of moisture and dissolving will flow into the groundwater and contaminate water and land.
The aim of this technical solution is to provide a cleaner composition (5 hazard class) intended for localization and biodegradation of hydrocarbon pollutants (oil and oil products) in the soil.
Thus implemented the two most important to protect the process environment: sorption binding and recycling of pollutant and St�stump up to 100% are achieved in a shorter time.
The technical result is achieved in that the composition for the cleaning and remediation of soil from oil pollution, including nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, and zeolite-shale, characterized in that the zeolite-clay rocks contain vermiculite, and as fertilizer use of organic product (waste), formed after mechanical and chemical treatment of sewage sludge and activated sludge, taken in the ratio 1:3.
The unique technical properties of vermiculite - high adsorption properties, chemical inertness, provide great opportunities for the achievement of the technical result. Vermiculite is a mineral deposits of which in Russia is high and the organic product formed in the amount of 1 million tons per year.
Organic product (waste) refers to 5 hazard class and has the following composition:
Appearance: granular solid substance from grey to black.
Mass fraction of organic matter (on dry),% not less than 20.
The content of total phosphorus (P2O5), %, in recalculation on dry substance, not less than 1.5.
The total nitrogen content, %, in recalculation on dry substance, not less than 0.6.
Silicon dioxide, % dry matter, not more than 20.
Humidity - 67.7
Organic product (waste) is produced when IU�onicescu and reagent processing of sewage sludge and activated sludge.
The content of activated sludge in organic product at least 50%. Organic product (waste) has increased activating the ability due to the content in the biologically-activated sludge bacterial microflora, which biodestruction, which decomposes organic compounds and petroleum by-products to carbon dioxide and water.
Vermiculite meliorant absorbs hydrocarbons petroleum oil, creates an environment for the development of soil oxidizing bacteria present in natural biocenosis of the region. Vermiculite ameliorant is additionally air-entraining, water-holding and pH adjusting additive to the organic product and soil substrate.
Vermiculite is a natural mineral from the group of hydromicas layered structure, which has the unique ability to swell (to increase in 6-15 times).
Vermiculite is a product of low-temperature hydrothermal process and subsequent weathering.
Mica chemical composition are complex aluminosilicates.
The chemical composition of a natural mineral (vermiculite), (www.vermikulite.com.) presented in table 1.
|Chemical composition||SiO 2||Al2O3||MgO||CaO||K2O||Fe2O3|
|The percentage composition||38-45||10-16||14-25||1-5||1-6||6-13|
Grain of exfoliated vermiculite are kuroobraznye form and grain of hydromicas - plate.
Material obtained by firing vermiculite concentrate is loose, lightweight, highly porous material in the form of scaly particles of silver, yellow or Golden color. Non-toxic, does not rot, prevents the spread of mold, no smell. Unique technical property of vermiculite - high adsorption capacity. This is biologically stable material that is chemically inert and does not emit harmful substances at elevated temperatures. The average density of vermiculite 65-150 CT/m, moisture content of 3-5%, pH of water extract 6.8-7.0, non-flammable, TPL1330 deg.C, water absorption up to 450% by weight, the particle size of 0.1-2.8 mm.
For removal of oil it is advisable to use vermiculite with a grain size of not less than 1.25 mm, while the sorption capacity ranges from 1.9-59 yoy.
Vermiculite - organic material from the group of hydromicas, which due to the content of oxides of minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, aluminum, iron, silicon, is an effective biostimulant plant growth. With its high sorption and aeration properties, vermiculite is an excellent regulator of air and humid environment, positively influencing the development of the root system. It easily absorbs moisture (over 400%) and gives it to the plant, creating an optimal moist environment for the supply of roots.
Vermiculite is highly porous mineral, which is between the scales is the air. This structure allows for the necessary aeration properties in which the land does not cake, does not form a crust on its surface, the surface remains loose.
Thus, the use of vermiculite in agriculture and for reclamation of oil polluted lands, allows you to: improve the structure of light (sandy) and heavy (clay and loam) open soils, adjust the air and humidity, actively promote the growth of the root system and the plant as a whole, to lower the acidity by 8-14%, to increase the effectiveness of fertilizers by 12-17%, reduce the disease of the root system rot.
The invention is illustrated by the following examples:Example 1. In this example, we investigate the effect of the components, namely, vermiculite and organic product (waste) on the degree of purification of soil from oil pollution, which was used real soil refinery, having different levels of oil pollution.
