Jack-up drilling rig with two derricks for operation under ice conditions
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the jack-up drilling rigs and to drilling methods at shallow waters with possible ice presence. The jack-up drilling rig contains floating hull with top deck; part of the floating hull for ice bending projecting downward from the deck perimeter and tapering inside; edge reflecting ice projecting vertically downward from bottom perimeter of the above mentioned part for ice bending to direct ice around the above mentioned floating hull, not under it; supports arranged inside the perimeter of the above mentioned floating hull; jack-up device connected with each support; two derricks installed on the deck. Two specified derricks are located from one horizontal side of the specified deck relatively to the first central line of the deck and at opposite horizontal sides of the specified deck relatively to second central line of the deck perpendicular to the first central line of the deck, or at opposite sides of the specified deck at similar distance from the deck centre, at that the specified first central line is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the specified derricks. Drilling method at shallow waters with possible ice presence includes: a) provision of the specified jack-up drilling rig; b) lowering of each support to sea bed and hull lifting from water, if ice is not dangerous for the rig; c) floating hull lowering on water with anti-ice configuration such that shape for ice bending projects above and below sea surface for break or removal of ice approaching the rig, if ice is dangerous for the rig; d) drilling using both derricks during steps b) and/or c).
EFFECT: technical result is increased efficiency of exploration and extension of the drilling season at places with possible ice presence.
14 cl, 8 dwg
PRIOR RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This application claims the priority of patent application U.S. No. US 61/405497, filed October 21, 2010, and fully incorporated herein by reference.
Field of the INVENTION
 the Present invention relates to mobile offshore drilling rigs, often called nobodyelse drilling rigs or derricks used in shallow water, typically at depths of less than 400 pounds, for exploratory or development drilling for the extraction of hydrocarbons.
The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY
 While you continue to search for hydrocarbons has developed many technologies for the discovery of new fields and resources, and most areas in the world has been thoroughly investigated in the search for new deposits. Few expect that any unknown resources may be opened near populated areas and in places which are easy to penetrate. On the contrary, new large open field in more remote areas.
 One promising area is the coastal region of the Arctic. However, the Arctic is cold and distant, and the icy surface of the water creates significant difficulties for exploration. For many years it was generally accepted that at each hole, making a profit, should be drilled� six wells, not bring profit. If so, it is hoped that drilling wells that are not profitable will not be too expensive. However, in the Arctic there is little that is inexpensive.
 At present in shallow water in areas with cold climates such as the Arctic, exploration drilling from Jack-up mobile offshore drilling units (PMU) can be carried out within 45-90 days in the short summer season of open water. Forecasting the beginning and end of the drilling season is like gambling and many efforts should be undertaken to determine when the Jack-up installation can be safely towed to the drilling can be started. Start drilling, you need as quickly as possible to complete the drilling of the well to prevent a situation in which there will need to disconnect the drill string and care in the event of ice until the completion of drilling. Even within a few weeks of open water, floating ice pose a significant risk to Jack-up rigs in the workplace because of the support Jack-up rig is unprotected and can be easily damaged by ice.
 Jack-up installations are mobile jackup marine drilling and repair platform with�e supports, which may sink to the ocean floor until you create a base to support the whole body, which includes drilling and/or repair equipment, lifting system, residential sections, means for loading and unloading zone of the storage of bulk and liquid materials, helicopter landing deck and other related equipment.
 the self-Climbing system is designed for being towed to the drilling site and rise above the water so that the waves would be incident on the supports, which have a small cross section. However, the supports Jack-up units provide little protection from impact of floating ice, and ice floes are of considerable size can cause structural damage to one or more supports and/or changing the mounting position. If such event occurs prior to the termination of drilling and completion operations security and closing the wells may leak hydrocarbons. Even a small risk of such leakage is totally unacceptable in the oil and gas industry, as well as for inspectors and the public.
 Thus, once the decision about what is potentially profitable, the well should be drilled during this short season, very large production system with gravity foundations or similar con�traccia should be delivered and installed on the seabed for a long process of drilling and production of hydrocarbons. These structures with gravity foundations are very large and very expensive but they are built to withstand ice year-round.
 In U.S. patent No. 4819730 disclosed a floating work platform with two towers. However, this patent is intended for semi-submerged vessel such as a drilling vessel. Unlike Jack-up rigs semi-submerged vessel, by its nature, exposed to waves and floating ice floes and therefore cannot withstand the extreme conditions of the Arctic.
 In European patent No. 1094193 discloses a marine drilling vessel, equipped drilling site double action to reduce drilling mostly in deep water. However, this patent is also designed for drilling vessels which are not able to provide high resistance required in the Arctic in severe weather conditions. Additionally disclosed drilling site double action can be implemented simultaneously drilling only one well, which essentially reduces the efficiency of exploration or production operations, especially in a place where only a small period of time to work.
 In U.S. patent No. 6491477 described Jack-up drilling rig with two consoles that allow you to perform double-drilling with a small platform, where each drill site can work�AMB at the site of size 8X8. However, this setting is also exposed to the vagaries of nature and does not solve ice problems encountered while drilling in the Arctic or the North sea.
 Therefore, a need exists for a drilling system and method that can withstand the extreme conditions in the Arctic and to provide highly effective intelligence and mobility.
