Biological stabilisation storage pond (versions)
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, namely the preparation of wastewaters in irrigated agriculture for irrigation and fertilising of plants. The biological stabilisation storage pond comprises a closed water intake water reservoir area in the form of a storage pond 1, having a water-supply tube 2 with the fed collector 21, and a water distribution device at the inlet of the discharge pipeline 4. The water distribution device has two concentrically arranged rings, the inner 5 of which is connected to the pipeline of the outlet, and the outer 6 - to the pipeline of inlet and is located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inlet opening of the ring 5 is provided with an air pipe 9 with a valve 10, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline 4, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. The source of pressurised air and gas emitted from the wastewaters is made in the form of a mixing chamber 11 with the mesh cloth 12 at the upper part, sequentially arranged on the discharge pipeline 4 below its input. The chamber 11 is connected by the tube 13 with the perforated tubes 14 located in the cavity of the inner ring 5. In the side walls of the inner rings 5 there are air-gas slotted openings 16. In order to regulate the conditions of discharge of the wastewaters into the pond and their removal from the side of the grid 8 at filling the pond 1 a shield 19 can be mounted with an inclination towards the bottom of the pond. The shield 19 can be mounted on a horizontal axis of rotation 20 and is connected by the rods with the drive of vertical movement. According to the second embodiment the storage pond comprises successive water reservoirs with inclined bottoms and water distribution devices. The water distribution devices are formed as two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected with the discharge pipeline and the outer - with the pipeline of feeding of flows, located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inner ring is provided with an air pipe with a vent, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. In the side walls of the inner ring there are air-gas outlet openings. The water distribution devices are connected on the discharge pipeline with the mixing chambers.
EFFECT: device improves the efficiency of protection of intake of wastewaters from entering floating debris and simultaneous contributes to decontamination when feeding wastewaters for irrigation The design of the device enables to mix the air due to the organisation of the process of air-gas connection and discharging it from the chamber, which is in the gaseous state.
4 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely to the preparation in irrigated agriculture for watering and fertilizing the plants.
Manure waste is a hazardous product. Therefore, animal waste (pig effluents), the first stage is subjected to biological treatment for industrial wastewater treatment plants (aeration), and in the second stage under natural conditions in the irrigation fields and represent a complex chemical-biological process.
Industrial treatment facilities even during good operation does not provide a complete clarification of swinstall to environmentally friendly options. Therefore, after the first stage of wastewater treatment (solid fraction, activated sludge, etc.) exposed to industrial structures in biological ponds, possible tselenapravlennoi flow of effluent in the pond, already destined for the subsequent cycle for soil purification of the liquid fraction of manure (animal waste), and built irrigation system irrigation, water outlet, water distribution and removal of purified water, arranged, as a rule, separate.
The design of the construction is chosen depending on the amount of treated wastewater and their concentration. Fallen to the bottom of the pond sediment must continuously or periodically be deleted. Prodoljitel�the surface of the retention period depends on the amount of sludge and its ability to rotting and compaction, from where then comes a large amount of gas (methane). This gas is a compound with oxygen and the ability to use for burning with heat. So the drains become highly concentrated wastewater with subsequent treatment at other facilities. A feature of such ponds is the dependence of their work from climatic conditions, the need for long incubation wastewater in the ponds. Here is required continuous improvement outlets and outlet devices.
Permissible load on the filtration fields depends on many factors (climatic conditions, soil structure and permeability of its ability, the level of groundwater, and the nature of pollution of waste water and their concentration).
Therefore, the key indicators are the quality requirements allocated to irrigation fields sewage and allowable load per unit irrigated area.
Biological ponds can be used as a natural, artificial aeration. The calculation methods are different.
The efficiency of biological ponds in a greater degree depends on the temperature of the water in the pond, as well as the presence of oxygen in water at the given temperature. Hence the volume of the pond depends on the configuration of the pond in the outlet with�oruzheniya. Biological ponds with artificial aeration consist of several oxidative steps, but not less than two, of the same volume of BOD coming out of them.
When searching for used source of information, as the device for application of liquid fertilizer with irrigation water (inventor's certificate SU # 755236, CL. AS 23/04, 1980). However, this device only determines the overall level of equipment and is not considered particularly relevant.
Known method of irrigation livestock effluents, including freezing and pieces bring in topsoil between the rows of plants and close up, carried out after the irrigation fields (inventor's certificate SU # 1426503, CL A01G 25/00,1988).
