Printing protective element and method of its manufacturing
SUBSTANCE: printing protective element is created, comprising at least a first and a second overprints. The first of them is a raster formed by the pixel grid having the form of signs bearing information, and the second is a raster which coincides in position with the first overprint. At that the combination of the first and second overprints is of the form of continuous-tone image, and the information contained in the said signs is at least partially hidden by the second overprint.
EFFECT: method of manufacturing the said protective element is created.
22 cl, 12 dwg
Area of technology
The invention relates to printed circuit protective elements that can be used, for example, in secure facilities, including secure documents, in particular banknotes and cheques. We have also proposed a method of manufacturing a printed circuit protective element.
The level of technology
In relation to protected documents there is a continuing need to develop protective elements that increase the difficulty of counterfeiting or fraudulent document changes. Examples of such protective elements comprise holographic elements, watermarks, security thread, foil, plates (patches), stamping and protective paint that can be applied to the document and/or embedded in. An important example are printed security elements, because, if it is considered desirable, they can be made covering a significant portion of the surface of the document and thereby have a material impact on its perception as a whole. If the counterfeiter is quite difficult to reproduce a printed item, the fake bills can be relatively easily identified, prepared or unprepared person. Examples of protective elements, developed by the applicant, given in WO 2005/047013 A, WO 01/66360 A and EP 1880865 A. However, as the empowerment of counterfeiting, requires an increasingly complex protective �the elements.
Disclosure of the invention
In accordance with the invention is made by printed circuit protective element, containing at least the first year, which is a raster is formed by a grid of raster elements shaped signs bearing information, and a second imprinting, which is a bitmap, coinciding with the first year. Moreover, the combination of the first and second overlay function has the form of a multi-tone image, and the information contained in these signs, at least partly concealed by the second year.
The invention also covers a method of manufacturing a printed security element, comprising: printing on a substrate a first imprinting, which is a raster is formed by a grid of raster elements shaped signs bearing information, and printing on the substrate a second imprinting, which is a bitmap, coinciding with the first year. Moreover, the combination of the first and second overlay function has the form of a multi-tone image, and the information contained in these signs, at least partly concealed by the second year.
By forming two matching the position of the raster overlay (at least partially superimposed on one another) can be obtained aesthetically complex multi-tone image�IU with quality photos such as a portrait or other picture. As a result, when normal considering the image appears to be high quality, but in other respects a normal printout. However, more detailed consideration, for example with the increase, becomes apparent the information contained in the first signs of imprinting. Thus, this image can be used for transmission, by means of signs, additional information that is not easy to distinguish between ordinary observer, but which can be identified for a more thorough study. It provides better protection, since the authenticity of the banknote can be checked by analysis of the security element to ensure that the image has the expected information. This significantly increases the difficulty of counterfeiting, since in practice the counterfeiter is extremely difficult to achieve without specialized equipment, the mutual combination of two overprints with the precision required to produce images of sufficient quality. Even a slight misalignment between the two overprints will lead generally to an easily detectable blurring of the image and/or to changes in interference effects, such as moire effects. Photocopy will not give satisfactory results in reasons� high resolution secured in the protective element.
Under "image" in the context of the invention refers to a printed layer formed by a multitude of raster elements, the characteristics of which can be spatially modulated within a layer so as to form a visually contrasting region. For example, the raster elements (or, similarly, the surrounding background elements) can be varied in size, thickness, mutual distance, solidity, color, tone, hue and/or saturation. Each raster is preferably multi-tone, i.e. the tone of each overprint (individually) varies within the image. The pixels in the first year are in the shape of characters such as letters, numbers, symbols, punctuation marks, etc. the Second overprint can contain raster elements of any shape, such as lines or points. Raster printed layers of lines and/or points well-known to experts. In preferred embodiments, the shape of the raster elements, forming a first imprinting differs from the form of raster elements, forming a second year.
At least partial concealment of information by means of a second overprint (due to at least partial mutual overlap-printed) can be the result of various mechanisms. If the first year is�GSI (for the observer) under the second overprint, paint, forming a second year, can physically hinder the observation of the underlying characters. In addition to this, the second overprint disorienting visual perception, which in itself contributes to hiding the signs from the observer. This effect occurs regardless of the order in which themes are relative to the observer.
However, for maximum hiding of information in the General case, it is desirable that the first year was located so that it is viewed through the second year. In other words, the second overprint should be located between the observer and the first overprint. In the first embodiment of the invention it is provided that the second overprint superimposed on the first stamp on the substrate. For example, to print the first and the second imprinting by means of two successive operations. In another preferred embodiment of the overprint are on opposite sides essentially transparent substrate, such as a polymer notes window. In this case, both the stamp can be printed on opposite sides of the substrate simultaneously.
Signs may be of any desirable form, allowing you to carry information. However, in particularly preferred embodiments, the signs contain alphanumeric �emboli. These symbols can represent the letters and numbers of any alphabet or font, including (but not limited to) Latin, Chinese, Japanese, Russian alphabets and alphabet of Sanskrit as well as alphabets, created based on Latin, such as English, French, German, etc. the Use of alphanumeric characters allows you to make information meaningful to the human observer, which corresponds to a preferred embodiment. However, the grid elements of the raster (raster grid) may further contain characters other types, such as characters, corresponding to punctuation marks, and/or currency symbols ( £ ,$, etc.). Step raster grid (the distance between the centers of characters) within the imprinter may be permanent or non-permanent.
Raster grid can be fully formed elements of the same type. In other words, each element of the mesh can be the same sign, for example the number "10" or the letter "A". However, to increase the amount of information that can be contained in the printing element, it is desirable that the raster grid contained elements of the raster corresponding to at least two different signs. So, the grid may contain an element corresponding to the currency symbol (e.g., "£" or "$"), and the number (e.g. "5") arranged in a grid of alternating or randomly. About�eat information the transferred pattern can be further increased by using a specific pattern of arrangement of the raster elements in the grid. In this case the raster grid preferably contains many subsets of raster elements, each of which contains elements of a raster formed by at least two characters with different values and configured to set a code. For example, each subset consisting of three elements that can contain the characters "T", "E", "N", forming the English word "ten" ("ten") that is repeated within the grid. The more pixels included in each subset, the greater its capacity.