The ESSENCE of the PRESENT INVENTION
 the Present invention relates to an improved Jack-up rig for exploration drilling in the search for hydrocarbon reservoir in potential ice conditions in the coastal areas, comprising a floating body with two towers on the deck, shaped for protection from the effects of ice or a portion of the floating body, which is used for bending and cracking of ice or discharging the ice from the supports.
 some embodiments of a floating body is along the bottom of the form to bend ice that extends around the perimeter of the floating body. A form to bend the ice extends from the area of the hull at deck or bottom in the lower direction and narrows inwards near the bottom. Ice body doubles or triples the length of the drilling season, which is extremely valuable.
 a Form to bend the ice may include an optional part for discharging ice, stretching Polignano the perimeter of the shape to bend ice to direct ice around the hull and not under it. Part of the challenge tends to be vertical, but can also be rejected by 5-10 degrees from the vertical, and may have an optional extending out the bottom end. This part is to reject the ice can be a part of the floating body (thereby increasing the floating volume), or may fall outside of the floating body in the form of a protruding edge.
 typically, the portion of the housing for bending ice consists of flat slabs (ribbed), for simple and cheap of manufacture, but this is not essential, and smooth curved surfaces, and combinations thereof, are also included in the scope of the present invention.
 the apparatus further includes at least three or four supports, which are located inside the perimeter of the housing where the supports are arranged in such a way that they can be raised from the seabed and the installation could be towed in shallow water, and they can also be extended to the seabed and additionally put forward to lift the hull out of the water partially or completely. A lifting device is associated with each support and operates for raising and lowering the supports, as necessary.
 the Supports may be of lattice type, i.e. in the form of a design similar to the design of the towers of a transmission line made of tubular steel cross-sections. Support could�t be column type, made of large steel pipes. The column supports are less expensive to manufacture than lattice supports, but they are not sustainable and can not withstand such loads in water, the lattice of the support. For this reason, Jack-up installation with the supports column type not used in waters deeper than 250 feet.
 the self-Climbing apparatus further includes at least two towers that are installed on the deck. The tower is located on one side or preferably on both opposite sides of the deck to improve balance. In the case where the towers are located on one side of the deck, additional balancing tools can be provided on the side opposite to the two towers, but they may not be required if one means of balancing is located properly between the two towers. In this variant implementation can be used, at least four supports. System two towers dual drilling potential of the plant, in particular, when used in directional drilling.
 Jack-up installation can be interlocking type, also known as the installation of keyed type. Drilling of the slot installations are constructed with an open or drill the shaft in the drill deck, and tower is mounted over it. However, more preferable is the console design �IPA. Here the rig is mounted on the console, protruding outward from the drilling deck. When using the cantilevered drilling can be carried out through existing platforms, as well as outside them. Thanks to the range of movement provided by the console, most rigs built in the last 10 years, presenting a console installation.
 the Invention further relates to a method of exploratory or development drilling in the waters with the presence of ice, where wells are drilled to determine the presence of hydrocarbon reservoirs and their economic potential on the seabed and below it. This method includes towing to the area of the floating body having a relatively flat deck at the top thereof, and a form to bend the ice along the bottom. A form to bend the ice narrows towards the bottom and inside.
 At least three supports located inside the perimeter of the housing. Each anchor is lowered downward until it reaches the sea floor and lift the hull up and fully out of the water when ice is not threatening the installation. The body can also be lowered into the water to prevent ice so that the form to bend the ice was above and below the sea surface to bend and break the ice floating near the installation. Drilling with two rigs �can occur during any of these stages, and, thus, the drilling capacity is at least 400-600% compared with the use of a single tower into the design of the facility without skirts, particularly during directional drilling in different directions with two towers.
 In accordance with the usage in this application, the term "flexion of ice" refers to the shape of the floating body and the angle between the hull and water, which are calculated in such a way that ice is included in the contact with the shell is bent and breaks into small pieces through a local fence created a form to bend the ice, and a constant buoyancy force from the water. The effect of these forces leads to the resultant voltage and splitting ice. Thus, the case for bending the ice basically narrows inwards with increasing depth, so that the upper part are great, and the lower part is smaller, as in a narrowing of the vessel's hull.
 In accordance with the usage in this application, the term "shallow water" refers to water depth to the seabed is not more than 400 feet.
 use of the singular in combination with the term "containing" in the claims or in the description means one or more than one, unless the context indicates otherwise.
 the Term "about" means the specified value plus or minus the limit ogres�spine measurements or plus or minus 10%, if no method of measurement is not specified.
 the Term "or" in the claims is used to mean "and/or" unless stated unequivocally appealing to alternatives, or if alternatives are not mutually exclusive.
 the Terms "contain", "have", "include" (and their variants) are verbs-cords open and allow the addition of other elements when used in the claims.
 the Phrase "consisting of" is a phrase of the closed type and excludes all optional elements.
 the Phrase "composed mainly of" excludes additional essential elements, but allows you to add non-essential elements, which largely do not change the essence of the present invention.
BRIEF description of the DRAWINGS
 Figure 1 shows a drilling rig is a prototype.
 Figure 2 shows a vertical projection of a first embodiment of the present invention where the drilling rig floats in water and can be towed to the site of drilling.
 Figure 3 shows a second vertical projection of a first embodiment of the present invention where the drilling rig rises out of the water for traditional drilling in ice.
 Figure 4 shows a second vertical projection PE�first embodiment of the present invention, where the drilling rig is partially lowered into the water with ice, but support the legs in a protective configuration for drilling in potentially icy conditions.
