Method for reclamation of oil contaminated soil
SUBSTANCE: method includes adding biopreparations and sowing high sorption capacity plant seeds. Contaminated areas are irrigated with p-aminobenzoic acid in concentration of 0.1-0.2%. When dissolving p-aminobenzoic acid, stevia leaves are added to the hot solution in amount of 0.2%. After cooling the solution to 20-25°C, biopreparation Baikal - EM-1 is added in concentration of 1:100. Amaranth is then planted 2-3 weeks after irrigation. Repeated irrigation in the same concentration is carried out at the branching phase of the amaranth.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.
The invention relates to biotechnology and ecology and can be used for restoration of fertility of soils polluted by oil. A method is known in which seeded annual culture amaranth, with sorption capacity of the mixture with zeolite clay Alanic (patent No. 2396133 from 10.08.2010 G., IPC B09C 1/00, A01B 79/02).
The disadvantage of this method is an expensive technology, including planting in the first and second years of annual and perennial grasses in a mixture with zeolite clays.
Also known a method of reproduction of soil fertility, when on the surface scatter the straw, treating it with a mixture of biologics Barton and Baikal EM-1, covering the surface of the clay vallecula (patent No. 2486736 from 10.07.2013 G., IPC A01C 21/00, AV 79/02, C09K 17/00).
However, this technology is not effective enough, since it is necessary to grow a crop, to scatter across the field crop residues, spray them with an aqueous solution of a biological product, to cause the clay layer and to plough. All of these elements increase the cost of implementation of the method.
The closest technical solution is a method, which is carried out without plowing layer rotation with the subsequent introduction of Alamitos in a mixture of comminuted plant remains, from autumn sowing green manure crops, seeds which are soaked in a solution of a biological product� Baikal EM-1 in a mixture of PABA at a concentration of 0.1%, and spring green mass plowed with advanced spraying the same solution mixture (patent No. 2481162 dated 10.05.2012, IPC VS 1/00, VC 1/10, A01B 79/02, 09C 1/00, VC 1/10, A01B 79/02).
The disadvantage of the prototype method is its complexity sequential high-cost items, including the plowing of the field, introducing a large amount of clay, organic matter, seed treatment is a biological preparation, planting green manure crops, the spraying and plowing. This solution is not efficient enough.
The technical result - the reduction of costs and improving the efficiency of the method.
The technical solution of the declared object is that unlike the prototype, the site is contaminated with oil, water and 0.1-0.2% aqueous solution of para-aminobenzoic acid, when dissolved in hot water which is injected the stevia plant in the amount of 0.2% and after cooling the solution to 20-15 degrees add a biological Baikal Em-1 in a concentration of 1:100, and after 2-3 weeks seeded culture of amaranth and the phase of branching re watering the same mixture.
The method is as follows.
Infected oil the soil is irrigated with a solution of the PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) in a concentration of 0.1-0.2%.
PABA is known as reparagen, shall be considered as genetically significant connection, in stimulating�stravitelne processes in cells. Involved in the synthesis of folic acid, normalizes metabolism in the connective tissue. In this technical solution is stabilized and restored damaged microflora of the soil through the effects of PABA on the microflora.
PABA is a crystalline substance, sparingly soluble in cold water, and at a temperature of 70-80°C dissolves well. PABA is considered a reverse mutator and how phenotypic activator PABA has a broad impact on different taxonomic units: plants, animals, insects, microorganisms.
PABA is the growth factor for many bacteria species, including those contained in a biological Baikal EM-1.
PABA - vitamin H - is a colorless, crystalline substance used as a growth factor for microorganisms. Connecting with enzymes, it increases the energy of enzymatic catalysis at certain stages of ontogenesis, thus according to genotype additional resistance, formability and productivity.
To revitalize the land and restore its fertile soil (humus), you can use biocomposites containing symbiotic Association of bacteria (Baikal EM-1). The use of technologies of living systems" for sustainable human activities allows not only to solve the problems associated with restoring e�another healthy soil fertility.
Effective microorganisms biological preparation Baikal EM-1, containing more than 80 different microorganisms is a sustainable community is physiologically compatible and complementary beneficial microorganisms responsible for the process of regeneration, giving the power of life.
