Method of producing biomethane
SUBSTANCE: method includes anaerobic fermentation of organic substances in a methane tank with electrical activation of the medium with dc voltage of 0.2-36 V while stirring and bubbling the mass with the released biogas. The organic substances are fed into the methane tank with moisture content of 40-95%. Monitoring is carried out by measuring the value of current in the electrical circuit, calculating conductivity of the system, measuring the volume flow rate of the formed biogas and determining the current content of carbon dioxide gas in the biogas in the upper part of the methane tank. Electrical activation of methanogenesis is controlled by controlling current by setting a new value of current at the level of the sum of the present and calculated maximum current.
EFFECT: high content of methane in biogas, intensification of the process of producing biogas, high process stability and obtaining an end product with accurately defined parameters.
4 dwg, 1 ex
The invention relates to biotechnology, in particular to methods for processing of organic materials, and can be used to produce biogas (a mixture of biomethane and CO2) and biomethane.
Known conventional methods for the production of biogas and organic fertilizer through anaerobic decomposition of organic matter methane-producing bacteria in the anoxic process biological conversion by thermophilic and mesophilic fermentation [Environmental biotechnology /ed. by C. F. Forster and D. A. J. The Weise. L.: Chemistry, 1990]. The content of methane in the produced biogas is in the range of 40-70%. The disadvantages of the described methods is the low yield of the target product at the expense of low efficiency and instability of the technological process of anaerobic fermentation.
A method of producing biogas by anaerobic digestion of organic substrates with the use of stimulants methanogenesis, which is used as the complex compounds of Nickel acetate (II) with Ethylenediamine or Nickel (II) with glycine [RF Patent №1838415, IPC 5 SR 5/02, 02F 11/04, publ. 30.08.1993].
The disadvantage of this method is the need to use stimulants methanogenesis, which in turn affects the purity of the output of products, complicates the process and increases the cost of production.
A known method for the preparation�Oia methane through the transformation of carbon dioxide with the use of a biological process in electroretinogram reactor provided the cathode and anode. Methanogenic microorganisms disposed in the cathode region, which is fed to carbon dioxide. In the anode region may be located microorganisms that oxidize organic substrates. Cathode and anode region are separated from each other by cation or anisopodidae membranes. The potential difference between the electrodes is created either by the oxidative activity of microorganisms, or available source of DC voltage of 0.2-2.0 V [application U.S. No. 2009317882, IPC (2006.01) C12N1/00; C12P5/02, publ. 24.12.2009].
The disadvantages of the above method include the low intensity of the process and the high cost of consumables: cation or aminopropoxy membrane.
The closest to the described invention is a method of producing biogas comprising anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the digester with electrical activation of the medium with stirring. Electrical activation is carried out continuously with constant voltage of 0.2 to 36 In through the body of the digester of conductive material serving as a cathode and an anode located within the environment of methane fermentation and separated from her ion transport material. Stirring is carried out by bubbling using biogas formed (patent RF 2012107401, C02F 11/04, publ. 20.11.2013 g..
The disadvantages of the method described in the prior art include the inability to obtain biomethane with precisely defined parameters and a high probability of terminating the flow of the process of methanogenesis due to an excessive electric activation which leads to inhibition of the process of methanogenesis, due to the lack of monitoring mechanisms and process control electric activation.
The object of the invention is to provide a method for biomethane with the given parameters using the controls and process control electric activation and expansion of the range of the water content of organic materials.
The technical result achieved in the present invention is to increase the methane content in the biogas, the intensification of the process of producing biogas, improving the stability of the process and obtaining the target product (biomethane) with precisely defined parameters.
The problem is solved in that a method of producing biomethane, including anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the digester with electrical activation of the medium constant voltage from 0.2 to 36 V with stirring and bubbling mass of released biogas differs from the prototype in that the control of the electrical activation process of methanogenesis is carried out by varying the voltage and/and�and the working area of the cathode or anode, organic matter in the digester is served with a moisture content of 40-95%.