In the flask 500 cm3put 100 g of soil, oil content 180.0 mg/kg Soil taken from the site of treatment facilities of the refinery. Add 200 ml water, stirred for 15 minutes, added in different ratios vermiculite (then) and organic-product (waste) (the HMO) - within 120 days (WOMO).
UOMO - composition for cleaning and remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum products.
After tillage with different compositions of VOMO determined the degree of purification of the soil. The data are summarized in table 2.
|The ratio of components, mass.h.||UOMO||The degree of purification, %|
The oil content of the original soil 180.2 mg/kg, the processing time of 120 days, the dose of the reagent 0.25 mg/g of soil.
From the table 2 that the highest efficiency at a given dose of the reagent compositions have VAMO with a 1:3 ratio.
The claimed weight ratio of mineral meliorant vermiculite (1 h) and organic-product (waste) (3 h) - waste in the form of compost, granular nitrogen-phosphate product formed after mechanical and chemical treatment of sewage sludge and activated sludge, stored in a sludge beds is not less than 2 months, which is entered in the amount of 10-30 tons per 1 hectare of soil, and loosening is carried out to a depth of 50-60 cm, is optimal, since in this ratio observed equivalent ratio of the reactive groups, the content of trace elements, the ratio K:N:P that leads to the formation of the composition with the best sorption performance.
When IP�olshanii meliorant in combination with organic product for the remediation of soil, contaminated with oil and oil products, in the ratio of 1:1 and soil in quantities less than 10 tons per 1 ha, reduces the degree of extraction of oil and oil products and can not achieve the desired indicators of soil quality: pH, humidity, the ratio of K:N:P and makroelementnogo, and most importantly, does not allow to provide the desired degree of purification of soil from oil pollutants.
Example 2 according to the results of industrial tests. The composition is prepared as follows: a suspension of vermiculite 1 h is mixed with a sample in 3 hours organic product (waste). Then define the boundary of the contaminated oil or petroleum of soil, depth of contaminants and their concentrations, this structure make the method of loosening (zapihivanija) to a depth of 50-60 cm in the amount of 1.0-3.0 kg per 1 m2(10-30 tons per 1 ha), the soil is moistened by moisture organic product when the ambient temperature is 20-25 degrees.With, the conditions of vital activity of bacterial microflora within 1-3 months.
Results purification of soil contaminated with oil, with the use of ameliorant in amounts of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kg at 1 m2given in table 3.
|The duration of the month.||1||2||2.5||3|
|The number of ameliorant, kg, with a ratio of 1:3, 1 m2ground||The efficiency of extraction of organic substances from the soil, %.||The efficiency of extraction of organic substances from the soil, %.||The efficiency of extraction of organic substances from the soil, %.||The efficiency of extraction of organic substances from the soil, %.|
Analyzing the data obtained in example 1, we can conclude that the number of WOME in the ratio 1:3 and in the amount of 30 t/ha of soil allows to increase the degree and�attraction of oil and oil products up to 100% for 3 months, that significantly reduces the time of cleaning and remediation of soil from oil pollutants.
Composition for cleaning and remediation of soil from oil pollution, including nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, and zeolite-shale, characterized in that the zeolite-clay rocks contain vermiculite, and as fertilizer use of organic product formed after mechanical and chemical treatment of sewage sludge and activated sludge, taken in the ratio 1:3.
SUBSTANCE: for desalination of heavy saline lands, water is supplied to the desalinisation site, the slits 3 are cut, the irrigation pipes 6 with droppers 7 are placed along the central axis of the inter-slit bands, the inter-slit bands are covered with waterproof screens. Then the wash water is fed through the droppers 7, the soil with salt is moved from the walls of the slits 3 at their bottom after the termination of washing, and the slits 3 are poured. Before cutting the slits 3 the deep loosening 2 is carried out. The slits 3 are cut with a bias of the bottom towards the collector and matched with it. Along the central axis of the inter-slit bands the troughs 5 are formed by compacting, in which the pipes 6 with droppers 7 are placed. After moving to the bottom of the slits 3 of soil with salt they are poured first with gravel as the layer of 0.2-0.3 m, then with sand of the field surface. Then, the site surface is levelled and ploughing is carried out with the formation of the arable layer.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of desalination of heavy saline lands with minimal cost of water, diversion of excess precipitation with removal of salts beyond the desalinisation site.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises grinding slaughter tankage, rotary subsurface mechanical treatment using the ripper with cutters on a horizontal shaft 5 and its mechanical drive in the form of a rotary milling chisel plough 6, the distribution of pulp from slaughter tankage and water in the soil in the process of its rotary subsurface loosening. For disposal of slaughter tankage, it is ground to a particle size of 2-5 mm, mixed with water or water containing disinfectant, in the ratio of 1:3-1:5. Then the formed pulp is applied in the soil to a depth of 30-80 cm. The soil is ground to a particle size of 1-25 mm and mixed with the pulp in a ratio of 1:6-1:20. Then the upper layer of soil is treated on the trace of passing of the rotary milling chisel plough 6 with the disinfectant.