 Figure 5A shows an enlarged fragment of the vertical projection, showing one end of a first embodiment of the present invention, in the configuration depicted in Figure 3, when the driving conditions of the ice on the installation.
 Figure 5B shows an enlarged fragment of the vertical projection, showing one end of a second embodiment of a housing for protection from the ice.
 Figure 5C shows an enlarged fragment of the vertical projection, showing one end of a third embodiment of a housing for protection from the ice.
 Figure 5D shows an enlarged fragment of the vertical projection, showing one end of a fourth embodiment of a housing for protection from the ice.
 Figure 6A shows the horizontal projection of a first embodiment of the present invention, where the cantilever rig is in position for drilling via the drill shaft.
 Figure 6B shows a horizontal projection of a first embodiment of the present invention, where the cantilever rig is in position for drilling through the edge of the deck.
 Figure 7 shows the horizontal projection of the second vari�NTA implementation of the present invention, where towers are located opposite each other.
 Figure 8A shows a horizontal projection of another embodiment of the present invention, where two cantilever towers are located on the left side of the deck, and the apartment block is on the right side of the deck.
 Figure 8B shows a vertical projection of the embodiment of the present invention depicted in Figure 8A, where the tower extended beyond the edge of the deck for use.
DESCRIPTION of embodiments of the PRESENT INVENTION
 the present invention provides examples of Jack-up rigs, having the ability of protection from ice, and at least two towers that are installed on the deck. In essence, the housing has at least a portion for bending of the ice, which is located on the perimeter of the hull and tapers inwards and downwards from the deck along the perimeter. Can also be used almost vertical edge or a reflector of ice at the bottom portion for bending of the ice, which prevents the passage of ice under the body and takes the ice for their passage around the body. Directed outwards the nozzle at the base of the reflector of ice can also be helpful during the withdrawal of the ice.
 typically, the portion of the casing for splitting ice shall be manufactured from heavy gauge steel (thickness of 25-50 mm), but the thickness can be min�mizinova, if this part is reinforced on the inner side of the additional internal ribs and/or optional second casing positioned within the outer housing. The art on the use of icebreakers know how to strengthen the hull transverse, longitudinal or oblique frame elements and how to change the thickness of the shell plates in accordance with the frame, the distance between the frame edges, the maximum pressures and local pressures, etc. (see, for example, GUIDANCE NOTES ON ICE CLASS, published by American Bureau of Shipping Incorporated by Act of Legislature of the State of New York 1862 (2008) (included in this application by reference). Specially designed polymeric paint for the housing with high durability and low friction, can be used to cover protivogradovoy skirts. In particular, Intershield 163 Inerta 160, INTERNATIONAL MARINE COATINGS®, may be preferable coating.
 Turning now to the detailed description of the preferred embodiment or preferred realizations of the present invention, it should be understood that the features and concepts of the present invention may be manifested in other realizations and that the scope of the present invention is not limited to variants of implementation, described or illustrated in this application. Scope of the present invention is limited only by the amount of points of the form�s of the present invention, below.
 Figure 1 shows in more detail the rig-prototype 100, including the housing 120 is raised above the water surface 180 by means of bearings 140, helicopter pad 310, 200 cranes, part 220 cantilever drilling rig, containing a tower with 260 drill base 660 and the drill pipe 240, lowered into an open hole 300 for the achievement of the seabed 160 and ending with drilling crown 280. Also shown pontoons support, but not numbered. Important details, including the various security and management, pipelines, residential sections, marine equipment, work equipment and lifting equipment, this figure is omitted, but you can see that the Jack-up installation occupies limited space and has a complex structure. Further, the shapes of Jack-up installation are simplified partly for clarity of visualization.
 As shown in Figure 2, the Jack-up rig for ice conditions in General is indicated by an arrow 10. Figure 2 Jack-up installation 10 is shown with the housing 20, floating in the sea, and the supports 25 in a raised position, where the majority of the length of the supports 25 is located above the deck 21 of the housing 20. On deck 21 are the towers 30, 30', which are used for drilling wells. In the configuration shown in Figure 2, the self-climbing system 10 can be towed with about�tion of the exploration sector, as to shore bases and from them for maintenance and other coastal operations.
 When the self-climbing system 10 is delivered to the site of exploratory drilling in shallow water, the supports 25 are lowered through the holes 27 in the housing 20 until the base 26 at the lower ends of the supports 25 does not reach the sea floor 15, as shown in Figure 3. In a preferred embodiment of implementation, the base 26 is connected to the pontoons of the supports 28 for attaching the installation 10 to the sea floor. Alternatively, you can use the mats (not shown). After reaching the bases 26 of the seabed lifting means 15 in the holes 27 are pushing prop down 25 and the housing 20 is lifted out of the water. When the housing 20 is fully raised above the water, the action of waves and rough seas on the supports 25 is weaker compared to the effect in the impact of waves on a large floating object, such as building 20. As shown in Figure 3, the drilling can be started in normal mode in the absence of ice in the area.
 However, when on the sea surface 12 starts to form ice, the risk of contact with floating ice floes and damage of supports 25 or just offset Jack-up installation 10 from the drilling site becomes significant for the traditional Jack-up installations, such installations are generally removed from drilling sites in early winter CE�it. Jack-up drilling rig 10 for operation in ice conditions resistant to the action of floating ice floes protected when using ice configuration of the hull in the water, as shown in Figure 4. Figure 4 ice dampens wave and strong excitement, and the sea surface 12 becomes less threatening, however, the dangers of the marine environment is only changed, not diminished.