The nature of the information contained in the signs, can be selected as desired. In some instances it may be associated with the image. So, the portrait of Queen Elizabeth may contain characters that form code "ER II". However, in particularly preferred embodiments, the information contained in the signs, is information relating to the document that formed (or to be formed) of the printing protective element, preferably denomination in the specified currency of issue, the Bank and/or country. In particular, in printing the protective element is applied on the bill, signs (e.g. "5" or "five") can be used to�to artificiality this denomination banknotes. In this case, each document of the same series (for example, on the banknotes of different denominations) may be formed of the same portrait, but the signs embedded in each portrait will differ to carry relevant information about the document.
Herself raster grid (nominal pattern, according to which there are signs) in the typical case, is orthogonal, i.e. consisting of rows and columns are mutually oriented at an angle of approximately 90°. However, in principle, it may have any desirable shape, such as hexagonal, circular or sinusoidal. In hexagonal grids straight "rows" and "columns" are mutually oriented at an angle of about 60° (although it is possible that the grid based on any other angle). The round mesh signs are located at the intersection of the concentric circles and radial lines, as in the sinusoidal grids rows and/or columns of marks are located along the sinusoids. In particularly preferred embodiments, the raster grid is regular, i.e. it is the distance between the elements varies within the raster. However, as will be described hereinafter, this condition is not critical.
It should be noted that any one of the first and second overlay may be designed as positive or negative raster. In a positive print raster elements are filled�NY paint and the surrounding space is clean. For negative raster, the reverse was true. To get a smooth multi-tone image, it is desirable that the first year was negative pattern marks which are formed by unsealed areas, surrounded by paint. However, this condition is not critical.
For the formation of the first and second overlay function you can use various methods of printing, provided that both of the overprint can be precisely aligned. In particularly preferred embodiments, the first year is done using offset, gravure or flexographic printing.
As mentioned, the pixels forming the second year, can take various forms, preferably different from the forms used in the first year. However, in particularly preferred embodiments, the second overprint is linear, i.e. formed by continuous or broken lines that vary in thickness. It was found that this form is especially effective for concealing marks. Line overprint preferably mutually parallel, and they can be straight, curved, sinusoidal or zigzag. The distance between the raster elements is preferably constant throughout the year, but, as for the first overprint, it's not critical.
To obtain �Torah imprinting may also be used by different printing methods, but the preferred offset, gravure or flexographic printing.
In the General case, it is desirable that printed protective element has not created any pictures of the moire caused by the interference between the two overprints, since the presence of moiré degrades the image. However, in some applications it may be desirable to intentionally create a certain effect of moiré as an additional effect, superimposed on the image. To reduce or eliminate moiré pattern, it is desirable that the step raster grid of the first overprint on any plot, essentially, was equal to or a multiple step raster of the second overprint on the same plot, and Vice versa. In other words, the steps of raster elements in the first and second overlay are preferably nearly identical; alternatively, in any part of the protective element step corresponds to a single raster "harmonica" another raster (although the steps in both the overlay can vary within a protective element). It is important that the periods of both rasters correspond to each other on any site. The first and second imprinting should not coincide with one another in the sense that a linear (or other) elements of the second raster overprint follow along the lines of the raster of the first overprint; however, the first and the second imprinting is preferably located on one�another individual, to exclude the effects of moiré. In the typical case, this may require reversal of the second image grid relative to the first. Ways to eliminate the effects of moire due to interference between the two rasters.
The dimensional parameters, two images may be selected based on requirements for specific printed circuit protective element. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the step raster grid of the first overprint (at some stage or throughout the grid), measured as the distance between two adjacent marks is selected in the range of 0.5-1.5 mm, preferably 0.8-1.2 mm, more preferably 0.9 to 1.0 mm. the distance must be measured in the directions parallel to the rows and columns of the grid. It should be clear that the maximum size of each sign must also be within specified intervals. It was found that the signs of this size provides the best balance between the smoothness of the image, ensuring concealing information during normal viewing and the ability to see the signs when viewed image at a short distance, possibly with a two-fold or five-fold increase.
Similarly, it is desirable that the pitch of the second overprint (at some stage or raster), measured as the distance between two adjacent elements RA�tra, was chosen in the range of 0.5-1.5 mm, preferably 0.8-1.2 mm, more preferably 0.9 to 1.0 mm. In this example, the distance between the raster elements of the second overprint is essentially equal to the step raster grid of the first overprint, and this ratio is preferable to ensure the concealing image while ensuring opportunities to see the signs upon careful examination. However, the ratio of the pitch in the second year to step in the first year, for example, be equal to n or 1/n (where n is an integer). The step increase in the second year to the nearest multiple of step in the first year, will weaken the effect of concealing, whereas its reduction will give the opposite effect.
The first and second imprinting can be obtained using different printing techniques while ensuring adequate compliance. However, in particularly preferred embodiments, the first and second stamp formed by the same printing method, preferably offset printing, more preferably a single pass. It appears that offset printing will provide the highest degree of alignment (matching) between the two overprints, as first printed layers are sequentially formed, with the use of printed forms that are controlled with high precision�Yu, intermediate blankets. The overprint can be transferred in a single pass on the substrate, which must carry the protective element. In this technology there is no offset between the substrate and the printing apparatus in the time interval between the execution of each overprint, which provides an extremely high degree of spatial matching.
The first and second imprinting can be printed with different colour, which can be especially useful when the second overprint is under the first. However, the usual view of the image and the quality of the hiding of information is improved if the first and second imprinting the printed inks of different colors. More precisely, various colors can be described as differences in hue resulting from changing the hue, purity, and/or density of the paint. In particularly preferred examples, the second overprint is darker than the first, for example, in terms of tone, hue, lightness or solidity. With this arrangement, the second overprint is dominant in the initial perception of the image, thereby hiding information.
The first overprint preferably configured with the ability to set the gradation of tone in the image and the second image contours. For example, in relation to the portrait variations in tone in �envoy the overprint can provide underline the contours and/or shading of the facial features while the second overprint clearly defines the lines in the image, for example, around the eyes, nose, lips, model, etc. Therefore, in preferred embodiments, the tone in the first year varies within the security element, to a lesser extent and/or more smoothly than the tone in the second year, although in the typical case is decided individually for each case. The first overprint preferably is more "soft" than the second.