A common drawback of such irrigation is the dependence of the climatic conditions, the need for long term storage, the frozen livestock waste, and then use a sprinkler technique. This causes and complicated, especially on the first stage liquid effluent, i.e. it is necessary spends many stages: freezing, transporting, stacking etc., which increases their on-field irrigation.
Known another way of OSVETLENIE natural wastewater, including the passage of water containing suspended therein particles through the open sump, in which flow of water across the placed block elements�t, overlapping the upper portion of the stream. With the aim of improving the efficiency of water clarification by the intensification of deposition of sediments, the depth of water in the sump support equal to the value, which is determined by a formula and depends on the calculation of structural elements of the device that includes the outlet and the inlet (inventor's certificate SU # 1516571, CL. EV 8/02,1989).
In a well-known settler OSVETLENIE waste water from the outlet and containing suspended particles, produce a assertion directly in the settling tank (pond), which is almost unmanageable, and the effect of cleaning is not sufficient for the application of treated effluent for irrigation purposes. In addition, when emptying the pond, removal of silt requires the use of mechanized equipment that increases the cost of operation of the storage pond, the efficiency of the storage pond and complicated complex. This is due to the imperfection of the known design of biological pond system and the outlet, water distribution and removal of purified water, arranged, as a rule, separate.
The closest in technical essence to the present invention is a biological oxidations contact stabilization pond, consisting of a sequence of basins with sloping bottoms, water�distribution devices and piping supply and exhaust, while the water distribution device made in the form of two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected to the pipeline issue, and the outer - pipeline supply and placed at the lowest point of the inclined bottom (inventor's certificate SU # 549426, CL. SS 1/02 from 23.05.1977).
The disadvantage of this device is that it is almost unmanageable in terms of efficiency of work related to the accumulation of wastewater (piggery effluent), which accumulates a large volume of gases in the form of methane, in addition, when emptying the storage pond for irrigation, there is no automatic feed sludge with water to irrigation fields as fertilizer irrigation. Thus, the known device does not take into account the possibility of the use in the technological process of generated gas (methane) in the ongoing chemical reaction with wastes that accumulate in the pond.
An important factor it should be noted that under the terms of the mode of operation of the pond, in winter it is not used for irrigation, and it accumulates waste water (pig effluents). Emptying the pond begin after the disappearance of frost, i.e. from may to September, carried out the emptying of the storage pond for irrigation, in the form of fertilizing irrigation sprinkler irrigation. This ongoing work, respectively �also made with the implementation of tasks to ensure the environmental safety of such facilities for staff involved in the commissioning of the plants ponds.
Thus, the known construction of the storage pond does not allow taking into account the time of its filling and discharge to simplify the equipment used for irrigation of pig effluents, and significantly reduces the efficiency due to the process pond, with no automatic feed sludge with water to irrigation fields as watering and fertilizing more evenly dispose the effluents of livestock farms and at the same time implement the total application rate, to reduce the amount of field storage of effluent. To eliminate the above drawbacks will allow on irrigated land to produce a guaranteed yield of agricultural crops. Another important disadvantage of the known designs is the lack of use of this technological process, the use of cheap gas (methane) emitted from undergoing chemical reactions from applicants and accumulated sludge with the water in the pond.
The technical result from the use of the claimed invention is to improve the efficiency of disinfection of wastewater irrigation and the reduction of energy consumption during operation, simplifying installation while creating a modular variants, as well as the environmental burden. T�activate the technical result consists in increase of efficiency in the acquisition and conversion of the evolved gas from wastewater and mixing it with air.
Said technical result for the first variant execution is achieved in that the biological stabilization pond drive, including contact stabilizing pond, consisting of a reservoir with a sloping bottom, the water distribution device and the piping inlet and the water outlet, two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected to the pipeline issue, and the outer - pipeline supply and placed at the lowest point of the inclined bottom, an inner ring provided with an air tube to the valve, one end of which is installed at the entrance to the discharge pipe and the other is communicated with the atmosphere, and the source of compressed air, mixed gas, made in the form of sequentially located mixing chamber to a discharge pipe located below the entrance, in the side walls of the inner ring is made air-to-gas outlet openings.
In addition, the mixing chamber is provided with a mesh fabric in the upper part.
In addition, the water distribution device is provided with a flat shield located at the entrance of the outer ring fixed to the inner ring connected by a hinge and connected to the actuator.