 When the Jack-up drilling rig 10 for operation in ice conditions uses are protected from ice the configuration of the body in water, the casing 20 is lowered into the water until it makes contact with her, but not to the floating condition of the shell 20. A significant portion of the mass of installation 10 preferably remains on the supports 25 to maintain the mounting position 10 on the rig floor when pressure is possible by floating ice. The installation 10 is lowered so that the inwardly inclined surface 41 to bend ice (shown in Figure 5A) covers the sea surface 12 or the interface ice/water to capture floating ice, approached the installation 10.
 Figure 5A shows one end protivoluchevogo corps. Inclined surface 41 to bend ice that extends from the protrusion 42 down to the line of the neck 44. Reflector ice 45 passes from the line of the neck 44 and may be nearly vertical or with a slope of 5-10 degrees relative to the vertical.
 the Ice region�provides significant compressive strength in the range from 4 to 12 MPa, but a much smaller bending strength in the range from 0.3 to 0.5 MPa. As shown in Figure 5A, the force from the floating ice floe 51 moving along the surface of the sea 12, leads to slide the leading edge under the sea surface 12 and the splitting of sections 52 and 53. Sections of smaller size tend to sail past and around the installation 10 without exposure inherent in a large floating ice floes. For example, there is a possibility that ice floes having a transverse dimension equal to a hundred feet, can come close to setting 10. If ice floes cracking into pieces with the size less than 20 feet in the longest direction, the pieces float around the installation 10 with much less impact.
 Other forms for bending ice are also considered, as shown in Figures 5B-D. Figure 5 shows In vertical with a small deviation (-10°) part 145 of the reflector of the ice, where the form to bend the ice 141 slightly back from the ledge 142 of the floating body 121, which in this case also has a sloping top edge above the ledge 142. A floating body is preferably a body with a double wall with a reinforcing beams between the walls to better withstand the impact of floating ice. Figure 5C shows a convex form 241 for bending ice, with an edge, curved outwards on the ice reflector 245 to drain l�Yes. Figure 5D shows the concave shape 341 for bending the ice with the likes of reflecting outward end 345.
 For additional opposing the forces with which floating ice may affect the installation 10, the base 26 of the supports can be connected with pontoons 28 mounted on the seabed in such a way that when ice floes approaches the surface 41 to bend the ice, the supports 25 actually hold the housing 20 and ice floe forced to bend and withstand the lifting force of the floating ice, which, in extreme cases, can raise the near side of the unit 10 and to push its position, using the base 26 on the opposite side of the unit 10 as the fulcrum or hinge. The pontoons on the seabed are known for other applications, and the base 26 should include suitable connections for attachment and release from the pontoons, when necessary.
 it should be noted that the transition from a traditional configuration for drilling in open water, as shown in Figure 3, the configuration of the hull in the water with protivogradovoy protection, as shown in Figure 4, can require significant planning and adaptations depending on what aspect of the drilling is done at this time. While some equipment can be adjusted to change the height Pala�s 21, other equipment may require disconnecting or configuration changes to adapt to the new altitude above the seabed 15.
 Jack-up drilling rig 10 for operation in ice conditions is designed to work as traditional Jack-up rig in open water, but is also intended for use in protivogradovoy position with the return of traditional or traditional configuration, if and when the impact of the waves becomes significant. The shape of the housing 20 (as well as its strength) provides bending and cracking of the ice.
 Referring to Figures 6A-b and 7, the perimeter of the body may have a circular, oval or special oval (the shape of a football field, not shown), or polygonal configuration to represent a form suitable for control of the divided pieces and sections of ice around the periphery of the installation 10 regardless of the direction and movement of ice floes. Ice tends to float in accordance with the directions of the wind and ocean currents that usually do not match, or trajectories, that depend simultaneously on sea and air.
 As shown in Figure 7, the housing may have a faceted or multilateral form, having the advantage of a circular or oval shape, but is less expensive to manufacture, since in such construction mo�ut to be used flat plate. However, this may be insignificant, and curved protivogradovye of the housing shown in Figures 5C-D.
 the Surface 41 for splitting ice should preferably speak at least approximately five metres above the water, given that water levels are shifted up and down due to the tides and storms and possibly other reasons. Height above the water level determines the behavior of floating ice of considerable thickness or having bumps, protruding high enough above the sea surface 12, but since the height of the projection 42 above the sea surface 12 is sufficiently large, high floating ice will be forced to descend in contact with the installation 10. At the same time, the deck 21 in the upper housing 20 should be located high enough above the water level, so that the waves swept over the deck. Essentially, the deck 25 should preferably be at least 7-8 meters above the sea surface 12. Conversely, the line of the neck should preferably be at least 4-8 meters below the sea surface 12 adequate for flexure of a floating ice floes their splitting on less dangerous pieces. Thus, overall height protivoluchevogo the housing should preferably be in the range from 5 to 20 meters, preferably from 8 to 16 meters or 11 to 16 metro�.
 it should Also be noted that the legs 25 and openings 27, through which the supports are connected with the housing 20, located inside the periphery of the reflector ice 45, and thus, the floating ice is less likely to come into contact with the supports at protivogradovoy installation configuration 10, as shown in Figures 4 and 5A, sometimes called configuration "body in water". In addition, the system 10 should not respond to threats from the side of each floating piece of ice that adds value to oil and gas companies. If the installation 10 may extend the drilling season at least a month, it will provide a 50% improvement in some areas where ice is present, and therefore will provide a real benefit to the industry due to lower costs.
