Method of producing biomethane

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes anaerobic fermentation of organic substances in a methane tank with electrical activation of the medium with dc voltage of 0.2-36 V while stirring and bubbling the mass with the released biogas. The organic substances are fed into the methane tank with moisture content of 40-95%. Monitoring is carried out by measuring the value of current in the electrical circuit, calculating conductivity of the system, measuring the volume flow rate of the formed biogas and determining the current content of carbon dioxide gas in the biogas in the upper part of the methane tank. Electrical activation of methanogenesis is controlled by controlling current by setting a new value of current at the level of the sum of the present and calculated maximum current.

EFFECT: high content of methane in biogas, intensification of the process of producing biogas, high process stability and obtaining an end product with accurately defined parameters.

4 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to biotechnology, in particular to methods for processing of organic materials, and can be used to produce biogas (a mixture of biomethane and CO2) and biomethane.

Known conventional methods for the production of biogas and organic fertilizer through anaerobic decomposition of organic matter methane-producing bacteria in the anoxic process biological conversion by thermophilic and mesophilic fermentation [Environmental biotechnology /ed. by C. F. Forster and D. A. J. The Weise. L.: Chemistry, 1990]. The content of methane in the produced biogas is in the range of 40-70%. The disadvantages of the described methods is the low yield of the target product at the expense of low efficiency and instability of the technological process of anaerobic fermentation.

A method of producing biogas by anaerobic digestion of organic substrates with the use of stimulants methanogenesis, which is used as the complex compounds of Nickel acetate (II) with Ethylenediamine or Nickel (II) with glycine [RF Patent №1838415, IPC 5 SR 5/02, 02F 11/04, publ. 30.08.1993].

The disadvantage of this method is the need to use stimulants methanogenesis, which in turn affects the purity of the output of products, complicates the process and increases the cost of production.

A known method for the preparation�Oia methane through the transformation of carbon dioxide with the use of a biological process in electroretinogram reactor provided the cathode and anode. Methanogenic microorganisms disposed in the cathode region, which is fed to carbon dioxide. In the anode region may be located microorganisms that oxidize organic substrates. Cathode and anode region are separated from each other by cation or anisopodidae membranes. The potential difference between the electrodes is created either by the oxidative activity of microorganisms, or available source of DC voltage of 0.2-2.0 V [application U.S. No. 2009317882, IPC (2006.01) C12N1/00; C12P5/02, publ. 24.12.2009].

The disadvantages of the above method include the low intensity of the process and the high cost of consumables: cation or aminopropoxy membrane.

The closest to the described invention is a method of producing biogas comprising anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the digester with electrical activation of the medium with stirring. Electrical activation is carried out continuously with constant voltage of 0.2 to 36 In through the body of the digester of conductive material serving as a cathode and an anode located within the environment of methane fermentation and separated from her ion transport material. Stirring is carried out by bubbling using biogas formed (patent RF 2012107401, C02F 11/04, publ. 20.11.2013 g..

The disadvantages of the method described in the prior art include the inability to obtain biomethane with precisely defined parameters and a high probability of terminating the flow of the process of methanogenesis due to an excessive electric activation which leads to inhibition of the process of methanogenesis, due to the lack of monitoring mechanisms and process control electric activation.

The object of the invention is to provide a method for biomethane with the given parameters using the controls and process control electric activation and expansion of the range of the water content of organic materials.

The technical result achieved in the present invention is to increase the methane content in the biogas, the intensification of the process of producing biogas, improving the stability of the process and obtaining the target product (biomethane) with precisely defined parameters.

The problem is solved in that a method of producing biomethane, including anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the digester with electrical activation of the medium constant voltage from 0.2 to 36 V with stirring and bubbling mass of released biogas differs from the prototype in that the control of the electrical activation process of methanogenesis is carried out by varying the voltage and/and�and the working area of the cathode or anode, organic matter in the digester is served with a moisture content of 40-95%.

Preferably stirring is carried out by bubbling using biogas formed.