Said technical result for the second variant is achieved in that the biological�cue stabilization pond, including successive basins with sloping bottoms and water distribution devices in the form of two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected to the pipeline issue, and the outer - conduit inlet drains placed at the lowest point of the inclined bottom, an inner ring provided with an air tube to the valve, one end of which is installed at the entrance to the discharge pipe and the other is communicated with the atmosphere, in the side walls of the inner ring is made air-to-gas outlet, wherein the water distribution device is connected on the outlet tubing to the mixing chambers.
This embodiment of the construction, biological stabilization pond allows, in comparison with the prototype to automate the filling in of pond waste water (pig effluents) and emptying of the storage pond after filling water discharge through the water distribution device and the mixing of the air flowing from the atmosphere, the gas emitted from waste water in the mixing chamber, carries out the distribution of the air-gas mixture in the upper horizon of the outlet pipe in the water distribution device constructed in the form of two concentrically arranged rings. Education Vacu�mA in the mixing chamber: the mixture air-to-gas through the pipe to the perforated pipe, located inside the cavity of the inner ring of water distribution facilities. This mixture passes through the protective grille (filter), overlying the inner ring on top, the other part of this mixture (pressure medium) is supplied to the annular openings in the side walls of the inner ring. All this generates optimal hydraulic conditions in front of the water distribution device, i.e., so as to empty the pond from runoff, saturated, for example, silty sediment and floating debris, changes its bandwidth, resuspension occurs (elevation), oscillatory phenomena as above the grate and in the cavity of the outer ring of water, no dead space, no mudding with the time of emptying the pond.
Another important factor in the mixing of the air-gas mixture is that the resulting environment is flammable in the form of combustion gas at the outlet to the consumer beyond the pond that extends use as fuel for various industrial needs. Thus, the emitted gas from pig effluent is mixed with oxygen from the air, can burn is an additional positive technology for producing heat, which is ensured by entering into the vacuum cavity requirements�Noah camera on outlet lines. When the cavity of the mixing chamber is equipped with mesh cloth in the upper part.
In addition, according to embodiment, from contiguous water bodies (ponds), respectively, the total organization of the process of consecutive and water distribution devices allows to obtain the additional result of the energy along the outlet pipe, i.e., the total productivity dramatically increases the receipt of the air-gas mixture, thereby greatly enhancing the efficiency of the structure as a whole. As a result, solves the environmental safety of the use of wastewater (livestock) intended for irrigation.
Such execution of construction, according to the author, was not previously known and meets the criterion of "novelty."
Fig. 1 shows a biological stabilization pond, a plan; Fig. 2 - a section a-A in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 shows a variant of the pond from the artificially created water bodies.
Biological stabilization pond is created from artificial pond (water body) 1 having power pipe with 2 fed by the manifold 21 and is provided with a valve 3. The storage pond is sloped bottom towards the outlet pipe 4, the entrance of which is provided with two concentrically arranged inner black�ring 5 and outer ring 6. Rings 5 and 6 in the upper part of the act in relation to the level of the bottom sections, respectively, at 15-30 cm, and the gap 7 between the rings 5 and 6 is used in the water distribution device. The ring 5 is provided with horizontal bars 8, and its inlet is supplied with air by a tube 9 with a calibrated orifice or valve 10 is communicated with the atmosphere, a discharge conduit 4 of the irrigation network, placed in the lower part of the water distribution devices with rings 5 and 6. The source of compressed air and gas released from the wastewater, in the form of air-to-gas capture of the mixing chamber 11 with mesh fabric 12 in the upper part of the tool onto the pipe 4 arranged below the entrance and a connecting tube 13 with perforated tubes 14 located in the cavity of the inner ring 5. The lower end of the air tube 9 is installed at the entrance to the discharge pipe 4 along its axis, which may be fixed hydraulic resistance 15, which plays the role of an active nozzle, thereby increasing the flow in the outlet conduit 4, the velocity increases. In flow-through rings 5 and 6, it is advisable grating 8 and the slotted holes 16 to be cleaned of silt and debris by rising up and lifting in the form of oscillatory phenomena of the air-gas mixture exiting from the perforated tube 14, i.e., obra�that air-bubble plume. To extend functional possibilities of using the air gas mixture to the coupling tube 13 connected to the tube 17 with a valve 18 for supplying the consumer with the air-gas mixture and combustion as, for example, fuel and preobrazovaniyakh in heat (heating of greenhouses, buildings, etc.).