Preferably stirring is carried out by bubbling using biogas formed.
In the invention, the activation process of methane fermentation occurs due to the electrochemical excitation of enzyme complexes (E bacteria in the cathode, recovery area
|E - e-=E*,||(1)|
E* - elektrovosstanovlenie the activated form of the enzyme.
Elektrovosstanovlenie conditions in the cathode area can reduce the carbon dioxide content in the produced biogas due to the enzymatic restore it to methane:
|CO2+8 E*=CH4+2 H2O+8.||(2)|
The number of recovered methane carbon dioxide in proportion to the amount of electricity passed through the reaction mass. Due to an inability to predict the flow rate of the process of anaerobic fermentation to produce biogas (mixture of methane and CO2in conditions of electric activation is necessary to control the electric activation process and control the current flowing through the response, which will�ssion mass.
It is important that the number of missed electricity does not exceed the value required for complete conversion of carbon dioxide to methane. In case of exceeding at the cathode results in the release of molecular hydrogen, high concentrations which inhibit the fermentation process.
Then the maximum current required for full conversion of carbon dioxide to methane, is determined by the formula 3:
W - the current volumetric flow rate of produced gas, reduced to n. o. (20°C, 1 ATM), m3·-1;
F - Faraday constant, Coulombs·mol-1;
x is the volume fraction of carbon dioxide in the biogas;
0,0224 - constant m3·mol-1.
The magnitude of the current flowing in the electric circuit of the electrodes, proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance of the reaction mass. The conductivity of the reaction mass is proportional to the concentration of conductive particles made from the raw material and formed in the process of its destruction. Additionally, when the biogas sparging the medium contained in the biogas carbon dioxide dissolves in barbotirovany environment, partially hydrated with the formation of carbonic acid, which dissociates into H+and HCO3-, resulting in an increase of the conductivity of the medium. As it follows from (), additionally increases the methane content in the biogas. In addition, increases the intensity of the process by increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide according to the laws of chemical kinetics (equation 2).
Set the current value of the current electric activation is carried out by changing the voltage applied to the electrodes from a DC source.
Also, the current value can be changed by changing the working surface of the electrodes, for example by raising/lowering of the electrodes, the easier the anode, since the anode space does not require sealing.
The anode must be separated from anaerobic cathode environment with a partition of ion transport of the material to oxygen generated at the anode, not inhibited the fermentation process.
The impact of a constant voltage continuously to the environment in the digester allows the cathode recovery dissolved in the reaction mass of carbon dioxide to methane.
Process control is performed by checking the current value of the current in an electric circuit, the calculation or measurement of the conductivity (resistance) of the system, the measurement of the volume flow of biogas formed and determining the current value of carbon dioxide in the biogas in the upper part of the digester. These parameters are required for gene�radio control action to the system using equation 3.
The process is controlled by regulating the current (not above the maximum) by changing the voltage or the working surface of the electrodes with regard to the algorithm of decision by the Trustee to the effect.
The algorithm of decision by the Trustee to the effect on the system is as follows. Input parameters:
- the current value of the current IiAnd;
- the current value of the volumetric flow rate of biogas formed, W, m3·-1;
- the content of carbon dioxide released in the biogas, x, %.
By the formula (3) calculate the maximum current Imaxrequired to full or specified conversion of carbon dioxide to biomethane (see also Fig.3).
The physical meaning of formula 3 is that a certain value of current is sufficient for the full conversion bypass flow of carbon dioxide. The area below the straight line on Fig.3 is "working" for the control action, and the area above this line leads to the inhibition of the methanogenesis process. The criterion of stability and controllability of the process is the ratio of flow (flow of carbon dioxide to the magnitude of the current passed through the reaction medium. The working range of the criterion To from 0 to 0.007 DM3·h-1·A-1.