Microbiological fertilizer Baikal EM-1 is an aqueous solution consisting of a consortium of lactic acid and photosynthetic bacteria able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, yeast, biologically active metabolic products of microorganisms.
The principal difference of the preparation Baikal EM-1 from other microbial agents is its multi-component nature, without harm to humans, animals and the whole soil microflora.
The use of this biological product allows to solve the problems associated with natural soil fertility, prevention of environmental pollution. Baikal EM-1 provides waterproof and breathability of the soil to a depth of 60-80 cm
Thanks to inclusion in the toxic soil of the biological product are accelerated several times, processes, humus formation within 2-3 weeks.
Usually for stimulation of microorganisms in the solution add sweets: jam, honey, sugar.
In contrast to known methods in the proposed facility uses the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana) as a sweetener rastitelnog� origin. Stevia leaves 10-15 times sweeter than sugar. In stevia contains many antioxidants - quartzetine, rutin, minerals - calcium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, chromium, magnesium, selenium, copper and vitamins A, b, C, and E. in Addition, contained 53 active substances (including stevioside), contribute to the revival and activity of microorganisms.
Upon dissolution of the PABA powder in hot water, is introduced stevia plants at 0, 2% of the total quantity of prepared solution of PABA. After cooling the solution is further added microorganisms preparation Baikal EM-1 in an amount of 1:100. Cooling of the solution to a temperature of 20-25 degrees due to the creation of favourable conditions for microorganisms of a biological Baikal EM-1.
Such a mixture using PABA, sweetened Stepney enhances the activation of microorganisms Baikal EM-1 and within 2-3 weeks significantly reduced the amount of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. The parameters of the method (2-3 weeks) is attributable to the activation of microorganisms in soil using specified biological products, PABA dissolved in the mixture with the mitigation of stevia plants. This speeds up the process of homeopathya.
After the improvement of soil fertility seeded culture of amaranth that is resistant to the toxicity of the soil and has high sorption properties to absorb heavy metals.
In phase �of evlenia to stimulate the growth of amaranth are forced to re-watering at the same concentration, which provides both the purification of soil from oil products.
Example 1. Prepared working fluid PABA 100 g of powder per 10 liters of water with a temperature of 80°C.
In hot water lowered the stevia leaves in an amount of 200 g In the absence of fresh leaf preparations were used stevia, which has in any pharmacy. In this case, was applied 20 ml of a solution of stevia per 10 liters of liquid.
Prepared simultaneously a solution of a biological Baikal EM-1 at the rate of 1 part to 100 parts water, i.e. 100 g of a biological product per 10 liters of water. After cooling of the solution of PABA to 20-25°C was mixing the two solutions, the sum of which amounted to 20 liters. This amount of solution irrigated land, oiled size 10 m2.
Example 2. The working solution was prepared for another land with an area of 100 m2. The number of prepared mixture solution was 200 liters.
Unlike example 1, the culture of amaranth was sown on irrigated land after 3 weeks, and watered the same mixture in the phase of branching.
The results of the experiments are summarized in the table
After analyzing the data given in the table, it can be concluded that irrigation of contaminated soil-aminobenzoic acid in a mixture of vegetable substances stevia and biological Baikal EM-1 can significantly reduce with�Argania of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil.
Method of reproduction of oil contaminated lands, including the introduction of biologics, seeding of plants with a high sorption capacity, characterized in that conduct irrigation water 0,1-0,2% solution of para-aminobenzoic acid, which when dissolved in hot solution was added the leaves of the plant stevia in an amount of 0.2%, and after cooling the solution to 20-25°C was added a biological Baikal EM-1 in a concentration of 1:100, and after 2-3 weeks after watering seeded culture of the amaranth, and the phase of branching are forced to re-watering at the same concentration.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiological industry and can be used in biological purification of water and soil from oil and oil products. Claimed is consortium of strains of microorganisms Acinetobacter sp. VKM B-2753D and Ochrobacterium sp. VKM B-2754D, possessing nitrogenase activity.