Thus, before applying wastewater or animal waste for irrigation through the discharge pipe 4 for discharging the pipeline is installed, the source of compressed air mixed with gas (methane) emitted from wastewater in the form of air-gas handling mixing chamber 11. The depth h1 and h2 show the location of pipes 14 and chamber 11 from the level of the water inlet of water distribution facilities. Rainwater outer ring 6, the upper edge of the rear wall has a flat shield 19 with an inclination toward the bottom of the pond. For the purpose of regulating the conditions of wastewater discharge into the pond and discharging them from the grid 8 when filling the storage pond 1 shield 19 can be mounted on a horizontal axis 20 of rotation of the rods and connected to an actuator (not shown) for vertical movement.
According to the second embodiment (Fig. 3), the storage pond includes a series of man-made reservoirs (ponds) 1 having an inlet pipe 2 is fed with the collector 21 and the collector 22 is used to supply effluent for irrigation, provided with a shut-off element�AMI and combined with the design of the water distribution devices.
Biological stabilization pond operates as follows.
In operating the technological mode of operation of a livestock breeding complex the storage pond 1 provides a feed of waste water for irrigation irrigation fields along with the incoming sludge. In these conditions, the use of pond 1 during its initial filling sinks make adjustment facilities. When the outlet conduit 4 and the irrigation network adjustment valve 3 achieve flow is only required for supplying water into the pond 1. Filling of pond 1 is carried out at the beginning of the inflow of wastewater, diluted with water at the complex, into the outer space of the ring 6. The change of the free end of the shield 19 is achieved by the formation of the optimal hydraulic conditions at the entrance section of the outer ring 6, i.e. when changing the discharge mode inlet manifold 2 and the flow rate (decrease or increase), respectively quenching occurs at vertical exit the ring 6 in the storage pond 1, changing the output in the superficial layers of the watercourse (sewage or animal waste). Drains fill capacity of the storage pond, especially in the winter when the irrigation system is off, until spring, the accumulation of wastewater in the pond. In the event of a power supply drains into the supply line�the gadfly 2, the shields 19 overlapping the top ring 6 and it is not zamulyuyetsya waste. In addition, changing the position of the shield 19 can regulate the flow of effluent taken through the bars 8 in the discharge pipe 4.
To clean the grille 8 and the slot 16 and the ring 6, to produce the flow of air-gas mixture from the mixing chamber 11 in the perforated tube 14. When applying wastewater to the discharge pipe 4 under pressure of the water column h1 through the bars 8 of the ring 5, it is filled with sewage. After filling in the effluent (water) is closed and the outlet conduit 4 and the implementation of the distribution of wastewater on irrigated field, the flow of waste water at the entrance to the discharge pipe 4 causes the formation of a vacuum in collecting the mixing chamber 11. The air through the tube and the valve 10 flows into the discharge pipe 4, miscible with water, saturated gas (methane), which accumulate in the upper section of the chamber 11 above mesh fabric 12 and the tube 13 are received in the perforated tube 14 under the bars 8 and opposite the slot 16 in the side walls of the ring 5. Of a mixture of air and gas obtained an active environment creates after that, the ascent of silt and debris with a show in the upper layers in the form of air-bubble plume.
Thus, through the bars 8 and the slots 16, the free space of the ring 5 is filled by sechen�Yu waste water, the nozzle 15 is actively delivers the wastewater to the discharge pipe 4 containing a mixture of gas and air, and then this mixture is released from the flow in the upper part of the chamber 11 providing an output to the pipe 13 or 17 with a valve 18 directly to the consumer.
Alternating operation of the system of water distribution facilities and provides or rinse the grates and vents, or fuel in the form of combustion gas with oxygen from the air for the needs of the consumer.
The proposed structure allows to increase the efficiency of the pond with sewage and animal effluent, using eye-catching of them gas (methane), which is mixed with air through the process air gas connections, and the discharge from the chamber, simultaneously using to clean the grates, and slotted holes in the walls of the ring, thus reducing the probability of failure culvert capacity inlet portion of the inner ring. In addition, ultimately contributes to the protection of the environment from contamination. If necessary, use compound gas with air as fuel in the absence of needed waste water from floating debris during the work of the irrigation system for disposal of effluent. The intensity and duration of the irrigation from gated pipe depend on months�tion of environmental-economic conditions.