Control action on the system is carried out� by setting a new current level is the amount of current and the calculated maximum current: I i+1=Ii+Imax;
Setting the new value of the current Ii+1is performed by changing the voltage on the electrodes taking into account the sign of Imax.
If required to install a new value of the current Ii+1will be below 0.2 V, then the magnitude of the voltage values set at the level not lower than 0.2 V, and the current value is reduced by reducing the working surface of the electrodes, for example by raising the anode or cathode above the level of the reaction mass.
In case of exceeding the required values of voltages above 36 it is necessary to increase the working surface of the electrodes (omit or replace the electrodes with greater surface) or to increase the conductivity of the medium, for example with the use of raw materials with less humidity.
If there is a situation of inhibition of methanogenesis (sharp decrease in volumetric flow rate W, Fig.4), it is necessary to reduce the new value of the current 5-10%.
Further the invention is illustrated by describing examples, and tables that present:
Fig. 1 presents the dependence of the content of biomethane in the gas and the speed of separation of biogas from current electric activation.
Fig. 2. presents the dependence of the conductivity of the medium from the insertion humidity of raw materials.
Fig.3 shows the dependence of the flow (flow) of carbon dioxide from the four-s� values of current, passed through the reaction medium. The region located below the line of this relationship is "working" and corresponds to the range of the criterion of controllability of the process from 0 to 0.007 DM3·h-1·A-1.
Fig.4 shows the dependence of the content of SN4in the formed biogas from flowing through the reaction environment current at xed values of the flow rate of biogas.
Example. In a digester with a capacity of 20 DM3the housing of which is made of sheet metal is the cathode (in the lower part of the housing on the inner perimeter is a bubbler in the form of a plastic tube with holes) provided with an anode in the form of a graphite rod surrounded by a partition of ion transport in perforated polyethylene tube placed cattle manure (initial humidity of 90%) 4/5 volume capacity and maintained at 36°C for 1-5 days before the start of the fermentation process (to reduce startup time by electroactivity and/or removal of oxygen from gazovoy phase of the digester). ([Environmental biotechnology /ed. by C. F. Forster and D. A. J. The Weise. L.: Chemistry, 1990]. The digestion reactor and the anode connected to the DC source with the display of voltage and current. Gas pump (max. capacity 0,5 DM3/min)released biogas continuously or periodically using b�rbother return Wednesday, whilst stirring. After starting the fermentation process monitoring and control installation was performed in accordance with established laws and proposed mechanisms of process control. The duration of fermentation of one periodic load is 15-20 days (without activation for up to 60 days). Upon reaching the degree of conversion of the feedstock is more than 60% of the digester can be converted to continuous operation. In the implementation of a continuous process two times a day is taken from the digester 0,4-0,5 DM3the volume of the reaction mass is dispersed therein the estimated amount of raw materials known humidity based on the specified current speed conversion and bring in the digester, without exceeding the limit of its filling. The results are shown in Fig. 1 and 2.
Volumetric flow of biogas formed was investigated by bubbling the gas meter.
The concentration of carbon dioxide in the produced biogas was determined gasometrical way to reduce the volume of gas passed through a concentrated solution of alkali. Control measurements of the composition of biogas was carried out on a gas chromatograph Agilent 6850 with mass-selective detector 5973N. The differences in the results of the analysis of the content of carbon dioxide do not exceed 2%.
From Fig 1. it is seen that with increasing�training current electric activation linearly increases the amount of methane in the produced biogas. Also if you increase the current electric activation significantly increases the speed of separation of biogas (methanogenesis) to the value of Imaxwhen this value is exceeded situation occurs inhibition of the methanogenesis process until its complete termination.
The graph in Fig. 2 shows the dependence of the conductivity of the reaction mixture from moisture of the raw materials used. It is seen that continuous-periodic flow of raw materials with low moisture content leads to an increase in conductivity of the reaction mixture to a maximum value, and Vice versa. For example, the graph shows the introduction within 1-13 days of raw materials with a moisture content of 60%, after - humidity of 80%.