 Referring to Figures 6A and 6B, the tower 30, 30' can be located for drilling through drill shaft that is inside the perimeter of the reflector ice 45, as shown in Figure 6A, or can be set to drill through the edge of the deck 21 in console mode, as shown in Figure 6. In Figure 7 shows a similar arrangement, but with polygonal casing in horizontal projection. Note that although most of the figures shows a 3-component supports, 4-kompletnie supports can also be used.
 Referring to Figures 8A and 8B, is seen another embodiment of the present and�gained with two drilling rigs. As stated above, due to the very short period of open water in the Arctic, it is desirable to increase the efficiency of exploration. Thus, the first tower 30 and the second tower is 30' are installed side by side on one side of the deck 21' Jack-up installation. Tower 30, 30' are operated in console mode so that bore directly through seawater. However, the tower 30, 30' can be located for drilling through the drilling shaft inside the perimeter of the reflector of the ice. Additionally, since the tower console and have a significant weight to ensure a safe and stable position on the deck, on the deck 21' also provides for the adaptation module 40, and preferably on the side opposite to the installation of two towers. With this device adaptation module provides a balance of the two towers 30, 30'. Of course, the tower should be located near one another, but can also be located opposite each other, as shown in horizontal projection in Figure 7.
 the Construction and operation of a Jack-up installation with two towers is a complex, mainly due to limited deck space and challenging conditions in the Arctic. The larger and heavier Jack-up rig, the harder it is to raise and ensure the balance of the installation. As you can tell, ADP�ion module is very critical from the point of view safe and efficient operation. The number and location of the supports 25 on the towers and/or the adaptation module 40 may also vary depending on weight, space and location of equipment installed on the deck.
 Preferably, to ensure the best balance to use at least four supporting legs 25. Additional supports may also be provided, if space allows, but the greater number of supports means that more areas will be subjected to waves and floating ice floes, and therefore it is very important to optimize the number and location of supports.
 With the function of flexion of ice and two Jack-up rig in installing the present invention provides an efficient, safe and productive way to significantly improve the exploration of gas and oil reserves in the Arctic. When compared with the traditional Jack-up installations of the present invention can extend the working period during the open-water season by splitting a floating ice floes into small pieces and double performance intelligence through the use of two rigs in the facility, which will provide significant savings in exploration operations.
 In conclusion, it should be noted that the discussion of any reference is not an admission that it is prior t�hnike to the present invention, especially in relation to any reference that has a publication date after the priority date of the present application. At the same time every claim below is incorporated into this detailed description or specification as additional embodiments of the present invention.
 Although the systems and processes described in this application have been described in detail, it should be clear that various changes, substitutions and modifications can be made without changing the essence of the present invention and the deviation from its scope, as is defined by the following claims. Specialists in this field technicians can be able to study the preferred embodiments of the present invention and to determine other ways of practical application of the present invention that do not correspond exactly to the description in this application. The authors of the present invention is that variations and equivalents are within the scope of the claims, while the description, abstract and drawings should not be used to limit the scope of the invention. Specially is understood that the present invention is as broad as the following claims and their equivalents.
 the Following sources are fully incorporated into this description by�Ohm links.
1. US 4819730.
2. EP 1094193.
3. US 6491477.
4. GUIDANCE NOTES ON ICE CLASS, published by American Bureau of Shipping Incorporated by Act of Legislature of the State of New York 1862 (2008).
5. Requirements concerning POLAR CLASS, by INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CLASSIFICATION SOCIETIES (2011).
1. Drilling Jack-up unit, including: (i) a floating body having a generally flat upper deck; (ii) the portion above the floating body to bend ice extending down from the perimeter above the deck and tapering inwards; (iii) an optional reflective ice edge extending generally vertically downward from the lower perimeter of the above parts to bend ice to ice around above the floating body, not under it; (iv) at least three supports located inside the perimeter above the floating body; and (v) lifting device, associated with each arm, for raising and lowering each foot; and vi) at least two towers that are installed on the above deck; characterized in that the two towers are located on one horizontal side of the said deck relative to a centerline of the deck and on opposite horizontal sides of the said deck relative to a second centerline of the deck, perpendicular to the first centerline of the deck, or on opposite sides of the specified deck at the same distance from the center of the deck, when it� specified first axial line parallel to the longitudinal axis of these towers.
2. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that said apparatus additionally includes an anchoring mechanism associated with the base of each foot to provide additional resistance to the forces with which ice floes can affect the installation.
3. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the portion for bending of the ice extends vertically at least from 11 to 16 meters.
4. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 3, characterized in that the angle of the hull to Flex ice is in the range from 5 to 10 degrees relative to the vertical.
5. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the portion for bending ice includes many relatively flat inclined segment extending along the perimeter of the floating body.
6. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the portion for bending of the ice is a hardened surface.
7. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the portion for bending of the ice is the surface of the casing with double walls with reinforcing beams between them.
8. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that at least four props are located inside the above-mentioned perimeter above the floating body.
9. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the two you�key located on one horizontal side of the deck.
10. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 9, characterized in that said apparatus further comprises an adaptation module mounted on the horizontal side above deck, the opposite side of the location of the two towers, away from the center of the specified deck.
11. The self-climbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the two towers are located on opposite horizontal sides above the deck.
12. The method of drilling in shallow water with the possible presence of ice, comprising: a) providing a Jack-up installation having: i) a floating body having a relatively flat deck at the top and a form to bend the ice along the bottom, in which a form to bend the ice extends downwards and inwards from the deck, (ii) the form to reflect the ice extends generally vertically downward from the lower edge of the specified form for bending ice for discharging the ice around the specified floating body, not under it; (iii) at least three supports located inside the perimeter of the floating body, and (iv) two towers, installed above the deck; b) lowering down each foot to reach the sea floor and lift the hull out of the water, if the ice is not threatening the installation; C) lowering of the floating body in the water in protivogradovoy configuration so that the form to bend the ice extends higher and lower� the sea surface for splitting or removal of ice, approaching the installation, if the ice threatens the installation; and d) the drilling of the two towers during steps b) and/or b).
13. A method according to claim 12, characterized in that said method additionally includes the step of fastening the supports on the seabed for additional counter force acting from the side of the floating ice.
14. A method according to claim 12, characterized in that said method additionally includes the step of lifting the floating body out of the water while reducing the threat of ice.
SUBSTANCE: platform comprises a body, a foundation part with a bottom slab equipped with ribs embedded into the foundation soil. At the same time the foundation in its lower part along the entire perimeter at the outer side is equipped with ploughshares with depth of submersion and distance between them determined on the basis of the given expression. The ploughshare width is also made from the mathematical expression.
EFFECT: reduced material intensity in development of a marine gravity platform, reduced volume of ballast for provision of ribs embedding into the foundation soil, increased stability and bearing capacity of the soil foundation, increased reliability and reduced risk of loss of gravity platform stability during the period of operation under action of combined external impact of loads.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: installation method of a supporting structure at sea or river bottom, in which a supporting structure is installed, which is capable of standing independently for some time, being rather heavy to be retained in position by friction at sea or river bottom, before operations are performed which are required for constant fixture of the supporting structure at sea or river bottom and during their performance. The above structure includes a variety of anchoring points intended for interaction with supporting devices having a possibility of their position control and contacting to the sea or river bottom. Besides, each of the above said devices has a possibility of receiving and setting to the specified position of anchors. The method involves the following stages, at which transportation of the supporting structure and its submersion to the sea or river bottom is performed by means of an installation ship. It involves the stages, at which the supporting structure is installed at the specified level and with the specified orientation relative to the sea or river bottom by means of supporting devices. Anchorage of the supporting structure is performed to the sea or river bottom with anchors by means of devices supported from the supporting structure in order to ensure possible manipulation of anchors and their submersion.
EFFECT: providing reliability of a structure; reducing material consumption and labour intensity.
17 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes deepening and installation of an underwater part of the structure into bottom deposits, fixed fastening of a hollow board to it, made in the form of a ball segment with perforated surface. During assembly of the board its upper part is placed above the surface of the ice cover, and the base is submerged into water. Supply-and-exhaust shafts and tight hatches are placed into the cavity of the board. The underwater part of the platform is equipped with transition gateways and joint assemblies. A tunnel is installed from the platform to the coast, and in it they install a pipe canal, tight partitions, additionally it is equipped with transition gateways, joint assemblies. The tunnel is used as a permanent transport link and moorage for underwater vessels.
EFFECT: increased reliability of operation of hydraulic engineering structures of island type in Arctic seas.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the installation along the platform perimeter of the protective cladding structure. Meanwhile before placing the platform into design position along the platform perimeter with a clearance at least one row of supports from metal piles with round section sunk into unstable bottom sediments or into bed rocks. Into piles the coolers are mounted, and artificial freezing of water and ground around piles, and the monolithic cylinders, formed around piles - ice and grounding in the base and icy in water, shall contact the adjacent cylinders, forming continuous ice and ground in the base and icy in water protective anti-chock and impervious wall.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of an engineering protection of platforms of a floating type in conditions of the Arctic shelf.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to development of oil and gas deposits and can be used for anchoring of mining equipment at sea bottom. Proposed method comprises fitting the pile anchor in place by screwing the cylinder in soil, well drilling via wellhead, lowering of reinforced well casing in the well and cementing the string inner space. Note here that casing pipe is pre-furnished with lengthwise sawcuts. Prior to cementing of casing string, charge is lowered to 1.5-2.0 m from well bottom to explode its so that inverted plume is formed in the area if sawcuts as well as cavities in soil to be filled with concrete.
EFFECT: higher reliability of retention.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to facilities of the continental shelf development. An offshore floating platform contains an undersea displacement module, a support subsea module with rigid support columns and binders, and straining ties fixed at seabed anchors. The support columns and binders can be detached from the undersea module in order to escape quickly from an ice-hazardous area and to return back to the abandoned place. The subsea module is made of individual sealed pontoons interconnected by rigid ties capable of limiting relative motion. The support columns of the subsea module are equipped with mechanisms for connection to pontoons of the undersea module and for interconnection of the modules.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the modules coupling/decoupling, simplified ballasting process.