The invention also covers the protected product, described is provided with printed protective element.
In some preferred embodiments, the protective element is printed directly on the product. In other preferred embodiments, it is formed on the label affixed to the product. The shielding element may have an intermediate form, i.e. to serve as a portable item.
Protected the product preferably contains a protected document such as a banknote, traveler's check, certificate of authenticity, stamp, monetary obligation, the sticker on the payment of road tax, documentary stamps, security label, passport or voucher.
Brief description of the drawings
Examples of protective elements, methods for their manufacture protected products with protective elements, will be described hereinafter with reference to the accompanying damn�LM.
Fig.1 schematically shows an embodiment of a protected product, provided with a protective element.
Fig.2 protected document of Fig.1 shows in cross-section.
Fig.3 shows, in cross section, a second variant of the protected product, provided with a protective element.
Fig.4 schematically shows part of an example of the first printed.
Fig.5 schematically shows a portion of a second example of the overprint.
Fig.6 illustrates a first variant of the security element.
Fig.7 shows the fine details of the security element of Fig.6.
Fig.8 illustrates a second variant of the security element.
Fig.9 illustrates a third variant of the security element.
Fig.10, 11 and 12 are three examples of the first overprint for use in other embodiments of the protective elements.
The implementation of the invention
The following description will be mainly focused on the use of printed security elements such protected documents, such as banknotes. However, it should be clear that the same printed security elements can be used to secure documents many other types or other facilities (hereinafter - products), the authenticity of which is of great importance. The protective element can be printed directly on the product (as in the following examples) or on the intermediate carrier, which then Bud�t attached to the product. For example, the protective element can be manufactured as a label), and then recorded on a protected document using a layer of glue or other means.
Fig.1 shows a document 2 (such as a banknote), carrying protective element 1. Although in Fig.1 is not shown, the protective element 1 has the form of an image, usually with illustrated, for example portrait, landscape or other image. From Fig.2, where the document of Fig.1 shows in cross-section, it can be seen that printed circuit protective element 1 is formed by at least two at least partially superimposed one on another printed layer 3 and layer 4 (hereinafter referred to as "the overlay"). The thickness of the overlay in Fig.1 is greatly exaggerated for clarity. In practice, the thickness of the overlay will usually be very small compared with the thickness of the document 2, at least in the areas in which between the physical characteristics of the two printed layers are no real differences. However, each such layer is formed in a separate operation, as will be described next.
The first overprint 3 is a bitmap impression containing raster grid of signs that carry information. The second overprint 4 is a bitmap impression is, but it may not carry information, and in a typical embodiment, the pixels will have the normal form corresponding to a line or point�. As shown in Fig.2, in preferred examples, when viewed item 1 (represented in example above) second year 4 is in front of the first overprint 3, although such positioning is not critical. Both overprint mutually consistent in size and position, and observed their combination is represented by the image, ranging in tone (multi-tone image). In a typical embodiment, the first overprint 3 creates an image with a smooth gradation of tones and gives it a balanced and realistic three-dimensionality, while the second overprint 4 sets of sharp boundaries and the contours of the image. In combination, the two layers create an effective high-quality graphics.
The presence of a second overprint 4 creates the effect of weakening the distinctiveness of signs (symbols) in the first imprinting 3. This effect is achieved mainly by the fact that the second overprint 4 disorienting visual perception, so the signs are part of the first overprint 3 becomes difficult to identify. If the second overprint superimposed on the first (as in the illustrated example), this effect is enhanced by physical masking of the first second overprint overprint. Thus, under normal considering the element 1 appears to be just high-quality multi-tone pattern. However, upon closer examination and�of obrazenia, for example with the increase, becoming a visible presence of marks in the first year 3. Therefore, checking for signs and confirmation that they bear the expected information can be used as a test for the authenticity of the item. This verification can be performed by the device or, preferably, a human.
Some effects can be obtained with the use of the alternative design illustrated in Fig.3. Presented here, in section, another protected document 2'. In this embodiment, partially superimposed on at least the first and second imprinting 3, 4 forming the protective element 1, are located on opposite sides of the transparent portion 5 of the substrate. This part of the substrate can correspond, for example, a transparent window in polymer banknote; alternative, transparent can be the entire substrate. In this embodiment the first and second imprinting 3, 4 mutually agreed upon. When the element 1 is viewed from above (as illustrated in Fig.3) will have the same effects. If the interference level to the perception created by the second overprint is high enough, these effects may occur (although probably to a lesser extent) and when looking at an element from below.
Fig.4 and 5 schematically shows a variant of the first and second overlay, which you can use for the formation of the protective element 1. Fig.4 shows a portion of the first overprint 3, which contains the raster formed by the orthogonal grid (matrix) of characters 3A. In this example, each sign has the shape of a number 5. The signs are arranged with constant pitch P in both orthogonal directions, i.e. in rows and columns of the grid. In other embodiments, can be used grid marks, made in different styles such as round or sinusoidal. In the example, the overprint is a negative pattern. This means that the signs themselves do not contain paint, while their surroundings are sealed with paint. View overprint varies over the surface of the sign so as to obtain the desired image. For this purpose, changes of tone and/or saturation of the elements 3A raster (or, similarly, their background) on the surface raster. For example, the schematic image of Fig.4 in the field to the left of the dashed line X-X' marks "5" are thicker lines than the characters to the right of it. The density of the fill (the amount of ink per unit area) is less in the area left of the line X-X' (since the raster is negative). The net effect is that this area will seem brighter in tone than the area to the right of the line X-X'. Similar variations can be achieved by choosing the dimensions of the raster elements or the distances between them and/or surveyed�lo g tone paint on the surface of the raster, for example, by varying the color, clarity or brightness. If the variation of tone used by changing the distance between elements and you want to avoid moire effects (but it is impossible to agree on the periodicity regions of varying shades of first imprinting frequency elements of the second imprinting, i.e. to ensure that the ratio of the periods in the first and second overlay was n or 1/n, where n is an integer), the distance between elements in the overlay should be changed similarly. In some cases the stamp can have varying colors, for example to create a rainbow effect.