Parallel tests were carried out in a similar setting in the same conditions, but without supply voltage (without activation), the rate of emission of biogas registered no higher than 6 DM3/day, and CO2is 50-60%.
In comparison it is seen that in the digester with the activation of the release rate of biogas is higher (higher the speed of fermentation, the carbon dioxide content is significantly lower, the duration of the fermentation process decreases. The total volume of released gas increases, and consequently, the degree of conversion also increases. Also reduced the content of dry organic matter in the final reaction mass, which is also space�exists about the increase in the degree of conversion.
Compared with the prior art the use of mechanisms of control and management increases the stability of the process of methanogenesis with electroactivity, allows to predict the course of the process with the receipt of biomethane with the specified parameters.
A method of producing biomethane, including anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the digester with electrical activation of the medium constant voltage from 0.2 to 36 V with stirring and bubbling mass of released biogas, characterized in that the organic material in the digester is served with a moisture content of 40-95%, to make the control by checking the current value of the current in an electric circuit by calculating the conductivity of the system, recording the volumetric flow of produced gas and determining the current value of carbon dioxide in the biogas in the upper part of the digester, and control of the electrical activation process of methanogenesis is carried out by adjusting the current by setting a new current level is the amount of current and the calculated maximum current (Ii+1=Imaxwhere Ii- the current value of current (A), the calculation value of the maximum current Imaxrequired to full or specified conversion of carbon dioxide to biomethane, is carried out according to the formula:
W - the current value of the volume flow rate of biogas formed, normalized to n. o. (20°C, 1 ATM), m3·-1;
F - Faraday constant, Coulombs·mol-1;
x - the content of carbon dioxide released in biogas, %.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used in membrane electrolytic production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide for removing silicon from aqueous compositions containing sodium chloride. The method includes adding, to an aqueous composition of sodium chloride containing silicon, an aluminium-containing compound to obtain molar content of aluminium higher than molar content of silicon in said aqueous composition; Monitoring and maintaining pH of the composition at a first level higher than or equal to 8 and lower than or equal to 10 to obtain a first precipitate; Monitoring and maintaining pH of the obtained aqueous composition at a second level higher than or equal to 4 and lower than or equal to 7 to obtain a second precipitate; separating the formed precipitate from the aqueous suspension to obtain a purified aqueous composition. According to the second version of the method, the precipitate is separated at each formation step thereof. A method of producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide includes electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution purified from silicon using the disclosed methods using a membrane cell.
EFFECT: invention reduces content of silicon in the purified solution which contains sodium chloride, with aluminium content in the purified solution lower than 1 mg/l.
14 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during HCs production from natural or associated petroleum gas. Method of oxygenates cleaning from reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes conversion of even part of the contained oxygenates under conditions of syngas chilling by even part of the reaction water at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion. Further syngas cooling temperature below 400°C is performed by the cleaned water injection in the syngas flow. Method of use of the reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes its cleaning of the oxygenates under conditions of the syngas chilling at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion, cleaned water degassing. The cleaned degassed water is used to cool the syngas to temperature below 400°C and produce the water steam.
EFFECT: invention ensures effective cleaning of the reaction water of the oxygenates, and use of the produced cleaned water as feed water for boilers and water steam production.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filter to be incorporated with waster filtering assembly. Water filtering assembly comprises filter of, mainly, a flat profile. Water filtering assembly comprises container for filtered water, intake funnel to be fitted in said container and to intake unfiltered water. This filter can be fitted in intake funnel for filtering of water fed therein. The filter makes the exit from intake funnel for filtered water to get into aforesaid container. The filter makes the intake funnel bottom and as a result water filtering goes over the entire intake funnel bottom. The filter comprises case with water intake and filtered water outlet. Note here that filtering medium is arranged between said intake and said outlet. Water filtering medium includes the ply of ion-exchange resin and ply of material filled with activated carbon. Note that said plies are separated in said case.