6 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction of platforms to mount drilling and oil production equipment in the sea. The support stand-anchor of the marine platform comprises joined upper section with the upper support site, ballast cisterns-sections and the lower drilling section, in which there is a hydraulic engine installed, to the shaft of the rotor of which a drill is connected, and a pipeline of water drain and a nozzle of water drain are connected to the stator of the hydraulic engine. At the same time on the marine platform in the control cabin the system of filling-emptying of ballast cisterns-sections additionally comprises a compressor for compressed air, the outlet of which via serially connected first valves and three-way switching valves are connected to pipelines of compressed air supply, hydraulic pumps. Between ballast cisterns-sections there are remote support sections, the upper section is made in the form of two coaxial hollow cylinders arranged relative to each other coaxially. The upper support site by means of hinge parts rigidly connected to it and the marine platform, may rotate around the common axis of the hinged joint, and with it the entire support stand of the anchor with removal of the bolt joints by means of its transition from the vertical working position into the horizontal transport position.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of a support stand-anchor and reduction of axial load.
SUBSTANCE: versions are disclosed regarding implementation of designs of a gravity foundation, which comprises the first and second extended foundation sections divided with an open area and made as capable of maintaining weight in water for the specified structure and resting against the bottom of the water area, and an upper section arranged above the specified open area and made as capable of passing at least partially above water surface to maintain the upper structures. Some versions of implementation additionally contain the first and second inclined sections, which connect foundation sections with the specified upper section.
EFFECT: improved design.
20 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly, to sea gravity ice-breaking platform to be used in shallow water. Said platform comprises bearing plate composed of hollow body dividing in compartments filled with ballast and top displacement hull with processing and ship equipment built in bearing base deck closed elevation to uncouple them. Inner boundary of said deck elevation is equidistance in plan with floating structure outlines with difference in sizes defined by the relationship: δ=δï+δã, where δis aforesaid difference, δï is maximum sum of construction deviation of sizes ob said body and hull from rated values, δãis guaranteed clearance required for alignment of top structure with platform bearing base outline.
EFFECT: higher operating efficiency in ice.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sea gravity platforms for exploration of oil and gas deposits at continental shelf. Proposed platform comprises submersible offshore platform composed by bottom and top bearing plates, sidewalls and internal bulkheads. Bell consisting of separate sections is hinged to submersible platform bottom part. Every said section comprises vertical wall, stiffness ribs and guide pipes. Stiffness ribs have support elements at the points of abutting on bottom plate. Submersible platform sidewalls includes element for attachment of said bell in transport position and recesses to accommodate retainer pints.
EFFECT: higher stability, low draft, fast assembly and disassembly.
SUBSTANCE: device for anchoring floating structures incorporates mooring bar with ends furnished with the appliance to turn the aforesaid rod about its axis of rotation. At that the rod free end is provided with a sleeve letting the chains or cable to pass there through. The anchor chain passed through one of the aforesaid sleeves is fastened at one end faces of the said floating structure. Besides that, to up the structure stability, the proposed device can be furnished with links connecting the free ends of both mooring rods to the structure in question.
EFFECT: anchoring system causing no floating structure trim difference and providing for stable positioning with minor drift, reduced distance between anchor and floating structure.
11 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system for stabilisation of sea platform mounted of gravitation foundation and anchored at sea bottom consists of multitude of sets of upper blocking elements installed on keel at lower part of platform, of great number of caissons installed at sea bottom, of great number of removable insertions each installed in each of caissons and of set of lower blocking elements in each insertion. Each set of the lower blocking elements is designed to engage with one of sets of the upper blocking elements by means of block system, when the keel is set above caissons. Insertions correspond to a tight attached to the keel cementing material pumped into insertions through the keel. The system stabilises the platform relative to forces of lateral shear and also facilitates easy removal of the platform off the caissons with insertions attached to the keel by applying upper lifting force. Further the platform can be transported and mounted of the second set of caissons arranged at the second site of sea bottom.
EFFECT: group of inventions facilitating mounting of platform ensuring good resistance to lateral shear forces and eliminating difficult and expensive operations for installation of shear skirts.
19 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: installation method of bottom complex for performing works on shelf involves assembly of tower erected on the ground and consisting of cone- and taper-shaped sections mounted in series on foundation base with sealing skirt embedded in bottom. Foundation base is installed with hoisting winches and ropes on water-borne vehicle and transported to installation site. Foundation is lowered with coordinated rope movement to bottom. Complex is built up with sections as to height which is more than depth of complex installed on bottom of water area. Vertical position of longitudinal axis of complex is ensured with simultaneous operation of jacks and vibrators arranged on external side along the perimetre of the base. Internal volume of tower is dried. Removal method of bottom complex involves filling of internal tower volume with water. Water-borne vehicle is submerged by means of method of ballast water into tanks. Sag of ropes is chosen with hoisting winches and they are fixed. Ballast water is pumped from tanks. Vibrators and jacks are activated simultaneously till skirt of foundation completely comes out of bottom ground. Complex is transported to new installation place. Complex of equipment includes tower to be installed on ground, and water-borne vehicle. Tower has foundation base with enlarged surface area and sealing skirt, hollow housing with cross section decreasing as to height so that upper section of housing installed on the ground is located above water level. Water-borne vehicle has two hinged housings equipped with tanks, and ballast water receiving and discharge systems.
EFFECT: providing reliable installation of complex on unprepared bottom ground, stability of complex at lateral loads with no anchors available.