Step R (in this example, a constant) is preferably sufficiently small so that the structure imposed on the image of the first overprint 3, was not visible to the user. If this step is chosen too large compared to the image elements, the image quality will deteriorate. It was found that best results are obtained by the choice of spacing between elements of the raster in the range of 0.5-1.5 mm, preferably 0.8-1.2 mm, more preferably 0.9 to 1 mm. the Choice of step R also specifies the maximum size of characters 3A.
Fig.5 schematically shows a second overprint 4, which can be used in combination with the first year 3 of Fig.4. The second overprint 4 is also the Rastro�, this example sets the raster elements in the form of printed parallel lines 4A. It is desirable that the pixels forming the second overprint 4, differed from that of pixels constituting the first 3 year, although this condition is not critical. The tone of the second overprint varies in the required manner over the surface of the element to form a desired image. In a typical embodiment, this variation is achieved by varying the thickness of lines 4A, the interrupt lines by a corresponding interruption of the inking and/or by varying the distance between the elements (in this case, the periodicity in the arrangement of the lines should be aligned at intervals in the first year, as it was mentioned above). In this example, the second overprint is raster positive, although, if desired, could be used and a negative raster. As will be described hereinafter, allowable and non-linear rasters. For example, you can use round or sinusoidal raster. In addition, the pixels need not be contiguous and may include points.
The distance R between the elements 4A of the second raster printer 4 in both orthogonal directions in this example is constant and equal to the pitch p of the first raster overprint 3. This allows you to reduce or eliminate the effects of moiré concerted mutual coal�new provisions of overprints. However, as will be described hereinafter, the same result can be achieved if the step in one year is a multiple in relation to step into another year. The first and second imprinting 3, 4 are superimposed on one another, preferably in such mutual angular position, whereby, essentially, there is no visible effect of the moire caused by the interference between two rasters. The way to achieve such alignment between the two rasters.
Fig.6 shows a first embodiment of a printed security element and component overlay. Fig.6(a) depicts the protective element 10 is at "normal" increase (i.e. the way it is observed by the naked eye). In this example, the printing element 10 has three clearly distinct region 17, 18 and 19. Region 17 in the upper part of the element is sealed only the second overprint, designated as "Working", with part 14 of this region is shown, with the increase of Fig.6(i). Region 19 in the lower part of the element is sealed only the first overprint, designated as "Working - In", with part 13 of this region is shown, with the increase of Fig.6(ii). In the intermediate region 18 are the first and the second imprinting, which is marked as "Working". Part 15 of this region is shown, with the increase of Fig.6(iii). In practical implementations, the first and second imprinting �predpochtitelno completely superimposed on one another, to jointly create the effect over the entire surface of the printing element. However, this condition is not essential, and the printing element may contain only one or the other overprint, as is the case in this example. However, in all examples, at least part of the protective element must include both overprint mutually agreed upon position (as in region 18 in the present example).
As described above, the first overprint 13 has the shape of the raster elements-letters arranged in a grid. In the embodiment of Fig.6, as shown in Fig.6(ii), all signs are symbols of the same type, namely by the pound symbol (£). Raster is negative because the pound symbol made of light on the background, sealed paint. As shown in Fig.6(ii), the centers of each symbol superimposed on a regular orthogonal grid, and the size and density of characters vary along the year. So, on the first part 13 of the imprinter shown in Fig.6(ii), in the Central zone of the symbols are relatively small and clearly separated from each other, whereas at the lower edge thickness of each symbol is increased, resulting in less paint consumption (since the raster is negative). Therefore, the Central area shows the area appears darker than the lower zone. These variations are modulated by�arnosti overprint, to get lighter and darker areas in the final image.
The second overprint in this embodiment is a point pattern, a portion 14 of which is shown, with the increase of Fig.6(i). The raster elements have the form of points, regularly placed along lines inclined to the horizontal direction close to 45°. The size and density of point elements are modulated by surface imprinting to ensure that changes colors as it's well known in relation to such rasters. The second overprint configured to provide the image small details, such as footprints. In this regard, the limits of variation of tone within this overprint, usually wider than in the first year 13.
If it seems desirable, the second overprint 14 can be printed with paint the same color as that of the first overprint 13. However, it is usually desirable that the overprints were printed by the inks of different colors. Especially good results were obtained when printing the second printed 14 darker paint than the paint used in the first printing imprinting 13. It was found that the best effect of harmonizing colors that have the same depth of shade. So, first overprint 13 can be printed light green paint (e.g.,paint Pantone® light green [Ref. 376U]), and the second overprint 14 - darker green paint (e.g., paint Pantone® dark green [Ref. 563U]).
Fig.6(iii) shows a combination of the two overprints 13 and 14. It can be seen that in this example, the raster elements of the second overprint (which are represented as diagonal lines through the respective density of raster elements in this area) superimposed on the first signs of imprinting. As shown in Fig.6(a), the normal increase in the presence of the signs are difficult to spot, and the combination of the two overlay forms a high-quality multi-tone image (in this case a portrait of albert Einstein). However, upon closer examination (as illustrated in Fig.6(iii) for a small area) it becomes possible to identify, at least in certain parts of the image, pound symbols available in the first year 13. It should be noted that, as a result of the printing and Photocopying of low resolution used in the preparation of the accompanying drawings, this effect may not be manifested clearly by consideration of Fig.6(a), which makes appropriate idea to increase its portion in Fig.6(iii). In practice, a person who wishes to verify the authenticity of the security element can carefully examine the portrait, using, for example, a magnifying glass with �small increase (for example, twofold or fivefold), and if the item is authentic, in the picture you can see the pound at least in the areas in which "disguise" created by second year, will not be too dominate.