EFFECT: higher filtering rate.
22 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: desalination multistage adiabatic plant additionally comprises a thermosoftener (52) which serves for the generation of sludge particles in the feed water heated in a steam heater (26) and taken from a pipeline to supply the feed water to the inlet of a multi-stage adiabatic evaporator (4), as well as a two-section feed water receiver (76) to reduce supersaturation in the sea water being evaporated due to the usage of sludge particles as "seed crystals" in the supersaturated solution volume. The thermosoftener (52) comprises a perforated membrane (56) built-in in the casing (53) under the cover, a dome-shaped horizontal partition (61) installed with a gap in respect to the inner casing wall, vertical cylindrical shells, a manifold to withdraw the vapour (62) under the dome-shaped partition, a branch pipe for water withdrawal is united with the sludge particle removal and is mounted in the casing bottom, and the branch pipe for steam supply is built-in in the casing cover.
EFFECT: lower rate of scale formation on working surfaces of the plant elements.
2 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device and a method of detecting the quality of a liquid, which are used in water treatment devices. The detector "renders" the quality of water in the form of visible radiation instead of converting intensity of UV radiation into digital form and comprises a first detection window coated with a first material for converting first received UV radiation emitted by a UV source and transmitted through the liquid into first visible radiation. The device additionally mixes the first visible radiation with second visible radiation to produce third visible radiation. A different colour of the third visible radiation reflects different quality of water.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the device and method owing to absence of UV sensors in water, which detect UV intensity.
14 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined magnetic processing of fluids. Proposed device comprises housing 1 connected via fluid feed and discharge pipes and magnetic unit 6 fitted therein and composed of the set of permanent magnets. Fluid flow channel is arranged between said magnetic unit 6 and housing 1 and composed of spiral with pitch ratio equal to six. The length of magnetic unit 6 is comparable with its diameter. Ferromagnetic washers 7 are fitted between three circular magnets of magnetic unit 6. Electromagnets 4 built around Helmholtz coils 5 with reactive power compensators are arranged at fluid feed and discharge pipes 2 and 3.
EFFECT: efficient magnetisation of fluid flow, ruled out permanent magnet effects.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water crystal cleaning of harmful admixtures including heavy isotopes of deuterium. Proposed device comprises case 11 to house riser 8 with two chambers 4, 1. The latter make inlets for portable water and heat carrier. Portable water chamber 4 is connected with inside of case 11 that has outlet at its bottom. Heat carrier chamber 1 is connected with inside of ribs 7 arranged in case 11 and combined by outlet. Outer surface of ribs 7 is wavy.
EFFECT: continuous formation of deuterium ice in portable water.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to steam fractions separators. Steam separator comprises vessel for boiling fluid with top section provided with circular horizontal ring with inner groove and hole for condensate. Several identical elements consist of vertical tubes with horizontal rings arranged at their lower part and like rings at upper part provided with grooves with holed for condensate draining. Note here that said elements are fitted one on the other while the last one at upper part is plugged.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to technology of processing water with ozone and can be used in systems of water supply of towns and settlements for decontamination of drinking water from surface water sources, in particular, with large seasonal fluctuations of water contamination, requiring up to sixfold change of ozone dose. Ozone-air mixture is supplied by steps with constant consumption at each step and change of ozone concentration in ozone-air mixture. Ratio of maximal consumption of ozone-air mixture at the last step to minimal at the first step is taken equal to not more than 2. Dimensions of ozone-air mixture bubbles is from 0.8 to 1.2 mm. Device for processing water with ozone contains system of preparation of dried and cooled air, providing its supply into ozone and ozone-air mixture generator onto disperser in steps, as well as three separate lines of similar dispersers.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides reduction of loss of ozone produced by generator, efficiency of produced ozone application not lower than 95%, increased accuracy of ozone dosing, increased reliability of installation functioning and its safety.