1. Biological stabilization pond, including contact pond, consisting of a reservoir with a sloping bottom, the water distribution device and the piping inlet and the water outlet, two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected to the pipeline issue, and the outer - pipeline supply and placed at the lowest point of the inclined bottom, characterized in that the inner ring is provided with an air tube to the valve, one end of which is installed at the entrance to the discharge pipe and the other is communicated with the atmosphere, and the source of compressed air, mixed gas, made in the form of sequentially located mixing chamber to a discharge conduit below its entrance, in the side walls of the inner ring is made air-to-gas outlet openings.
2. Biological stabilization pond drive according to claim 1, characterized in that the mixing chamber is equipped with mesh cloth in the upper part.
3. Biological stabilization pond drive according to claim 1, characterized in that the distribution device is provided with a flat shield, located at the entrance of the outer ring fixed to the inner ring, linked by a hinge, and associated with the actuator.
4. Biological stabilization pond-�opital, including successive basins with sloping bottoms and water distribution devices in the form of two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected to the pipeline issue, and the outer - conduit inlet drains placed at the lowest point of the inclined bottom, characterized in that the inner ring is provided with an air tube to the valve, one end of which is installed at the entrance to the discharge pipe and the other is communicated with the atmosphere, in the side walls of the inner ring is made air-to-gas outlet, wherein the water distribution device is connected on the outlet tubing to the mixing chambers.
SUBSTANCE: for desalination of heavy saline lands, water is supplied to the desalinisation site, the slits 3 are cut, the irrigation pipes 6 with droppers 7 are placed along the central axis of the inter-slit bands, the inter-slit bands are covered with waterproof screens. Then the wash water is fed through the droppers 7, the soil with salt is moved from the walls of the slits 3 at their bottom after the termination of washing, and the slits 3 are poured. Before cutting the slits 3 the deep loosening 2 is carried out. The slits 3 are cut with a bias of the bottom towards the collector and matched with it. Along the central axis of the inter-slit bands the troughs 5 are formed by compacting, in which the pipes 6 with droppers 7 are placed. After moving to the bottom of the slits 3 of soil with salt they are poured first with gravel as the layer of 0.2-0.3 m, then with sand of the field surface. Then, the site surface is levelled and ploughing is carried out with the formation of the arable layer.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of desalination of heavy saline lands with minimal cost of water, diversion of excess precipitation with removal of salts beyond the desalinisation site.
SUBSTANCE: water outlet comprises the inlet 1 and transit 2 channels, associated with water intake gallery, having the water inlet opening in the upper part, covered with grid 11. Grid 11 also covers the V-shaped threshold 10, which separates the sediments before the bottom slot of gallery into coarse fractions. The side walls of the supply channel 1 are provided with guide elements with possibility of their displacement towards the threshold. Guide elements are designed with L-shaped vertical walls 13 with shelves 14, placed above the bottom of the supply channel 1. The lower edges of vertical walls are installed relative to the bottom of the inlet channel 1 with gap. Gallery is made with intake portal in the form of tube, the upper part of the case of which with oblique cut 6 is located above the slotted hole of the gallery. Due to the fact that the cross-section portal of tube with the inlet portion 5 is located slightly above the bottom of the chamber, the water flow to the discharge pipeline is increased, and flow regime through the portal into the transit channel 2 occurs without splashing and all sediments go down. In the presence of bending, the flow speed profile is more uniform in the pipeline, which reduces the tendency of flow separation from the inner curved wall and reduces the energy losses along the length of the pipeline, caused by the vortex turbulence. Pressure losses in the inlet portion at the presence of tubular portion, curved in three dimensions, as in the outlet portion of the pipeline, are reduced.
EFFECT: construction of water outlet as a whole provides its protection against the sediments, as well as in case of the absence of water inlet and simplification of the design at the increased discharge capacity, besides the length of the discharge pipeline is reduced respectively.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparation of a field ditch and an irrigation furrow with opening the shoulder of the field ditch, into the shoulder of the field ditch a plastic bottle with the volume of 1.5-2 litres with a truncated bottom at the height of 3 cm is placed, the bottom is placed in the cut place of the bottle with the reverse side, the bottom serves as the means of water start and turning off the water flow into the irrigation furrow, and at low flow rates of water the start and turning off the water after finishing watering is carried out by the bottle lid.
EFFECT: simplification of the method and improvement of the quality of irrigation.