EFFECT: increase in the degree of processing of slaughter tankage, accelerated decomposition of disposed biological material in the soil, improvement of soil fertility.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of environmentally friendly bioconversion of superfine metallurgical industry wastes containing heavy metals comprises creation of mixtures based on sand, metallurgical sludge, peat and calcium carbonate for growing plants, and for bioconversion the plants of fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.), large-flowered flax (Linum grandiflorum), sweet corn (Zea Mays) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) are used.
EFFECT: invention enables to simplify the technology of obtaining organo-mineral fertilisers for agriculture in the process of biological recovery of metal production wastes.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the reclamation of sludge pits, production of artificial earth mixtures based on drilling sludge and can be used in the mining and oil-producing industries. The method consists in the subsequent collection of liquid oil, then, bituminised oil from water surface of the pit, pumping-out of a water phase from the pit, creation of cutting backfills, collection of the bituminised oil from the surface of the drilling sludge, collection of the bituminised oil, oil sludge and oil-contaminated soil from the diking surface of the drilling sludge pit, mixing of the obtained drilling sludge with peat and sand in the following ratio, vol %: drilling sludge not more than 75.0, peat not less than 18.0, sand not less than 7.0, at the total content of the components, which is equal to 100 vol % in the volumes providing the obtainment of soil performing a function of soil-forming rock, with further quality control of the soil, reinforcement of its surface, creation of a fertile layer and by planting; with that, the total volume value of the soil performing the function of the soil-forming rock, volume of a material for the creation of cutting strips, volume of a material for the reinforcement of the soil surface, volume of a material for the creation of the fertile layer is chosen based on the equality or non-exceedance of the volume of the drilling sludge pit.
EFFECT: obtaining the soil performing the function of the soil-forming rock - a component of natural environment, which has improved quality characteristics.
2 cl, 7 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: electrolyser-neutraliser of dissociated contaminations contains pipe casing out of current conducting material and electrodes installed in the casing and connected to source of alternating multiphase current. The casing is made of segments adjoining to each other with creation of the tubular element. The tubular element internal surface at input has constriction, and at output has diffuser. The electrodes are installed in sectors or between sectors in direction of the cleaned flow movement. Sectors are tied up by end cone inserts.
EFFECT: increased productivity due to flowing cleaning of contaminants, simplified replacement of electrodes depending on type of the neutralised wastes.
SUBSTANCE: in the method after the preliminary collection of oil from the soil surface, perennial herbal plants resistant to oil-contamination are sown in the oil-contaminated soil simultaneously with the introduction of microorganisms-oil destructors in the form of a solution of a biological product comprising microorganisms-oil destructors with mineral fertilisers.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the cleaning efficiency due to the involvement in the processes of biodegradation of oil-contamination of the wider spectrum of petroleum hydrocarbons and to accelerate the process of the soil recovery.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises undercutting of contaminated topsoil, throwing to the bottom of the furrow and piling it with an uncontaminated layer. The contaminated soil layer is undercut by the soil tillage body of a scraper type and moved aside to form a ridge, and the uncontaminated soil fertile layer is opened. The open uncontaminated soil layer is undercut by the combined working body and lifted to the conveyor without the layer overturning. The soil layer is transported first up, then down, leaving a passage for the contaminated layer undercut by the lateral working body of a scraper type under the ridge of the contaminated layer formed by the first working body, and together they are moved to the bottom of the furrow. Then the contaminated soil layer is compacted and closed with the uncontaminated layer passing down from the conveyor. After that the soil is levelled and compacted to the operating width of the device. The device comprises a rectangular frame, support wheels, a mechanism of attachment to the tractor and the working bodies. The first and the lateral working bodies are made of a scraper type. The device also has a combined working body composed of two arranged towards each other rigidly interconnected working bodies of the mouldboard type plough. The total mouldboard part of the combined working body is made truncated in the form of a trough. Behind the combined working body there is a conveyor with ascending, horizontal and descending parts, having a drive of PTO of the traction unit through the power shaft, a reducer and a chain drive. Behind the conveyor a pusher is mounted for levelling the surface of the field after the passage of the device and a packing roller, which is a support one in the transfer of the device to the transport position by the hydraulic cylinder attached to the median longitudinal bar of the frame.