12 cl, 14 dwg, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of purifying waste water includes adding a natural zeolite to the water to be treated, mixing, settling and filtering. The natural zeolite used is a natural zeolite containing 50-60% clinoptilolite with particle size of 1.0-1.5 mm. Uniform mixing is carried out at a rate of 1-2 rps for 10-15 s and settling is carried out for 12-48 hours.
EFFECT: low content of heavy metal and ammonium ions when treating waste water below the maximum allowable concentration while enabling use of the treated water for crop irrigation.
1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: double-stage continuous underground generator of biohydrogen includes a biogenerator installed in the ground, filled to a certain level with biomass, a gas discharge pipe and a pipe for removal of residual biopulp. The biogenerator comprises two bioreactors, arranged in the ground at the depth of up to 2000 m, connected in series by working medium. In the proposed device there are systems for self-flowing charging and discharging of bioreactors under action of gravity of a column of input biomass and gaslift effect of methane and hydrogen biopulps, a system of acidification of methane biopulp, a system of sowing microfauna supply and a system of supply of biostimulant at the initial section of the bioreactor core of the 2nd stage.
EFFECT: optimal temperature conditions of reactions of anaerobic transformation of biomass, makes it possible to produce high-pressure biohydrogen at the outlet of the plant, develops conditions for self-flowing charging of a bioreactor with biomass, gaslift discharging of biohydrogen and residual biopulp.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: objective of the invention is to convert an operable periodical biogenerator plant with manual charging-discharging for production of low-pressure biogas into an industrial continuous plant for production of biogas of high pressure (5-6 MPa) by installation of a bioreactor in the ground at the depth of around 1200 m, which will provide for optimal temperature conditions of reactions of anaerobic conversion of biomass, will develop conditions for self-flowing charging of a bioreactor with biomass and gaslift discharging of biogas and residual biopulp. Standard drilling equipment and materials may be used for arrangement of continuous underground generators of biogas.
EFFECT: invention is ideally energy-saving and environmentally safe.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to treatment of effluents. Effluents are purified by anaerobic processing of primary sediment (PS) in tank for wastes (5) and separate processing of pasty excess sludge ("Ь"S). Said pasty excess sludge ("Ь"S) is pre-separated from primary sediment (PS) and fed to reactor of hydrolysis (8) wherein it is loosened and liquefied by thermal and/or chemical hydrolysis. Produced hydrolysed excess sludge ("Ь"S) is subjected to anaerobic processing irrespective of primary sediment (PS) in anaerobic reactor (14) communicated directly or indirectly with outlet of hydrolysis reactor (8). Pipeline (2) for feed of heat carrier fluid is arranged between hydrolysis reactor (8), preferably decompression tank (11) and purification tank (1) for primary sediment (PS).
EFFECT: higher yield of biogas and methane.
23 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of biogas production using the method of anaerobic methane fermentation. The bioenergy complex for production of biogas and granular biofuel is offered. The complex includes a biopond and the unit for production of gaseous biofuel, with the series-connected branch pipes for biomass supply by chipper, homogenizer and bioreactor. The bioreactor consists of, at least, one methane tank, the gas output of which through gas-holder and compressor is connected with the power unit. The tanks made from composite elastomers with polyurethane or polyvinylchloride two-sided coating are used as pressure-tight methane tanks that are equipped with the piping heating system. The tanks are connected through branch pipes with the hydromixing system. The chipper has a receiving bin, and the output for the used bioreactor biomass is provisioned with the receiving vessel. The complex is supplemented with the unit for pellet fabrication, with the possibility of its work in a mode of fabrication of pellets from green vegetative mass, planted in the biopond, or in the mode of fabrication of pellets from biomass processed in the reactor. The unit for fabrication of pellets consists of the pressing-out unit, and the liquid discharge branch pipe of the pressing-out unit is connected with the possibility of adjustment with the homogenizer of the unit for production of gaseous biofuel or with the biopond. The solid fraction output of the pressing-out unit is connected with granulator, the output of which is connected with the packaging line for two kinds of pellets.