10 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sea oil extraction platforms. Proposed SPAR platform 200 comprises hull 2202 with central hast 204. Air- and watertight partition 210 runs across central shaft to make variable-buoyancy compartment 220 in central shaft. In compliance with some versions, central shaft bottom is exposed in sea, while in compliance with other versions, central shaft bottom is sealed. At least one pipe 224 to house riser 227 runs through partition and said variable-buoyancy compartment. Said pipe has exposed top face to allows drainage of water accumulated in central shaft to make air- and watertight seal in joint with bulkhead. In some versions, two or more air- and watertight partitions 206, 208, 210 are arranged across central shaft to form one or more air- and watertight ballast tanks 216, 218 arranged fixed between every adjacent pair of bulkheads.
EFFECT: increased platform buoyancy due to its adjustment by central shaft.
16 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ice-resistant support block of a marine engineering facility comprises a cylindrical shaft, a support unit and supporting braces. The shaft is made as hollow. The shaft is hingedly connected to supporting braces. The support unit comprises a support ring. The support ring is formed by at least three rectilinear pontoons. Pontoons are rigidly connected by their ends. The support ring is rigidly fixed to the cylindrical shaft by hollow radial spacers. Supporting braces are rigidly connected to the support ring by lower ends. Pontoons of the support ring, radial spacers, a cylindrical shaft and hollow supporting braces are made as capable of their floatability adjustment from positive to negative one.
EFFECT: invention provides for the possibility of serial construction, reduced labour intensiveness of installing a support block on site and its removal from soil, high repairability and capability of re-equipment in the dock.
8 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to install a platform support block provides for support block transportation, its submersion to the sea bottom and installation onto soil. Ballast reservoirs are used during transportation. Ballast reservoirs are inner cavities of structure elements. During installation the first installation unit is ballasted down. The shaft is put into vertical position. Its eyes are brought to the level above sea surface. Spacers are ballasted to ensure hinged connection of their eyes with eyes of the vertical shaft. The ballast is pumped from the support ring pontoons and/or radial spacers and/or vertical shaft. Spacer ends are put in contact with the support ring due to slight surfacing up of the first installation unit. Spacers are rigidly fixed. Assembly pontoons are ballasted. Its lowering to the prepared bottom section is provided.
EFFECT: simplicity of structure installation, possibility of serial construction, high repairability and possibility of re-equipment in the dock.
SUBSTANCE: superstructure is built on a building slip in a dock on a support deck installed on side walls of the dock. A transport barge that has taken the ballast is introduced into the dock under the superstructure, and the superstructure is installed by means of ballast pumping away from the barge on its deck with its subsequent transportation to a marine oil and gas field. A hydraulic engineering pocket is arranged in place of installation of a support part of a marine oil and gas production facility on the marine oil and gas field. Length, width and depth of the latter make it possible to lead the transport barge to the support part, to install the superstructure onto the support part after taking the ballast by the transport barge, and also to move the transport barge away from the marine oil and gas field after pumping of ballast from it.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to eliminate using additional crane facilities for transportation and assembly of a superstructure of marine oil and gas production facilities onto a transport barge, and possibility to exclude construction of a marine channel for passage of a transport barge to an oil and gas field in shallow waters.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises foundation 12, hydroelectric turbine 10 to rest on said foundation 12, and afloat sea ship 14 that allows detachment of said foundation. Ship 1 allows detachment of foundation 12 and its lowering, and/or lifting to position right under the ship, and its attachment to ship. Foundation 12 comprises support 32 to pass upward through ship 14 when foundation 14 is attached to ship from below. Ship 14 has opening 30 for foundation 32 to pass through when foundation 12 is mounted under ship 14 to allow turbine 10 mounted on support 32 to pass there through.
EFFECT: simplified mounting.
13 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: shoe comprises a body and a unit of shoe attachment to a support pillar. It has zero or positive buoyancy and is arranged as capable of changing zero or positive buoyancy to buoyancy of a low negative value. The shoe body comprises a hole for stretching of a support pillar, besides, the specified hole is arranged in the centre of the shoe and comprises vertical guide slots for interaction with racks of the support pillar. The unit of shoe attachment to the support pillar comprises two stops, every of which is equipped with a guide sleeve placed in a body, a sliding block installed in the guide sleeve, and a manual drive to move the block in the guide sleeve.
EFFECT: simplified assembly of a shoe to a pillar.
11 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction of structures and may be used for year-round drilling under conditions of the Arctic shelf. The platform comprises a bottom ballasted plate with an inbuilt support unit and a superstructure. The bottom plate is made in the form of an upper part, a lower part and a sliding sectional support unit of telescopic type. The support unit comprises telescopic sections that are separated at the installation point with a sliding mechanism. Telescopic sections, the sliding mechanism and all required auxiliary devices are installed in sluice compartments. All telescopic sections are of identical height, cylindrical or prismatic shape, and comprise guide slots on the inner and outer surface. Inner and outer cuts of the sections are selected for each other so that arrangement of sections is provided within each other with a gap sufficient for sliding and sealing of sections along the section guides relative to each other, in accordance with the telescope principle. The lower section's cut is larger than the upper one's. Sections of the support unit are arranged in a reinforced ice version. The invention also discloses methods of transportation, assembly and disassembly of a self-lifting mobile ice-resistant drilling platform of telescopic type.
EFFECT: increased reliability of a platform, lower labour intensiveness of methods of its transportation, assembly and dismantling.
13 cl, 3 dwg