SUBSTANCE: water divider includes supply (2) and transit (3) channels, control gates and bottom well (1) with division walls (8-10) located in it and provided with horizontal caps (11-13) in the upper part dividing the well into chambers. Bottom well (1) is provided with L-shaped caps (15-18), the flange of which faces downwards, which are arranged in each chamber and attached to the middle part of the chamber wall opposite to a horizontal cap. Division walls (8-10) have water-carrying slot-shaped openings (20-22) covered from above with horizontal flanges (23-25) and from below with horizontal flanges (26-28) respectively. Water outlet slot-shaped holes (20-22) are arranged in series opposite L-shaped caps (15-17). The upper part of division walls (8-10) has fractures (29-31) in a vertical plane with specified angles functionally depending on a value of water intake with each chamber of bottom well (1). Surface areas of inlet openings of chambers increase in flow direction above well (1). Each chamber of bottom well (1) has cone-shaped bottom (32-35) directed with a convex in an upward direction. Well (1) with chambers arranged in it is connected to an outlet channel by means of a water-jet damping well. Operating efficiency is improved due to stabilisation of discharged consumption and carrying capacity is increased in a mode of free flow at a wave structure of a flow.
EFFECT: formation of a stable hydraulic jump is provided; with that, spreading of a common jet in an outlet channel is maintained.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: drainage-humidification system comprises a supply 1 and a discharge 2 closed irrigation pipelines interconnected with water distribution executive unit. The water distribution executive unit consists of a vertical pipe 3 mounted on the supply pipeline 1 and the working chamber 4 of pressure with separation from it by the membrane 5 with the rod 6. The water distribution executive unit, the valve gear 19, the container 24 with the float 23, and the rotary valve 44 with the control pipeline are located in series. The cavity 11 of the chamber 4 is connected via the hydraulic pipeline 64 provided with a valve 65, with the switch 27, the shank of which is fixed pivotally with one end of the lever 50 to the rod 22. Movement of the upper lever 50 is limited by the upper stop 58, and the lower lever 51 - by the lower stop 59 above and below the threshold level in the storage container 24. The valve gear 19 is made in the form of a cylinder and has a double piston 20 which is pivotally coupled to the rod 22 of the float actuator. The valve gear 19 is connected to the supply irrigation pipeline 1 through the control pipeline 34 to the valve 35 and is respectively connected to the manifold 42 with drains-humidifiers 43. The storage container 24 with a siphon 28 communicates through the rotary valve 44 to the control pipelines 31, 34, respectively, with valves 32, 35 and with the supply pipeline 1.
EFFECT: system enables to create closed automated systems in land reclamation, to save water resources, to obtain the necessary productivity of agricultural products with the effective use of land.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular, to methods for determination of water losses from irrigation ditches. The method consists in arrangement of an insulated compartment in a ditch, comprising two polymer water impermeable links, which for the time of determination of filtration losses are closed into slots on the bottom of the ditch at the distance of 30÷50 m, with subsequent hydraulic insulation of joint areas. Maintenance of polymer water impermeable links in the stable position is carried out with the help of a metal polymer rope pulled into open holes in the upper part of links and fixed to coastal anchors. To reduce impact in process of measurements of external factors, on top between water impermeable links there is a tent pulled from light impermeable polymer film. Measurement of water level in the compartment is carried out in special pockets fixed at the outer side to links and communicating with an insulated compartment with the help of three rows of holes in upper, middle and lower parts. For measurement of water level each pocket is equipped with a portable needle level metre (point-gauge) with a vernier scale division price of 0.1 mm, which is fixed on the metal stand, installed in the upper part of the slope above the measured water level.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of water losses for filtration from channels with anti-filtration lining.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology, environment protection and rational nature management and can be used for purification of river water, climate regulation in drought and also contributes to creation of a reserve of fresh water for the economic and social needs of the population. The essence of the technical solution is that the water reservoirs with the depth of 2.5-3 m, the width of 120-150 m, the length of 250-280 m, the surface area of water of 3-3.5 ha are formed in interstream areas on the river banks at a distance of 150-200 m from the mainstream. The water reservoirs are connected to the river bed by input and take-out channels. At the bottom of the water reservoirs the zeolite-containing clay - irlites are placed with the layer of 10-15 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the level of pollution of river waters, to create optimal climatic conditions for human living, flora and fauna, the sustainable development of coastal ecosystems and the whole lowland interfluvial landscapes, while simultaneously providing reserve of ecologically clean fresh water for domestic, household and other needs of the population.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and soil science. The method of assessment of degradation degree of industrial landscape in chemical contamination provides the analytical determination of the total number of the chemical pollutant element, the quantity of chemical pollutant element being in the mobile form in soil of the industrial landscape, and, separately, geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape. A procedure of assessment of pollution of the landscape is proposed, consisting of three stages: normalisation of industrial landscape pollution and geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the ratio of pollution standard of industrial landscape and the pollution standard of geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the degree of degradation of industrial landscape on the ratio of pollution standards under the proposed nonlinear scale of degradation degree of industrial landscape.