EFFECT: invention allows to perform deep degassing of organic mass, to increase the output of biogas, profitability of biogas units for electrical power generation in a low power range from 10 kW/h up to 500 kW/h, expand functionalities, ensure mobility and work capacity of the complex in any climatic conditions.
9 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, food processing industry, as well as to public municipal services. The invention is intended for disinfection and sequential phase, anaerobic decomposition of crushed biological wastes of products of farm animals, birds, human and production wastes of food processing industry with obtaining of biogas and disinfected (from pathogenic microflora, helminth, their eggs and seeds of plants) mineralised organic fertilisers, as well as bio-fodder additives. The device comprises a cylindrical shaped reservoir divided inside with partitions alternately not reaching the top and bottom of the reservoir into the flow chambers of fermentation to produce over each of their pair of separate gas sections, loading and discharge pipes, heaters of substrate and a gas pipeline connected to the gas sections. The cylindrical shaped reservoir has the height equal to its diameter and its volume is divided by coaxial partitions into five coaxial chambers, the volumes of which are respectively equal to 3, 3, 5, 74, 15% of the device volume, and the loading chamber is located in the centre of the device, and the discharge is at the periphery.
EFFECT: invention provides reduction in heat loss, deep temperature pasteurisation of raw material and its hydrolysis at the beginning of the process, the uniform supply of raw material from one chamber to another, minimising dead spots, elimination of the temperature gradients in the volume and, consequently, obtaining biogas and fertilisers of higher quality with identical periods of disposal of raw materials.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of biological purification of sewage water with active silt is realised with application of biologically active substance, which is represented by powder-like substance UWDM-1, containing rotaxane molecules and binuclear copper complex, in amount, providing its concentration in bioreactor, equal 10-6-1·10-10 mg/dm3. Device for method realisation consists of hermetic case (1) with branch pipes of input (2) of sewage water, discharge (3) of purified water, discharge of biogas (4), coaxially located in case hollow central tube (5) with branch pipes of supply (6) and discharge (7) of heat-carrier, means for supply of biologically active substance. Means for supply of biologically active substance is made in form of mixer with drive (8), provided with dosing devices (9) in upper part, and in lower part connected by means of pipeline (1) with upper part of case (1). Central tube (5) is separated by not less than two transverse nets (11), covered with porous material (12). Holes (13) of nets (11) are located with displacement relative to each other.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of purification.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: biogas unit contains heat insulated methane tank, consisting of an extruder mixer, electric biomass mixers, pumps, chambers of hydrolytic, acid and methane fermentation, each is fitted with a heat exchanger. To the outlet of the methane tank, to the methane fermentation chamber the gas-holder and the fermented mass separator are connected. The biogas unit is fitted with the unit of sources of renewable and other currently excessive energies in networks. The unit of sources of renewable and other excessive energies comprises the thermal accumulator fitted with heat exchangers, fire-bar elements and a generator; this thermal accumulator is connected to sources of renewable energy and mains. Meanwhile the heat accumulator inlet for make-up water is connected to the line, and hot water outlets of the heataccumulator are connected to an extruder mixer and fermentation chambers. Heat accumulator's fire-bar element by means of electric energy switches is connected to electric mixers, pumps and the extruder mixer or to the generator with a possibility of operation of the latter from the sources of renewable energy or in case of their absence - from the mains during the time period of low tariffs for payment of the electric power.