In the invention, the activation process of methane fermentation occurs due to the electrochemical excitation of enzyme complexes (E bacteria in the cathode, recovery area

E - e-=E*,(1)

where:

E* - elektrovosstanovlenie the activated form of the enzyme.

Elektrovosstanovlenie conditions in the cathode area can reduce the carbon dioxide content in the produced biogas due to the enzymatic restore it to methane:

CO2+8 E*=CH4+2 H2O+8.(2)

The number of recovered methane carbon dioxide in proportion to the amount of electricity passed through the reaction mass. Due to an inability to predict the flow rate of the process of anaerobic fermentation to produce biogas (mixture of methane and CO2in conditions of electric activation is necessary to control the electric activation process and control the current flowing through the response, which will�ssion mass.

It is important that the number of missed electricity does not exceed the value required for complete conversion of carbon dioxide to methane. In case of exceeding at the cathode results in the release of molecular hydrogen, high concentrations which inhibit the fermentation process.

Then the maximum current required for full conversion of carbon dioxide to methane, is determined by the formula 3:

(3)

where:

W - the current volumetric flow rate of produced gas, reduced to n. o. (20°C, 1 ATM), m3·-1;

F - Faraday constant, Coulombs·mol-1;

x is the volume fraction of carbon dioxide in the biogas;

0,0224 - constant m3·mol-1.

The magnitude of the current flowing in the electric circuit of the electrodes, proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance of the reaction mass. The conductivity of the reaction mass is proportional to the concentration of conductive particles made from the raw material and formed in the process of its destruction. Additionally, when the biogas sparging the medium contained in the biogas carbon dioxide dissolves in barbotirovany environment, partially hydrated with the formation of carbonic acid, which dissociates into H+and HCO3-, resulting in an increase of the conductivity of the medium. As it follows from (), additionally increases the methane content in the biogas. In addition, increases the intensity of the process by increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide according to the laws of chemical kinetics (equation 2).

Set the current value of the current electric activation is carried out by changing the voltage applied to the electrodes from a DC source.

Also, the current value can be changed by changing the working surface of the electrodes, for example by raising/lowering of the electrodes, the easier the anode, since the anode space does not require sealing.

The anode must be separated from anaerobic cathode environment with a partition of ion transport of the material to oxygen generated at the anode, not inhibited the fermentation process.

The impact of a constant voltage continuously to the environment in the digester allows the cathode recovery dissolved in the reaction mass of carbon dioxide to methane.

Process control is performed by checking the current value of the current in an electric circuit, the calculation or measurement of the conductivity (resistance) of the system, the measurement of the volume flow of biogas formed and determining the current value of carbon dioxide in the biogas in the upper part of the digester. These parameters are required for gene�radio control action to the system using equation 3.

The process is controlled by regulating the current (not above the maximum) by changing the voltage or the working surface of the electrodes with regard to the algorithm of decision by the Trustee to the effect.

The algorithm of decision by the Trustee to the effect on the system is as follows. Input parameters:

- the current value of the current IiAnd;

- the current value of the volumetric flow rate of biogas formed, W, m3·-1;

- the content of carbon dioxide released in the biogas, x, %.

By the formula (3) calculate the maximum current Imaxrequired to full or specified conversion of carbon dioxide to biomethane (see also Fig.3).

The physical meaning of formula 3 is that a certain value of current is sufficient for the full conversion bypass flow of carbon dioxide. The area below the straight line on Fig.3 is "working" for the control action, and the area above this line leads to the inhibition of the methanogenesis process. The criterion of stability and controllability of the process is the ratio of flow (flow of carbon dioxide to the magnitude of the current passed through the reaction medium. The working range of the criterion To from 0 to 0.007 DM3·h-1·A-1.

Control action on the system is carried out� by setting a new current level is the amount of current and the calculated maximum current: I i+1=Ii+Imax;

Setting the new value of the current Ii+1is performed by changing the voltage on the electrodes taking into account the sign of Imax.

If required to install a new value of the current Ii+1will be below 0.2 V, then the magnitude of the voltage values set at the level not lower than 0.2 V, and the current value is reduced by reducing the working surface of the electrodes, for example by raising the anode or cathode above the level of the reaction mass.