EFFECT: improving the quality of treatment of soil contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metals by avoiding mixing of the contaminated and uncontaminated soil layers in the process of their moving.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises pasturing by animals, destroying of not eaten, harmful and poisonous plants, levelling animal excrement, and removal of uneaten residues by harrows and rakes, fertiliser application, as well as creation of tree and shrub shelterbelts. At that on the area intended for hayfields and pastures area after pasturing by animals the fertilisers are initially applied, and then the uneaten plants are destroyed, tilting them and applying herbicide by method of smearing it on their biomass, including stems and lower surface of leaves. Harrowing and treatment the grass with rake is carried out after the start of regrowth of plants eaten by animals. The device comprises a reservoir for the herbicide, as well as a pump for feeding it to the tubular perforated rods with means for application of the herbicide to the plants. The perforated rods are mounted behind each other in parallel with the ability of horizontal and vertical displacement, and the device for application of the herbicide to the plants is made in the form of capillary cloth located between the pressure plates and attached on the perforated parts of the said rods which are connected and framed with the cloth and placed in the tubular casings with longitudinal slots through which the cloth is passed, compressed by the pressure plates fixed on the edges of the slots. And the perforated tubular rods are communicated with each other by the hose, at that the inlet end of the front tubular rod is connected to the pump and the outlet end of the rear rod through the drainage tube with the valve - with a reservoir for the herbicide to form a flow regulated system. Furthermore, the perforated tubular rods and their casings are attached to the frame, mounted on the propellers, with freedom of vertical and horizontal displacement.
EFFECT: inventions enable to simplify the technology of creation of forage land on fallow lands with simultaneous formation of tree-shrub belts.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental conservation technologies, cutting-edge agricultural technologies and chemistry of organosilicon compounds and can be used to restore the structure of disturbed soils by stabilising water-stable aggregate. In particular, the present invention employs water-soluble humic silanol derivatives that are modified in a special way to endow them with the capacity to be irreversibly sorbed on surfaces of mineral particles and other hydroxyl-containing carriers. Humic derivatives are added to the degraded soil in form of aqueous solutions.
EFFECT: method for use in agricultural technologies includes using humic derivatives as structure-forming agents (soil ameliorants) by via attachment thereof to the surface of soil aggregates in order to endow the latter with water-stable properties.
8 cl, 11 dwg, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of environmental protection and can be used in the rectification of the consequences of the oil spill on the soil. The method consists in mixing the oil-contaminated soil, spread over the surface of freshly ploughed uncontaminated field with the thickness layer from 1/10 to 1/6 of the ploughing depth, to the full depth of ploughing using the tiller several times.
EFFECT: invention enables to restore oil-contaminated soil without application of additional neutralising foreign substances and reagents.
FIELD: soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants in oil recovery and transportation regions.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): chemical ameliorant 3.5-5.7; organic fertilizer 15.7-29.0; adsorbent 67.5-78.6. Method for sectioning soil treatment includes application of composition onto soil layer with 30 cm of depth. Then treated layer is shifted out of spot boundary. Opened surface is covered with composition of present invention. Then mole drainage of 60-65 cm in depth is made in soil by using mole plow or chisel plow, followed by plowing of 58-51 cm in depth and returning of sheared soil into spot.
EFFECT: effective soil restoration from formation fluid contaminants.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: methods for phytomediation (phytorecultivation) of soil contaminated with petroleum.
SUBSTANCE: method involves planting perennial grasses into soil contaminated with petroleum, said perennial grasses being preliminarily grown for at least one growing period in non-contaminated soil and then replanted in soil contaminated with petroleum with their rootstocks and/or stolons and/or seedlings. Phytocultivation method may be used at earlier stages of soil contamination with petroleum to allow recultivation time to be reduced.