Fig.7 parts of the image shown in Fig.6(i), (ii) and (iii) shown at higher magnification. Fig.7(i) shows a portion of a second overprint 14, which are clearly visible individual elements 14a of the raster in the form of lines or points. In this example, the pitch (distance Pibetween the centers of adjacent elements) in the vertical and the horizontal is approximately 0.45 mm. it Should be noted that Fig.7(i) corresponds to a greater magnification than Fig.7(ii) or 7(iii). Fig.7(ii) shows a portion of the first overprint 13 containing a grid of characters. Step Riithe grid vertically and horizontally is 0.9 mm, i.e. twice the distance of Pibetween the elements of the second raster 14. In the case of combining two overprints (which corresponds to Fig.7(iii)), one can see that both rasters have the same periods, which is the result of selecting a specific ratio between steps Piand Piirasters. Because one step is a multiple of another step (2Pi=Pii), the ratio between the two arrays of raster elements is not changed by the surface image. This property is desirable � prevent moire effects, caused by interference between two rasters. In addition, the mutual angular position of the rasters is selected so as to attenuate or eliminate the effects of moiré. This position can be determined by trial and error or by any other method known in the art. In this example, point or line elements of the second overprint 14 are at an angle, constituting approximately 45° with the directions of columns and rows of the first overprint 13.
In the embodiment of Fig.6 and 7 both rasters based on an orthogonal grid in which the rows and columns of characters is oriented at an angle of approximately 90° to each other. However, this condition is not critical, so that one or both of the overprint can use the net of a different shape, such as circular or sinusoidal raster. In addition, the period (pitch) in both rasters can be varied over the surface of the protective element, in order to obtain variations in tone or increase the complexity of the print. However, if you want to avoid moire effects, the distance between the elements in this case must vary in both printed the same way (to ensure compliance periods both rasters at all points).
Fig.8 shows a second variant of a printed security element 20 containing areas 27, 28 and 29, which are comparable to areas 17, 18 and 19 of Fig.6(a). In 27, frequent� which is shown with magnification in Fig.8(i), there is only the second year 24. In area 29, part of which is shown with magnification in Fig.8(ii), is only the first year 23. In the intermediate region 28, a portion of which is shown with magnification in Fig.8(iii) includes both of imprinting.
This example is based on the principles that were discussed with respect to Fig.6 and 7, but for image formation used alternative overprint. The first overprint 23, part of which is shown in Fig.8(ii) shows a negative raster with grid (matrix) formed by marks of four different types. The characters "2", "E", "M" and "C" are distributed across the grid in the form of regular pattern, and their density and size are modulated according to the image surface to provide the desired variations in tone.
The second overprint 24, shown in Fig.8(i), again is a raster formed elements in the form of lines and dots. In this example, however they have a larger step than in the embodiment of Fig.6. As shown in Fig.8(iii) for section 25, when printed combined), the second step of imprinting 24 is the same as that of the first overprint 23 (i.e., Pi=Pii).
As before, if the portrait is viewed at normal magnification (corresponding to the magnification for Fig.8(a)), individual characters are not instantly visible. However, they become more visible when� careful consideration, as illustrated in Fig.8(iii). In General, the signs will be the easiest to identify in those places image in which the tone of the first imprinting is relatively dark, and the second imprinting is a relatively light that can take place in a relatively "flat" areas of the portrait, for example, corresponding to the forehead or the chin. You do not want the signs were identified at all points of the image. This is true for all options.
Fig.9 presents a third option of printing the protective element 30, which again has three different areas 37, 38 and 39, corresponding to the areas 27, 28 and 29 of the previous version. In area 37, which is shown with magnification in Fig.9(i), there is only the second year 34. In the field 39, part of which is shown with magnification in Fig.9(ii), is only the first year. In the intermediate region 38, part of which is shown with magnification in Fig.9(iii) includes both of imprinting.
In this embodiment, the first overprint 33, part of which is shown in Fig.9(ii), identical to the first year of the second option discussed with reference to Fig.8(ii), i.e., contains a grid of characters "2", "E", "M" and "C".
The second overprint 34 again is a linear raster, but in this case, the linear elements are sinusoidal and discrete. In this example, they also landmark�cated horizontally i.e. in accordance with the direction of rows in the raster grid of the first overprint 33. The distance between the linear elements of the vertical equal to half the distance between the marks in the first year. As shown in Fig.9(iii) for section 35, when combining the two overprints the periodicity of the two images is the same on all sites.
As in the previous examples, when viewed protective element 30 at normal magnification (corresponding to the magnification for Fig.9(a)) the signs of the first overprint 33 are not visible, so that the protective element is perceived as a high quality multi-tone portrait. However, they become visible upon closer inspection, as illustrated in Fig.9(iii).
In all considered variants both overprint can be formed using any desired printing technologies to ensure precise alignment of the two overprints. For example, any or both of the overprint can be obtained using offset, flexographic or gravure printing. In General, it is desirable that both of the overprint were formed by the same printing method as this will allow you to get them on the same hardware, which will lead to more accurate their combination. It is most preferable to perform both overprint by offset printing, �ecause this method allows you to apply both printed on a substrate (such as a banknote) at the same time. In this case, the printed layers are sequentially formed on the intermediate blankets with which both overprint jointly transferred to the substrate. This technology ensures the absence of any mutual displacement of the substrate and the printing apparatus between the execution of overprints. High accuracy alignment can also be achieved if the two overprints are formed on opposite sides of the transparent part of the document (as illustrated in Fig.3), since in this case both imprinting can be applied simultaneously without the possibility of movement of the banknote. Print composite overprint on the front and back sides of the substrate is usually carried out on specialized offset printing machines, which allow printing on both sides in one pass. An example of such a machine is a machine Super Simultan manufactured by KWA Giori Alternative, you can use multi-pass gravure or flexographic printing in which the substrate is turned by means of overturning the rod that is installed between the printed sections.
The information contained in the signs that form the first year, may have any desirable shape. Three examples of such information are shown in Fig.10, 11 and 12. In each of these figures the first year has a positive view of �Astra, although, as already noted, in many cases it is desirable to use a negative image. In addition, in these figures shows the variation of colors on a raster surface, although in practice they will be present (at least one, but preferably both raster should vary the tone within the image to ensure its negotovosti). This variation is implemented by varying the size and density of signs (as described above), possibly in combination with the varying tones of the paint, if it seems desirable. Fig.10 shows an example of the first stamp 40, in which the raster formed by the elements 41 in the form of the number "10" is arranged according to a regular orthogonal grid. From this example it should be clear that, if deemed desirable, each cell of the grid can accommodate more than one character. In a typical embodiment, the presence of additional characters will require increased grid step. For example, if the grid contains an array of numbers "100", the step must be increased enough to be placed in each cell of the three digits. Preferred values for the grid spacing (which determines the size of the characters) are in the range of 0.5-1.5 mm, preferably 0.8 to 1.8 mm, and most preferably 0.9 to 1 mm.