In case of exceeding the required values of voltages above 36 it is necessary to increase the working surface of the electrodes (omit or replace the electrodes with greater surface) or to increase the conductivity of the medium, for example with the use of raw materials with less humidity.

If there is a situation of inhibition of methanogenesis (sharp decrease in volumetric flow rate W, Fig.4), it is necessary to reduce the new value of the current 5-10%.

Further the invention is illustrated by describing examples, and tables that present:

Fig. 1 presents the dependence of the content of biomethane in the gas and the speed of separation of biogas from current electric activation.

Fig. 2. presents the dependence of the conductivity of the medium from the insertion humidity of raw materials.

Fig.3 shows the dependence of the flow (flow) of carbon dioxide from the four-s� values of current, passed through the reaction medium. The region located below the line of this relationship is "working" and corresponds to the range of the criterion of controllability of the process from 0 to 0.007 DM3·h-1·A-1.

Fig.4 shows the dependence of the content of SN4in the formed biogas from flowing through the reaction environment current at xed values of the flow rate of biogas.

Example. In a digester with a capacity of 20 DM3the housing of which is made of sheet metal is the cathode (in the lower part of the housing on the inner perimeter is a bubbler in the form of a plastic tube with holes) provided with an anode in the form of a graphite rod surrounded by a partition of ion transport in perforated polyethylene tube placed cattle manure (initial humidity of 90%) 4/5 volume capacity and maintained at 36°C for 1-5 days before the start of the fermentation process (to reduce startup time by electroactivity and/or removal of oxygen from gazovoy phase of the digester). ([Environmental biotechnology /ed. by C. F. Forster and D. A. J. The Weise. L.: Chemistry, 1990]. The digestion reactor and the anode connected to the DC source with the display of voltage and current. Gas pump (max. capacity 0,5 DM3/min)released biogas continuously or periodically using b�rbother return Wednesday, whilst stirring. After starting the fermentation process monitoring and control installation was performed in accordance with established laws and proposed mechanisms of process control. The duration of fermentation of one periodic load is 15-20 days (without activation for up to 60 days). Upon reaching the degree of conversion of the feedstock is more than 60% of the digester can be converted to continuous operation. In the implementation of a continuous process two times a day is taken from the digester 0,4-0,5 DM3the volume of the reaction mass is dispersed therein the estimated amount of raw materials known humidity based on the specified current speed conversion and bring in the digester, without exceeding the limit of its filling. The results are shown in Fig. 1 and 2.

Volumetric flow of biogas formed was investigated by bubbling the gas meter.

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the produced biogas was determined gasometrical way to reduce the volume of gas passed through a concentrated solution of alkali. Control measurements of the composition of biogas was carried out on a gas chromatograph Agilent 6850 with mass-selective detector 5973N. The differences in the results of the analysis of the content of carbon dioxide do not exceed 2%.

From Fig 1. it is seen that with increasing�training current electric activation linearly increases the amount of methane in the produced biogas. Also if you increase the current electric activation significantly increases the speed of separation of biogas (methanogenesis) to the value of Imaxwhen this value is exceeded situation occurs inhibition of the methanogenesis process until its complete termination.

The graph in Fig. 2 shows the dependence of the conductivity of the reaction mixture from moisture of the raw materials used. It is seen that continuous-periodic flow of raw materials with low moisture content leads to an increase in conductivity of the reaction mixture to a maximum value, and Vice versa. For example, the graph shows the introduction within 1-13 days of raw materials with a moisture content of 60%, after - humidity of 80%.

Parallel tests were carried out in a similar setting in the same conditions, but without supply voltage (without activation), the rate of emission of biogas registered no higher than 6 DM3/day, and CO2is 50-60%.

In comparison it is seen that in the digester with the activation of the release rate of biogas is higher (higher the speed of fermentation, the carbon dioxide content is significantly lower, the duration of the fermentation process decreases. The total volume of released gas increases, and consequently, the degree of conversion also increases. Also reduced the content of dry organic matter in the final reaction mass, which is also space�exists about the increase in the degree of conversion.