EFFECT: increased survival rate and yield of plants and reduced recultivation time.
2 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises land ploughing, sowing of perennial herbs, which are natural accumulators of heavy metals and naturally growing on given area or in given locality, and finally cutting and utilization of overground part of plants. Preferred perennial herb is Austrian absinth (Artemisia austriaca). In case of iron salt pollution, cutting is executed during the end of vegetation period and, in case of other heavy metal pollution, in the beginning of vegetation period.
EFFECT: enabled biological protection of land from heavy metal pollution.
FIELD: environmental protection; oil and gas producing industry; methods of purification of subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of environmental protection, in particular, to purification of the subterranean water beds and soils from industrial pollution by liquid hydrocarbons. In the polluted zone they drill a borehole, create and maintain in it a negative pressure within the limits of 2 kgf/cm2 up to 0.8 kgf/cm2. At that they simultaneously exercise extraction of the product of impurity from the borehole. The technical result of the invention is an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole per a unit of time.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased amount of the pollution product extracted from the borehole and its purification per a unit of time.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: disposal of solid waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises removing the contaminated layer of soil, separating the large impurities and biomass, grinding the contaminated layer by dispersing in water environment to produce pulp which is treated by ultrasound for disintegration of water-resistant agents, and supplying the pulp for separating the destructed agents into density and sizes of the particles by gravity to produce and separate the rectified coarse mineral and organo-mineral fraction, and draining contaminated fine dispersed mineral, organo-mineral, and organic fractions. The deposit containing radionuclides and heavy metals are separated, dried, and fed to the processing and burying. The purified water solution is returned for the repeatable use.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and quality of cleaning.
22 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, environment protection, more particular, reduction of 137Cs level in soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing accumulating plants such as lentils and Jerusalem artichoke on contaminated soil during three vegetation periods; alienating the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period; determining soil cleaning extent from formula: Cη=(Ca-Cs/Ca)*100(%), where Cη is extent of cleaning soil; Ca is level of 137Cs in soil before planting of said accumulating plants; Cs is level of 137Cs in soil after withdrawal of the entire plant biomass from soil at the end of vegetation period.
EFFECT: reduced specific activity of 137Cs in soil, increased efficiency in removal of radio nuclides and obtaining of ecologically clean plant products, reduced possibility of external and internal radiation of people.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of ecologically pure farm products on soil contaminated with radio nuclides.
SUBSTANCE: method involves practicing steps enabling reduction in accumulation of radio nuclides within various crops, said steps including utilizing mineral and organic fertilizers; introducing mineral fertilizers for cultivation of the following crops: winter rye, winter wheat, oats, and potato, with nitrogen to potash ratio making 1:1.5; applying organic fertilizers for cultivation of lupine and serradella, and additionally providing liming of soil for barley cultivation.
EFFECT: reduced content of radio nuclides in main rotation crops.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises applying mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers simultaneously with the natural high-porosity mineral draining agent made of an aluminosilicate and subsequent loosening down to a depth of 25-30 cm. The ratios of the components are presented.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
FIELD: disposal of solid waste.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises vehicle provided with the tank filled with coolant, collector that is used for supplying coolant and is connected with the tank though a T-shaped hose having detachable branch pipes connected with the appropriate cooling chambers. The cooling chamber is made of a box whose open section faces the surface to be frozen and receives the collector for spraying the coolant. The outer walls of the chamber are provided with face and side flanges that form a closed space for circulating coolant. The chamber walls are provided with means for interconnecting the chambers.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reduced coolant consumption.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: restoration of soil contaminated with oil.
SUBSTANCE: at first stage, upper layer of oil sludge is collected and refuse is separated on vibrating screen; then oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of water, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures. At second stage, middle layer of oil sludge is collected; this layer contains substratum water which is first cleaned from refuse by passing it through vibrating screen; then, water is subjected to centrifuging for separation of oil sludge, remaining refuse and mechanical admixtures from it; they are washed in surfactant solution. At third stage, bottom sediment is collected and is washed in surfactant solution for separation of oil sludge; then, refuse is separated from oil sludge in vibrating screen, after which oil sludge is subjected to centrifuging for separation of remaining water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.
EFFECT: increased degree of separation of oil sludge into cleaned oil sludge, water, refuse and mechanical admixtures.