In the example of Fig.10, each cell contains identical signs (�sootvetstvuyushie the number "10"). However, this condition is not critical. Indeed, the amount of information that contains a protective element can be increased by using in the grid of characters of different types. As illustrated variants according to Fig.8 and 9, the characters can be distributed across the grid in a repeating pattern. Alternatively, they can be located randomly. In particularly preferred embodiments, the subset of raster elements is used to specify the codes inside the grid. For example, in Fig.11 shows an example of the first overprint 42, grid which contains a subset of 43 with three elements in each raster. These three elements in each subset is formed by the letters "T", "E" and "N" forming repeating the word "TEN" ("TEN"). In this example, the data subsets are located in the grid horizontally, but this location is not mandatory. For example, in Fig.12 shows the first overprint 44, in which each subset of the 45 formed 4 raster elements (letters) that specifies the code "FIVE" ("FIVE"). Each block of 4 elements has a length horizontally and vertically. In other examples, each subset can be oriented vertically, diagonally or in any other convenient manner.
Alternatively, any of these overprints can be based on non-linear non-orthogonal grid, e.g.�R-hexagonal, sinusoidal or circular rasters.
In the examples, the information conveyed through signs, such as "10", "TEN" or "FIVE", preferably corresponding to the characteristic of the protected product, which should be protective element. So, in the case of banknotes, this information may correspond to its denomination. In other cases, the information may indicate the type of currency (for example, by means of signs " £ " or "USD" or "DOLLARS") at a Bank (for example, "BANKOFENGLAND (BANKANGLE"), or the date or issue number (for example, "1996" or "ISSUE1" ("VYPUSK")). Valid and many of the other alternatives.
In described embodiments, a printed security elements contain only two overprint that, as a rule, is preferred. However, if it seems desirable, on top of these overprints or under them may be located extra layers.
One or both of the overprint can be printed with the use of protective paint, for example luminescent (phosphorescent or fluorescent), photochromic, optically variable, sensitive to infrared or ultraviolet radiation or magnetic, to further enhance the protective properties of the protective element. However, both the printer should be visible under normal lighting conditions (e.g. daylight).
W� - protected document or other article, which should be formed by the protective element can also contain additional security elements such as holograms, watermarks, security threads and magnetic means.
1. Printed protective element comprising at least first and second imprinting, at least partially superimposed on one another, and the first year is a raster is formed by a grid of raster elements shaped signs bearing information, and the second overprint is a bitmap, consistent with the first year, the combination of the first and second overlay function has the form of a multi-tone image, and the information contained in these signs, at least partly concealed by the second year.
2. The protective element according to claim 1, in which the first year is to provide the possibility of viewing through the second year.
3. The protective element according to claim 2, wherein the second overprint superimposed on the first stamp on the substrate.
4. The protective element according to claim 2, wherein the first and second imprinting are on opposite sides essentially transparent substrate.
5. The protective element according to claim 1, in which the above signs contain alphanumeric characters.
6. The protective element according to claim 1, wherein the mesh contains e�cops raster corresponding at least two different marks.
7. The protective element according to claim 1, wherein the mesh contains many subsets of raster elements, wherein each subset contains elements of a raster formed by at least two characters with different values and configured to set a code.
8. The protective element according to claim 1, wherein the information contained in the signs is information relating to the document, on which is formed a printed security element, preferably a denomination, a sign of a certain currency, indication of issue, the Bank and/or country.
9. The protective element according to claim 1, wherein the grid of raster elements is orthogonal or non-orthogonal mesh, such as hexagonal, circular or sinusoidal grid.
10. The protective element according to claim 1, in which the first year is a negative pattern, signs of which formed unsealed areas, surrounded by paint.
11. The protective element according to claim 1, wherein the raster elements of the first overprint differ in shape from the second raster elements overprint.
12. The protective element according to claim 1, wherein the second overprint is formed by raster elements in the form of continuous or broken lines that vary in thickness.
13. The protective element according to claim 12, in which these lines are mutually parallel�individual and are direct, curved, sinusoidal or zigzag.
14. The protective element according to claim 1, wherein the step of the grid into the first imprinting on any plot, essentially, is equal to or a multiple step raster of the second overprint on the same plot, and Vice versa.
15. The protective element according to claim 1, in which the mutual arrangement of the first and second overlay are chosen to eliminate the effects of moiré.
16. The protective element according to claim 1, wherein the first and second overprint printed using the same printing method, preferably offset printing, more preferably in a single pass.
17. The protective element according to claim 1, wherein the first and second imprinting the printed inks of different colors, the second overprint is preferably darker than the first year.
18. The protective element according to any one of the preceding claims, in which the first and the second imprinting is performed with a variation in tone across the surface of the image.
19. Protected product, provided with a protective element made in accordance with any one of the preceding paragraphs.
20. The product according to claim 19, which contains a protected document, preferably a Bank note, traveler's check, certificate of authenticity, stamp, monetary obligation, the sticker on the payment of road tax, documentary stamps, security label, passport or voucher.
A method of manufacturing a printed circuit protective element, including:
printing on the substrate a first imprinting, which is a raster is formed by a grid of raster elements shaped signs bearing information, and
printing on the substrate a second imprinting, which is a bitmap, consistent with the first overprint,
the first and second overprint is at least partially superimposed on one another, and the combination of the first and second overlay function has the form of a multi-tone image, and the information contained in these signs, at least partly concealed by the second year.
22. A method according to claim 21, adapted for the manufacture of printed security element according to any one of claims.1-18.
SUBSTANCE: method includes forming an image within a sheet material comprising a monolayer of transparent microspheres, partially immersed in a reflecting layer deposited on a plastic substrate and containing a solid solution of fluorescent or luminiferous coloured particles. A plastic layer and a metal foil layer are successively deposited on a monolayer of microlenses. Pulsed laser radiation forms holes in the foil layer at given points and the plastic layer under the foil, the material of the reflecting layer and the plastic substrate are melted within the laser spot. Microlenses are melted with a compact laser beam within a reduced laser spot and fused with each other. A through-hole is formed in the plastic substrate. Clusters of microlenses with crystals formed thereon with nodules of the coloured particles of the reflecting layer and fused microlenses form points of the colour security image visible in transmitted light and reflected on surfaces of the sheet material by the set of coaxial holes.