Compared with the prior art the use of mechanisms of control and management increases the stability of the process of methanogenesis with electroactivity, allows to predict the course of the process with the receipt of biomethane with the specified parameters.

A method of producing biomethane, including anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the digester with electrical activation of the medium constant voltage from 0.2 to 36 V with stirring and bubbling mass of released biogas, characterized in that the organic material in the digester is served with a moisture content of 40-95%, to make the control by checking the current value of the current in an electric circuit by calculating the conductivity of the system, recording the volumetric flow of produced gas and determining the current value of carbon dioxide in the biogas in the upper part of the digester, and control of the electrical activation process of methanogenesis is carried out by adjusting the current by setting a new current level is the amount of current and the calculated maximum current (Ii+1=Imaxwhere Ii- the current value of current (A), the calculation value of the maximum current Imaxrequired to full or specified conversion of carbon dioxide to biomethane, is carried out according to the formula:

where:
W - the current value of the volume flow rate of biogas formed, normalized to n. o. (20°C, 1 ATM), m3·-1;
F - Faraday constant, Coulombs·mol-1;
x - the content of carbon dioxide released in biogas, %.



 

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1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used for recycling sediments that are formed in the process of cleaning municipal and industrial sewage waters, with obtaining non-rotting sediment and electric energy. The method includes obtaining a fermented sediment with the application of main fermentation, obtaining the first water effluent flow and partially dehydrated, fermented sediment, by means of the first separation of liquid and solid components of the fermented sediment, obtaining partially dehydrated and hydrolysed fermented sediment with the application of thermohydrolysis of a partially dehydrated fermented sediment, fermentation of the partially dehydrated and hydrolysed sediment. The method also includes extraction of biogas, formed in fermentation and main fermentation, obtaining energy from biogas, including obtaining energy, required for realisation of thermohydrolysis, and obtaining additional energy, with the application of all biogas for obtaining electric energy. An installation includes a device for carrying out thermohydrolysis (16), a device for the first (10) and second (11) fermentation, for phase separation of liquid and solid components (17, 28), as well as a means for biogas extraction (20) and a device of obtaining electric energy (21).

EFFECT: inventions provide reliable and simple recycling of large quantity of sediments, which are poorly biodegraded, and in fact their complete conversion into biogas and further into electric energy.

13 cl, 4 dwg

Methane-tank // 2250878

FIELD: agriculture and municipal economy.

SUBSTANCE: the is intended for use in municipal economy and in agriculture for a sequential phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of different solid non-graded and non-ground fermentable organic waste materials of cities and settlements, waste products of agricultural enterprises, agricultural farms, bungalows and households with production out of them of the high-quality decontaminated from a pathogenic microflora, helminths, their eggs and seeds of weeds, liquid mineralized organic fertilizers with a good share of humus and a combustible biogas used for the power purposes. The methane-tank contains a horizontal basin separated by internal alternately not reaching up to the top and the bottom of the basin cross partitions for the gas sections with the gas collectors and the liquid flowing through communicating chambers with draw-off taps, a loading and an unloading connecting pipes, heaters of fermentable mass and a gas pipeline of a gasholder linked to the gas collectors of gas sections. The basin has a built-in chain-scraper type loading-unloading elevator with a drive, which horizontally located one over another working branches with a perforated fence between them and around of them are inserted from the direction of a loading connecting pipe inside the basin below the level of the fermentable liquid organic mass set in the basin. The gas collector of the first gas section is connected with a gas pipeline of drawing the biogas off from the section into an injector interacting with a discharge pump pumping out of a fermentable mass of the chamber and boosting it back into the chamber through a connected with it injector and a disperser of the gas-liquid mixture formed in the injector. The technical result: improvement of the methane-tank design, provision of an efficient splitting of the solid fermentable organic substances of the waste products and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.

EFFECT: the invention ensures upgrade of the methane-tank design and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.

4 cl, 5 dwg

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