EFFECT: consortium is capable of atmospheric nitrogen fixation and possesses high utilising ability with respect to oil and oil products with their high content in substrate.
1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of destruction of isomers of organochlorine pesticide of hexachlorocyclohexane is that detoxicant is used as vermicompost from buckwheat husk in a dose of 9 t/ha. Adding of vermicompost from buckwheat husk in the recommended dose reduces the concentration of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, including the most toxic γ-hexachlorocyclohexane.
EFFECT: environmentally safe, biologically active substrate - vermicompost from buckwheat husk is not only effective detoxifier, but also improver of soil properties that contribute to creation of safe and optimal conditions for sprouting plants.
2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises application into soil of suspension of microbial preparation on the basis of suspension of psychrotolerant bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. IB - 1.1 with a titre of not less than 2.0·108 CFU/ml.
EFFECT: invention enables to carry out for 1 month the biodegradation of oil with a high degree of hydrocarbon decomposition.
SUBSTANCE: to activate dry form of biopreparation for purification of petropolluted soils water suspension with inducer of enzyme systems id prepared. as water solution for preparation of working suspension of activated biopreparation with concentration of microorganisms not less than 5×107 CFU/ml solution, containing 1 g/l of tripton, 2.5 g/l of glucose, 1 g/l of yeast extract and 1.5 g/l of ammonium sulfate, is used. As inducer of enzyme systems 5 ml/l of Diesel fuel are used. Solution is bubbles with air aeration 1 l/min per I l of solution for 14-18 h without thermostatting.
EFFECT: increased concentration of microorganisms in water suspension and increase of petroleum destruction efficiency.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to remediation of oil-contaminated soils, in particular, to soil cleanup from oil pollution. The invention may be used for restoration of oil-contaminated soils in high north conditions. In order to restore soils from oil pollution poultry manure is introduced upon application of probiotics with strains of Bacillus subtilis TNP-3-DEP and Bacillus subtilis TNP-5-DEP to poultry.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing oil concentration in soil during 3 months of summer period.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology and ecology, namely to protection of the environment. Biopreparation for cleaning environmental objects from petroleum pollution and PAH represents consortium of microorganisms, consisting of the following strains of bacteria: Rhodococcus qingshengii BAC-PAH-1 VKPM AS-1946, Pusillimonas ginsegisoli BAC-PAH-2 VKPM V-11370, Shinella granuli BAC-PAH-3 VKPM V-11371, taken in equal ratios Biopreparation is applied in liquid form of immobilised cell biomass To obtain liquid form submerged cultivation of strains of bacteria, included into consortium, is realised with obtaining cell suspension with its further processing in protective medium To obtain immobilised form of biopreparation submerged cultivation of consortium on nutritional medium is performed with obtaining biomass and further immobilisation of cell biomass on mineral or organic carrier or stabilisation of cell suspension Biopreparation is introduced in amount 0.5-1 l/m2 in concentration 1×106-1×107 CFU/g of biopreparation and complex mineral fertiliser - Azophosca, in concentration 20-200 g/m2.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of cleaning soil from pollution with petroleum, petroleum products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: in the method after the preliminary collection of oil from the soil surface, perennial herbal plants resistant to oil-contamination are sown in the oil-contaminated soil simultaneously with the introduction of microorganisms-oil destructors in the form of a solution of a biological product comprising microorganisms-oil destructors with mineral fertilisers.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the cleaning efficiency due to the involvement in the processes of biodegradation of oil-contamination of the wider spectrum of petroleum hydrocarbons and to accelerate the process of the soil recovery.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed strain Pseudomonas migulae is deposited in the Russian National Collection of Microorganisms of the Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms under the number of VKM B-2761D. The strain is isolated from samples of bottom soil contaminated with oil of freshwater lake of Usinsky district of the Komi Republic in the zone of chronic oil pollution.
EFFECT: strain has high oil-oxidising activity against naphthenic hydrocarbons, is capable of reducing the concentration of hydrocarbons dissolved in water and accelerates the destruction of oil in soils and bottom sediments of water reservoirs.