EFFECT: easy recognition of a security feature, which provides reliable counterfeit protection of articles.
6 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises preparation of substrate and its pre-structuring to make bulges on its face and recesses on its rear that comply with said bulges. Said substrate pre-structuring is performed by embossing via intaglio to apply translucent polymer in the area of bulges or recesses to make micro lenses on at least one side of said substrate. Production of substrate provided with micro lenses involves rigid connection of micro lenses with said substrate which features mirror symmetry relative to mirror plane aligned with mid plane of biconvex micro lenses and parallel with said substrate.
EFFECT: simplified process.
29 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: mix comprises first set of pigment scales oriented by magnetic field. Said scales can vary their colour from first to second colour at first change of the angle of vision. Second set of pigment scales not oriented by magnetic field that can vary their colour from said first to third colour at second change of the angle of vision other than the first one. Note here that said first, second and third colours are different colours. Scales of said first and second sets are applied on substrate in binder that makes the mix of scales. Note also that said scales have said first colour if seen on substrate at direct angle. Note also that scales oriented by magnetic field are oriented, in fact, in similar way differing from orientation of scales not oriented by magnetic field so that substrate inclination relative to first axis causes the change in seen colour from said first to said second colour. Substrate inclination relative to second axis perpendicular to first axis causes the change of colour from first colour to said third colour.
EFFECT: coat colouration changing.
8 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: marking element is made in form of woven tape, formed by interlacing of main threads from thin poorly melting wire and weft threads of two types: glass threads of white colour and carbon threads of black colour, forming straps with specified combination, read by scanner. Application of fire-resistant threads in woven tape gives advantage of reliability of information storage under conditions of fire impact.
EFFECT: increase of protection of marking element against counterfeiting.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a multilayer body having a transparent first layer. In the transparent first layer, a plurality of microlenses, arranged according to a microlens grid, are imprinted in a first region. The multilayer body also has a second layer under the first layer and in a fixed position relative to the first layer and has a plurality of microimages arranged according to a microimage grid and in each case at least with local overlapping with one of the microlenses from the microlens grid in order to generate a first optically variable information element. The grid spacing in the microimage grid and in the microlens grid in each case in at least one spatial direction is less than 300 mcm. The second layer has in a first region at least one first area having microimages, and has at least one second area having optically active surface structures for forming a third optically variable information element, different from the first optically variable information element.
EFFECT: improved security.
32 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: security document comprises a substrate coated with a film element. The film element comprises a security feature such as a diffraction structure, such as a hologram. For quick identification of the remote film element using the conventional detecting devices the marking intersecting film element is printed between the lower surface and the substrate, at that the marking is at least partially overlapped with the film element. At that at least a part of the marking is printed on the substrate and for the said part of the marking printed on the substrate, adhesion of the marking to the substrate is weaker than the adhesion of the marking with the film element.
EFFECT: improvement of the document security.
15 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: security element is proposed, which has at least a first luminophor and a second luminophor which are characterised by the presence of substantially equal common band of emission. Each of the two luminophors is characterised by the presence of at least one excitation band that leads to emission of radiation in the common band of emission, i.e. both luminophors are selected so that they are at different excitation capable to emit radiation on at least one common wavelength, and for each of both luminophors there is at least one wavelength on which the excitation is possible, accordingly, of only one luminophor, and excitation of the other is impossible.
EFFECT: proposed protective element increases the degree of protection against counterfeiting of valuable documents.
18 cl, 24 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: physics, signalling.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of making a security element having a base with at least one hole which is closed at one side by at least a partially translucent or transparent film. A coating is deposited on one side of the base, and a through-hole is made in the base and the coating and the back side of the base is coated with at least a partially translucent or transparent film, as a result of which the hole is closed at one side by at least partially translucent or transparent film, and the coating on the base is primarily located in an area of the surface occupied by said film.
EFFECT: method improves counterfeit protection of the security element.
19 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: described is a security element for a counterfeit protected article, having an upper side and a lower side, as well as one or more imaging optical systems, each forming an enlarged image of the associated object only in the space before the upper side of the security element. One optical system or at least one of the optical systems has multiple reflective imaging microelements arranged in two-dimensional space in the form of a first drawing, said microelements being in the form of concave micromirrors. The object associated with the optical system is in the form of a microrelief object formed by multiple microrelief structures which are arranged in the form of a microrelief drawing, matched with the first drawing such that the reflective imaging microelements form an enlarged image of the microrelief object in the space before the upper side of the security element, which has at its upper side and its lower side an adhesive layer which enables to embed the security element into the counterfeit protected article with adhesion thereof to the upper side and the lower side of the security element.
EFFECT: improved security.
13 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention aims at creating a document containing a transparent or semi-transparent reach-through window representing a layered polymer structure containing printing, optical, diffraction, holographic and other protective elements. A polymer layered composite for a document of value contains at least two coupled layers; at least one of the above layers contains an information sign visible through a free end of the second layer. Certain layers are made of a photopolymer materials and have different photosensitivities; some of the above photopolymer layers contains the information signs different from those appeared in the other layers. Each of the information signs become visible if arranged at a specific angle of view in transmitted or reflected light. Presented is the document of value containing protective elements presented by one or more described polymer layered composites mounted as inserts into marked segments of the document of value.
EFFECT: simplifying the document technology and reducing the production cost of end products.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: processes of making protecting members such as filaments for protection against counterfeit of valuable papers, possibly determination of authenticity of bank notes and other bank-papers and credit documents.
SUBSTANCE: protecting magnetic filament includes polymeric film base onto which laminate structure of protecting means is formed. Such structure includes first masking layer of metallic material applied on base and successively arranged layer of magnetic material to be detected, additional masking layer of metallic material and outer covering film layer of polymeric material. First masking layer is arranged between surface of polymeric film base and layer of detected magnetic material whose characteristic magnetic parameters are limited by respective values: 0.1 Oe < Hc < 1 Oe; Hc/Hs ˜= 0.95 -0.98 where Hc - coercive force of magnetic material; Hs - saturation field of magnetic material.