EFFECT: increase in biogas production due to providing the optimum modes of continuous fermentation of biomass in zones of cold climate with the long heating period.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bio-energy and can be used as a universal digestion tank for processing of manure of animals, poultry, domestic and agricultural waste into methane and organic fertiliser. The reactor of anaerobic digestion of biomass comprises a housing 1 in the form of a sealed container, comprising four sections: preparatory (acidic) 2, neutral 3, alkali 4 and of methane digestion 5, separated by vertical partitions 6, 7, 8. The reactor is additionally equipped with a diaphragm electrolytic cell 12, one output 18 of which with the analyte solution is connected to the acid fermentation section 2, and its other output 21 with the catholyte solution is connected to the sections of neutral 3 and alkaline fermentation 4. In the reactor housing 1 along its length the additional fixing units 11 of vertical partitions 6, 7, 8 are made, made with the ability of replacement with the change in the volumes of sections of fermentation.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase efficiency of the reactor of anaerobic digestion of biomass.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of biogas obtaining includes preliminary processing of an organic substrate by bringing it to 92% humidity with further crushing, introduction of a catalyst, fermentation in an anaerobic medium, and accumulation of biogas. As the catalyst used is a four-component mixture, which contains four classes of enzymes: protease, amylase, lipase and cellulase with their weight ratio of 3.2:0.3:15.6:1.0, the catalyst is introduced in a volume of 0.01 g/kg of weight of the dry organic substrate, and fermentation in the anaerobic medium is realised at a temperature from 17°C to 20°C. The application of the claimed method of biogas obtaining will make it possible to obtain a good methane output with comparatively low concentrations of the enzyme mixture.
EFFECT: intensification of the process of methane manure fermentation with an increase of the biogas output and increased content of methane in it.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used for recycling sediments that are formed in the process of cleaning municipal and industrial sewage waters, with obtaining non-rotting sediment and electric energy. The method includes obtaining a fermented sediment with the application of main fermentation, obtaining the first water effluent flow and partially dehydrated, fermented sediment, by means of the first separation of liquid and solid components of the fermented sediment, obtaining partially dehydrated and hydrolysed fermented sediment with the application of thermohydrolysis of a partially dehydrated fermented sediment, fermentation of the partially dehydrated and hydrolysed sediment. The method also includes extraction of biogas, formed in fermentation and main fermentation, obtaining energy from biogas, including obtaining energy, required for realisation of thermohydrolysis, and obtaining additional energy, with the application of all biogas for obtaining electric energy. An installation includes a device for carrying out thermohydrolysis (16), a device for the first (10) and second (11) fermentation, for phase separation of liquid and solid components (17, 28), as well as a means for biogas extraction (20) and a device of obtaining electric energy (21).
EFFECT: inventions provide reliable and simple recycling of large quantity of sediments, which are poorly biodegraded, and in fact their complete conversion into biogas and further into electric energy.
13 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: agriculture and municipal economy.
SUBSTANCE: the is intended for use in municipal economy and in agriculture for a sequential phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of different solid non-graded and non-ground fermentable organic waste materials of cities and settlements, waste products of agricultural enterprises, agricultural farms, bungalows and households with production out of them of the high-quality decontaminated from a pathogenic microflora, helminths, their eggs and seeds of weeds, liquid mineralized organic fertilizers with a good share of humus and a combustible biogas used for the power purposes. The methane-tank contains a horizontal basin separated by internal alternately not reaching up to the top and the bottom of the basin cross partitions for the gas sections with the gas collectors and the liquid flowing through communicating chambers with draw-off taps, a loading and an unloading connecting pipes, heaters of fermentable mass and a gas pipeline of a gasholder linked to the gas collectors of gas sections. The basin has a built-in chain-scraper type loading-unloading elevator with a drive, which horizontally located one over another working branches with a perforated fence between them and around of them are inserted from the direction of a loading connecting pipe inside the basin below the level of the fermentable liquid organic mass set in the basin. The gas collector of the first gas section is connected with a gas pipeline of drawing the biogas off from the section into an injector interacting with a discharge pump pumping out of a fermentable mass of the chamber and boosting it back into the chamber through a connected with it injector and a disperser of the gas-liquid mixture formed in the injector. The technical result: improvement of the methane-tank design, provision of an efficient splitting of the solid fermentable organic substances of the waste products and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.
EFFECT: the invention ensures upgrade of the methane-tank design and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.
4 cl, 5 dwg