3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: bacterial strain Rhodococcus rhodochrous is deposited in the Russian Collection of Microorganisms of the Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms RAS under the registration number RCM Ac-2018 D. The destruction with this strain within 7 days of crude oil is up 100%, oil sludge - up to 98%, black oil - up to 96%.
EFFECT: strain has high destructive activity against petroleum hydrocarbons included in oil sludge, as well as against crude oil and black oil.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: strain Gordona sp. is deposited in the Russian National Collection of Microorganisms of the Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms RAS under the registration number RNCM Ac-2044 D. The destruction with this strain on the 7th day of crude oil is up to 100%, oil sludge - up to 99%, black oil - up to 97%.
EFFECT: strain has high destructive activity against petroleum hydrocarbons included in oil sludge, as well as against crude oil and black oil.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of neutralising chloropicrin via alkaline hydrolysis in an aqueous medium in interphase and micellar catalysis conditions using the composition: alkali metal hydroxide, trialkylarylammonium chloride, N,N-dichloroarylsulphamide (dichloramine). The phase-transfer catalyst used is N,N,N-trialkyl-N-benzylammonium chloride, the micelle-forming component is N,N-dichloroarylsulphamide (dichloramine) and alkaline decomposition products thereof. The method enables detoxification of chloropicrin in laboratory and field conditions, in emergency situations, and degassing of a container contaminated with chloropicrin.
EFFECT: neutralising chloropicrin to concentration of not more than 0,01 mg·ml-1 without using organic solvents and special equipment.
1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method consists in mixing cyano-containing solutions and pulps with hydrogen peroxide and a gas ozone-oxygen mixture with the ozone concentration of more than 160 g/m3, in the ozone/hydrogen peroxide ratio of 1.5:1, pH 11-12, temperature of 45-50°C in the presence of copper ions. The cyano-containing solutions and pulps are deactivated in the copper ion concentration of not less than 1:8 to the cyanide and rhodanide concentration.
EFFECT: higher rate and effectiveness of deactivating the cyano-containing solutions and pulps, lower consumption of agents and power costs, improved economical efficiency of the process.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safe operation of chemically hazardous facilities, i.e. development of a formulation for the decontamination of toxic chemicals (TC) during emergency response operations at chemically hazardous facilities. Development of a foaming aqueous composition comprising the following components: foaming composition - 0.3-1.7 wt %, Na-salt of dichloroisocyanuric acid - 2.5-6.5 wt %, water - the rest. The foaming composition comprises a mixture of primary fatty alcohols and functional additives, as well as butyldiglycol, propylene glycol and water at the ratio: mixture of 3-ethanolaminoalkylsulphate of C8-C12 primary fatty alcohols, C12-C14 primary fatty alcohols, sodium sulphoethoxylate and carbamide - 40.0 wt %, butyldiglycol - 5.0 wt %, propylene glycol - 3.0 wt %, water - the rest.
EFFECT: invention provides the degasation of TC during emergency response operations at chemically hazardous facilities.
SUBSTANCE: liquid bromide is neutralised by influencing on it with water solution of reagent. First, 1-4 wt % of laundry soap are dissolved in water with temperature 40-50°C, then, 5-15 wt % of alkali are added into solution, obtained solution is cooled to room temperature, solution is transferred into foam-like condition by air-mechanical method, foam is immediately applied on bromine-damaged surfaces or into volumes, foam is kept above bromine without external influence for not less than time of half-decay of foam or until foam is converted into clot, obtained products of neutralisation are utilised. Invention makes it possible to efficiently isolate damaged surface or volume by covering damaged surface with a layer of stable foam and protect the environment from bromine vapours with simultaneous conversion of elementary bromine into water-soluble compounds, with reduction of its danger class.
EFFECT: foam stability ensures sufficient time duration, which makes it possible to remove neutralisation products more rationally.
3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of chemical technology of energy-saturated materials, namely to methods of utilisation of formed wastes of production of defective and expired products, and is intended for laboratory methods of trinitrotoluene decomposition. Method of trinitrotoluene destruction consists in influencing trinitrotoluene in water medium with alkaline chemical reagents - water solutions of sodium sulphite and sodium hydroxide with concentration 5-20%, with weight ratio trinitrotoluene: chemical reagent, equal 1:3-30, and simultaneous impact with ultrasonic fluctuations with frequency not lower than 20 kHz and intensity not lower than 2,5 W/cm2; and at initial temperature 40-50°C heating is realised due to absorption of energy of ultrasonic fluctuations to temperature 80-85°C.