EFFECT: proposed method in practical use enables to improve the reliability of detection of degradation degree of industrial landscape in case of chemical pollution.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: weed plants are preliminarily mowed in discharge canal to water level and is left to dry. After drying reed and rush plants are selected. Selected plants are used as sorbent. Filtering cassette net of cassette-holding device is filled with sorbent. Sorbent-containing device is fixed in discharge canal bed in monolithic manner and drainage outflow is passed through it. Plant mowing and replacement of filtering cassette are carried out when rice plant passes from one vegetation stage into another.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve reclamation state of soil and ecological situation on rice fields due to reduction of suffusion and removal of nutrients from soil.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a supply 1 and a transit 2 channels, coupled with a water-receiving chamber, a draining pipeline with a flat gate in its inlet part and a dirt-collecting lattice 9. At the inlet of the water-receiving chamber there is a wall face. The wall face is made on top with a hollow pipe 8, having air outlet holes 10, connected by flexible hoses 12 with perforated tubes 13, separated on a garbage protection device in the form of the lattice 9. Perforated pipes are fixed on the lattice 9 at the side of the flat gate that closes the inlet hole of the draining pipeline. Perforated pipes 13 are connected to a source of compressed air supplied momentarily with a compressor 14, connected with a time relay 16, along an air duct 15 into a hollow pipe 8.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of operation of a device on channels with high inclinations and prevented clogging of a lattice.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes anaerobic fermentation of organic substances in a methane tank with electrical activation of the medium with dc voltage of 0.2-36 V while stirring and bubbling the mass with the released biogas. The organic substances are fed into the methane tank with moisture content of 40-95%. Monitoring is carried out by measuring the value of current in the electrical circuit, calculating conductivity of the system, measuring the volume flow rate of the formed biogas and determining the current content of carbon dioxide gas in the biogas in the upper part of the methane tank. Electrical activation of methanogenesis is controlled by controlling current by setting a new value of current at the level of the sum of the present and calculated maximum current.
EFFECT: high content of methane in biogas, intensification of the process of producing biogas, high process stability and obtaining an end product with accurately defined parameters.
4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used in membrane electrolytic production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide for removing silicon from aqueous compositions containing sodium chloride. The method includes adding, to an aqueous composition of sodium chloride containing silicon, an aluminium-containing compound to obtain molar content of aluminium higher than molar content of silicon in said aqueous composition; Monitoring and maintaining pH of the composition at a first level higher than or equal to 8 and lower than or equal to 10 to obtain a first precipitate; Monitoring and maintaining pH of the obtained aqueous composition at a second level higher than or equal to 4 and lower than or equal to 7 to obtain a second precipitate; separating the formed precipitate from the aqueous suspension to obtain a purified aqueous composition. According to the second version of the method, the precipitate is separated at each formation step thereof. A method of producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide includes electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution purified from silicon using the disclosed methods using a membrane cell.
EFFECT: invention reduces content of silicon in the purified solution which contains sodium chloride, with aluminium content in the purified solution lower than 1 mg/l.
14 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during HCs production from natural or associated petroleum gas. Method of oxygenates cleaning from reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes conversion of even part of the contained oxygenates under conditions of syngas chilling by even part of the reaction water at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion. Further syngas cooling temperature below 400°C is performed by the cleaned water injection in the syngas flow. Method of use of the reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes its cleaning of the oxygenates under conditions of the syngas chilling at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion, cleaned water degassing. The cleaned degassed water is used to cool the syngas to temperature below 400°C and produce the water steam.
EFFECT: invention ensures effective cleaning of the reaction water of the oxygenates, and use of the produced cleaned water as feed water for boilers and water steam production.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filter to be incorporated with waster filtering assembly. Water filtering assembly comprises filter of, mainly, a flat profile. Water filtering assembly comprises container for filtered water, intake funnel to be fitted in said container and to intake unfiltered water. This filter can be fitted in intake funnel for filtering of water fed therein. The filter makes the exit from intake funnel for filtered water to get into aforesaid container. The filter makes the intake funnel bottom and as a result water filtering goes over the entire intake funnel bottom. The filter comprises case with water intake and filtered water outlet. Note here that filtering medium is arranged between said intake and said outlet. Water filtering medium includes the ply of ion-exchange resin and ply of material filled with activated carbon. Note that said plies are separated in said case.