EFFECT: enhanced degree of protecting valuable papers.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in exhibition systems for advertisement producers, and can be used to make personal information cards, badges, shields etc. The personal identification apparatus includes an identification element and means of attracting the attention of observers. The identification element contains personal information and is illuminated by a multi-layer light pane. The light panel consists of a layer of a polymer substrate, a layer of current-conducting optically transparent material which is a first electrode, an emitting layer which converts electrical energy to light, a protective layer, a current-conducting layer made from opaque material which is a second electrode, a sealing layer, as well as electric power sources and means of communicating with said sources.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of the process of personal identification and activation of specific perception of an object.
3 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to special types of printing enabling to create in the body of the sheet material the original image protecting it against forgery. The method of creation on the sheet material of the iridescent image consists in the impact on the image applied on the sheet material with the light flux reflected from the diffraction grating at different angles of its rotation. In the body of the sheet material the image of isolated points in the form of volumetric extended metal-dielectric nanostructures with quantum size effects is created and placed it between the metal layer and the reflective diffraction grating. At that over each point of the image in the metal layer an opening is made through which the light flux is directed to the diffraction grating.
EFFECT: proposed invention provides a bright image providing protection of the sheet material against forgery.
9 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: data medium has a base in which a see-through portion is formed by line grid consisting of a plurality of parallel cutting lines. Inside the see-through portion, there is a motif region which is in form of a pattern, characters or code which looks different when viewed in reflected and/or incident light.
EFFECT: solution improves protection of a document from forgery.
31 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: polymer sandwich element for paper, which has optically variable effect, is made in the form of a sandwich polymer structure containing at least one layer with microraster relief structure. It has an additional layer with printed or embossed raster of microimages, which is spatially combined with microraster relief structure. Microraster structure is made in the form of raster of spherical transparent polymer lenses or prisms or raster of Fresnel diffraction polymer structures. Printed microimages located in nodes of the printed raster consist of elements of different colours with diametre of 20-100 mcm, which are located at the distance of 40-400 mcm from each other. Mutual location of colourful elements in nodes of the printed raster is discernible in different places of a representational printed field. Inside the defined areas the mutual location of colourful elements differs from mutual location of elements outside the defined areas.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing protection degree of products with protective elements without any increase in prime cost of their production process.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of manufacturing security documents. The protected structure (1) comprises: a fibrous layer (2a, 2b); substrate (3) with a translucent area; a watermark or its imitation (8a, 8b) applied on the fibrous layer (2a, 2b) and overlapped in the plan at least partially with the translucent area of the substrate, so that in this area the watermark or its imitation (8a, 8b) is visible against the light through the protected structure (1) only from the side of the fibrous layer; and the microelectronic device (4, 10) providing a contact or remote communication.
EFFECT: protection against counterfeiting and erasures.
44 cl, 22 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: diffraction structure comprises a plurality of channels assembled to generate a first diffraction optical effect. Each channel is formed from a plurality of scattering and/or diffraction channel elements, each aligned to provide a second scattering and/or diffraction optical effect to form a micro- or macro-distinguishable graphic feature. The method of creating a diffraction surface relief structure involves forming a plurality of scattering and/or diffraction channel elements with alignment, which serves to form a plurality of channels that are assembled to generate a first diffraction optical effect. Each of the plurality of channel elements is assembled to provide a second scattering and/or diffraction optical effect to form a micro- or macro-distinguishable graphic feature.
EFFECT: creating a unique, highly secure feature which is difficult to imitate and can be combined with any optically variable features.
50 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: laminated article on paper or polymer substrate with optically variable structure comprises a coating in the form of printing raster and a three-dimensional raster. The coating is formed on one side of the substrate, and the three-dimensional raster is applied to the other side of the substrate. The field of printing or the three-dimensional raster is divided into two or more sectors which are displaced relative to each other. Each sector has a different colour so that when changing the view angle the colour of the sectors on the image changes. The three-dimensional raster is made in the form of elements with a symmetrical and/or asymmetrical profile to form a relief on both sides of the substrate and is positioned relative to the printing raster so that the three-dimensional raster is at least partially located above the printing raster. The width of the printing raster lines is from 50 to 200 microns, the width of the three-dimensional raster lines is 100 to 600 microns, the angle between the elements of the printing and the three-dimensional rasters is from 0° to 10°, at that they form a moire image, which when observing the data medium under the right angle is concealed, and when observing the data medium at an acute angle becomes visible.
EFFECT: improving security of articles, increased manufacturability and reducing the cost of the security element due to reduction of runs in the printing machine.
15 cl, 18 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a film (1), designed to protect and decorate articles. The film includes at least one transparent replicating layer (2), having a diffracting relief structure (3) and a reflecting layer. The reflecting layer is formed from at least one layer (4) of pigmented lacquer, which is placed in the immediate vicinity of the diffracting relief structure (3). Refraction indices n1 of at least one lacquer layer (4) and n2 of the replicating layer (2) assume values whose difference is in the range from 0.05 to 0.7. Luminosity L* of at least one lacquer layer (4) is in the range from 0 to 90. Disclosed also is a method of producing said film and use thereof to coat car number plates and other articles to protect from forgery, coupled with an optically variable decorative effect.
EFFECT: improved properties of the film.
21 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to production of protection element and to retransfer film. Said retransfer film gas base layer with the first bearing film and one-layer or sandwich layer. First adhesive layer is applied on the first bearing film surface opposite the surface facing the decorative layer while second bearing film is applied so that first adhesive layer is located between first and second bearing films. First adhesive layer in activated in the first area that covers, at least partially, one first section of base film while first adhesive layer is not activated, nor created, created only partially or deactivated in second area adjacent to said area. Then, first bearing film is cut, at least partially, along boundary line defining at least first area and separating at least one first section from second area of base film. Second part of base film including second section is removed from second bearing film. Note here that base film is adhered, at least one in one first section to second bearing film by activated first adhesive layer. Note that said first part comprises at least one first section and stays at second bearing film.
EFFECT: better protection against counterfeit.
52 cl, 10 dwg