EFFECT: invention provides complete decomposition of explosive substance, absence of toxic organic products and high rate of the process.
9 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: toxic waste is mixed with water solution of phosphoric acid, which has concentration 20-40% and supplied to mixing calculated as content of 100% acid in processed mixture 5.0-6.1% of the weight of processed waste product at temperature 20-40°C. Obtained emulsion is mixed for 20-30 min, and then mixture is layered for 1.5-2.5 hours with supply of formed organic layer into burning furnace and with supply of water-salt layer for long and safe storage.
EFFECT: avoiding destruction burning furnace liner by removal of potassium contained in toxic waste in form of organic and mineral compounds from mixture, supplied to thermal deactivation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a mortar and a mortar shell. The mortar shell has a main body with an propelling cartridge. The main body of the mortar shell is provided with a tip on the thread. The tip is made of a material different from the main body, for example, aluminium. The tip is able to be deformed and depressurise the mortar shell when it collides with an obstacle. The inner cavity of the mortar shell is filled with liquid deactivating substance.
EFFECT: creation of a simple technical solution reliable in operation for deactivation of chemicals.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the mixing of oily wastes with the neutralizing composition containing the grinded to finely dispersed state caustic lime (calcium oxide) amounting 67-91 wt % and used silica gel - 9-33 wt %, that is waste from the unit for gas conditioning before transportation with the subsequent adding of calculated amount of water, reacting with quicklime, the required amount of which is identified in view of water contained in the oily waste, and water sorption of used silica gel. Before mixing the oily wastes while heating up to 60-70°C within 5-10 minutes are mixed with filtering and absorbing used masses formed at the stage of winterization of process of refining of vegetable oil in the ratio 1:(0.05-0.2), then into the obtained mixture a neutralizing composition is added by portions in the ratio 1:(0.67-1.14) with mixing using a mechanical agitator at a rate of 100-110 rpm and temperature increase from 99 up to 144°C within 10-15 minutes until forming of uniform hydrophobic free-flowing finely dispersed powder.
EFFECT: increase of hydrophobicity of the product of waste treatment and decrease of concentration of harmful matters in a water extraction from the product of treatment.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method comprises the addition of organic and/or mineral fertilisers and herbicides, under-winter and surface tillage. Additionally, the fertiliser-ameliorants are used, which are applied in the form of mulch layer after under-winter tillage. At that the fertiliser-ameliorants are used as sludge deposit after its treatment by enzyme-cavitation method in the process of sewage treatment with the addition of bulk natural minerals-ion-exchangers. The under-winter tillage is carried out by chisel-mouldboard implement with a depth of chisel ploughing of 30-45 cm and turnover of topsoil to the depth of 10-20 cm. The sludge deposit is applied with its humidity of 30-45% and the ratio of components, wt %: sludge deposit 75-85, bulk natural minerals-ion-exchangers 15-25.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the microbiological activity of arable horizons of fallow field, to restore fertility of degraded and disturbed lands, including the humus-deficient loamy soils, to increase productivity, including in drought conditions.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: carboxyl group carrier used is hydrolysed lignin with moisture content of 0-30% with particle size of 1-2 mm.
EFFECT: use of the disclosed sorbent enables to localise toxic rocket fuel at spill sites owing to rapid binding of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine with the sorbent without forming toxic by-products, and also enables to recycle hydrolysis wastes using lignin as a sorbent.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used as a protective measure in pest control. The method comprises post-harvesting shelling, fall ploughing and pre-sowing soil treatment. At that, on the field two varieties of winter wheat are sown. Along the perimeter of the field of the main variety the pest-resistant winter wheat variety Kuma is sown with the width not less than 50-55 m, and both varieties should be similar in terms of ripening, and harvesting of both varieties is carried out simultaneously.
EFFECT: method provides reduction of the pesticide load and increase in efficiency.
1 tbl, 1 ex