EFFECT: higher filtering rate.
22 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: desalination multistage adiabatic plant additionally comprises a thermosoftener (52) which serves for the generation of sludge particles in the feed water heated in a steam heater (26) and taken from a pipeline to supply the feed water to the inlet of a multi-stage adiabatic evaporator (4), as well as a two-section feed water receiver (76) to reduce supersaturation in the sea water being evaporated due to the usage of sludge particles as "seed crystals" in the supersaturated solution volume. The thermosoftener (52) comprises a perforated membrane (56) built-in in the casing (53) under the cover, a dome-shaped horizontal partition (61) installed with a gap in respect to the inner casing wall, vertical cylindrical shells, a manifold to withdraw the vapour (62) under the dome-shaped partition, a branch pipe for water withdrawal is united with the sludge particle removal and is mounted in the casing bottom, and the branch pipe for steam supply is built-in in the casing cover.
EFFECT: lower rate of scale formation on working surfaces of the plant elements.
2 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device and a method of detecting the quality of a liquid, which are used in water treatment devices. The detector "renders" the quality of water in the form of visible radiation instead of converting intensity of UV radiation into digital form and comprises a first detection window coated with a first material for converting first received UV radiation emitted by a UV source and transmitted through the liquid into first visible radiation. The device additionally mixes the first visible radiation with second visible radiation to produce third visible radiation. A different colour of the third visible radiation reflects different quality of water.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the device and method owing to absence of UV sensors in water, which detect UV intensity.
14 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined magnetic processing of fluids. Proposed device comprises housing 1 connected via fluid feed and discharge pipes and magnetic unit 6 fitted therein and composed of the set of permanent magnets. Fluid flow channel is arranged between said magnetic unit 6 and housing 1 and composed of spiral with pitch ratio equal to six. The length of magnetic unit 6 is comparable with its diameter. Ferromagnetic washers 7 are fitted between three circular magnets of magnetic unit 6. Electromagnets 4 built around Helmholtz coils 5 with reactive power compensators are arranged at fluid feed and discharge pipes 2 and 3.
EFFECT: efficient magnetisation of fluid flow, ruled out permanent magnet effects.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water crystal cleaning of harmful admixtures including heavy isotopes of deuterium. Proposed device comprises case 11 to house riser 8 with two chambers 4, 1. The latter make inlets for portable water and heat carrier. Portable water chamber 4 is connected with inside of case 11 that has outlet at its bottom. Heat carrier chamber 1 is connected with inside of ribs 7 arranged in case 11 and combined by outlet. Outer surface of ribs 7 is wavy.
EFFECT: continuous formation of deuterium ice in portable water.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to steam fractions separators. Steam separator comprises vessel for boiling fluid with top section provided with circular horizontal ring with inner groove and hole for condensate. Several identical elements consist of vertical tubes with horizontal rings arranged at their lower part and like rings at upper part provided with grooves with holed for condensate draining. Note here that said elements are fitted one on the other while the last one at upper part is plugged.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to technology of processing water with ozone and can be used in systems of water supply of towns and settlements for decontamination of drinking water from surface water sources, in particular, with large seasonal fluctuations of water contamination, requiring up to sixfold change of ozone dose. Ozone-air mixture is supplied by steps with constant consumption at each step and change of ozone concentration in ozone-air mixture. Ratio of maximal consumption of ozone-air mixture at the last step to minimal at the first step is taken equal to not more than 2. Dimensions of ozone-air mixture bubbles is from 0.8 to 1.2 mm. Device for processing water with ozone contains system of preparation of dried and cooled air, providing its supply into ozone and ozone-air mixture generator onto disperser in steps, as well as three separate lines of similar dispersers.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides reduction of loss of ozone produced by generator, efficiency of produced ozone application not lower than 95%, increased accuracy of ozone dosing, increased reliability of installation functioning and its safety.
12 cl, 14 dwg, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to crop production. In the method tomato seedlings are grown with water irrigation. To obtain increase in early harvest the tomato seedlings are watered additionally with 0.23% aqueous solution of potassium nitrate KNO3.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain an increase in early harvest by storing the first inflorescences of tomato seedlings.