Method of common lema control in winter wheat crops
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used as a protective measure in pest control. The method comprises post-harvesting shelling, fall ploughing and pre-sowing soil treatment. At that, on the field two varieties of winter wheat are sown. Along the perimeter of the field of the main variety the pest-resistant winter wheat variety Kuma is sown with the width not less than 50-55 m, and both varieties should be similar in terms of ripening, and harvesting of both varieties is carried out simultaneously.
EFFECT: method provides reduction of the pesticide load and increase in efficiency.
1 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to environmentally friendly ways to combat pests in winter wheat.
Known methods of combating plavica ordinary (Lema melanopus L.) and other pests of winter wheat with application of insecticide (Agricultural entomology. M.: Kolos, 1983. P. 84-85).
However, the application of chemical means of protection increases costs and negatively affects the environment.
Known methods of combating plavica ordinary, including various agricultural activities, in particular post-harvest stubble and plowing, removal of crop grain cereals from fields where last year on these crops were damaged by plavica (Agricultural entomology. M.: Kolos, 1983. P. 84-85).
However, in conditions of deficiency of the square and the high proportion of winter crops it is difficult to provide the necessary removal of crops from each other, diminishing the effectiveness of land treatment.
The result of technical solutions - improving efficiency, reducing pesticide load. Technical solution is achieved by planting two varieties in the same field with the placement of resistant pest varieties as a protective strip around the perimeter of the field, and class must be close in ripening.
It is known that the stability of the ecosystem virust�et due to the increase of biological and genetic diversity of plant species, animals and microorganisms. Placement of two wheat varieties on the same field also increases resistance and grain productivity of agrocenosis in General.
For the cereal leaf beetle ordinary uneven settling of the fields. Beetles during the mass emergence of the focus on marginal strips, and then observed the colonization of field how the beetles and larvae. This feature of the distribution of the pest is used in the proposed method. The economic threshold of harmfulness of cereal leaf beetle beetles during the shooting of winter wheat 40 to 50 beetles/m2larvae in earing - 0.5 to 1.0 larvae/m2. If the damage is 50% or more leaf area, yield losses reach 10%.
The method is as follows
The field was seeded varieties of winter wheat with weak resistance to defeat plavica, and on the perimeter of the field strip of not less than 50-55 m sow early varieties of winter wheat Kuma. He refers to the strong wheat and produces grain with high baking qualities. In the conditions of a foothill zone of the North Caucasus grade showed an additional property - high resistance to shock plavica ordinary.
During the joint cleaning of both cultivars increased the quality of the grain mixture. Width of protective sowing variety Kuma determined empirically and based on the biological features of the dis�wounds of the pest.
An example implementation
After peeling, autumn ploughing and seedbed preparation field with an area of 100 hectares planted winter wheat varieties Kingfisher, and on the perimeter of the site - a variety Kuma width of 15 passes grain drills with the capture of 3.6 m. during the periods of survey work was carried out on the grounds of size 35×35 cm by 15 samples in the protective band (grade Kuma) and diagonally in the Central part of the sowing of the main varieties of Kingfisher. On account squares beetles were counted in the period of tillering and larvae in the period of shooting - earing. The same surveys were conducted a field sown with cultivar Kingfisher without protective sowing variety Kuma. The results of the census were presented in a table.
|Options||The number of beetles, pieces/m2||The number of larvae, pieces/m2||The degree of plant damage, %|
|in the protective strip||in the Central part of||in the protective strip||in the Central part of||in the protective strip||in the Central part of|
|Sowing varieties Kingfisher||120-125||85-90||8-10||6-7||100||85|
|Sowing varieties Kingfisher with protective sowing variety Cuma||80-85||55-60||3-4||1.5 to 2.0||28||20|
When the number of larvae exceeding 10-12 PCs/m2, in the protective band (grade Kuma) appropriate to the conduct insecticide treatments.
The method allows to increase the effectiveness of the fight against plavica ordinary, to reduce the pesticide load on agrocenosis, to improve the quality of grain.
The way to combat plavica common in crops of winter wheat, including post-harvest stubble, plowing, seedbed preparation, characterized in that the field is seeded with two varieties of winter wheat, while on the pitch perimeter of the main varieties are sown resistant to the pest of winter wheat variety Kuma a width of at least 50-55 m, both varieties should be close in ripening and harvesting of both cultivars were carried out jointly.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry. The suggested device for seeding treatment and soil disinfection contains frame and tank installed on it. Tank is connected with liquid sprayers made in form of sleeves 17, 18 installed one into another. In each liquid sprayer hollow stock 10 with piston 19 is installed, it is connected with header by corrugated pipelines 9 and made with possibility of vertical movement. Liquid tanks comprise two sections, first section for liquid for soil desinfection, second section is for seeding treatment liquid. Sections are connected via the headers with liquid sprayers with possibility of soil disinfection liquid supply to the sprayer cavity, and seeding treatment soil to stock cavity.
EFFECT: invention ensures power consumption reduction.
SUBSTANCE: in the method the potato-dextrose agar (PDA) is prepared, the fungus is isolated in pure culture, the inoculum is prepared for infectious background, the nematodes (A. saprophillus) are isolated from the infected plants. The mycohelminths (A. saprophillus) are massively propagated on the fungus M. nivale at a temperature of +5°C. The suspension of mycohelminths A. saprophillus is prepared and applied in autumn on the fields affected by pink snow mould of winter grain crops, the suspension with the mycohelminths (A. saprophillus) at a dose of 160 thousand pcs/m2.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the number of fungicides used, destroys fungal mycelium of M. nivale of the pathogen PSM, promotes the plants to resist affected by PSM in the autumn-winter-spring period, provides obtaining the environmentally clean grain, and improves its quality.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to plant-growing. The method uses the early varieties of potatoes as fallow crop for cultivation of fruit and berry and medicinal cultures on permafrost soils.
EFFECT: method allows to minimize the diversity and abundance of weed grasses and is environmentally safe.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes optimizing of nutrition area. At that planting of varieties of oats is carried out on autumn fallow using row seeding. Crop protection is carried out by effective planting of oats variety Talisman with the seeding rate of 5.0-6.0 million sprouting grains/ha, variety Sayan with the seeding rate of 3.0 million sprouting grains/ha, and the variety Tyumen huskless with the seeding rate of 3.5 million sprouting grains/ha.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the resistance of varieties of oats to thrips without side effects.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes optimizing of nutrition area with planting of varieties of oats on autumn fallow using row seeding. Crop protection is carried out by effective planting of oats variety Talisman with the seeding rate of 3.0-4.0 million sprouting grains/ha, variety Sayan with the seeding rate of 5.0-6.5 million sprouting grains/ha, and the variety Tyumen huskless with the seeding rate of 3.0-4.5 million sprouting grains/ha.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the resistance of varieties of oats to intrastem pests without side effects.
SUBSTANCE: aqueous mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Andreaeopsida moss and Larix kaempferi larch needles, in different amounts which are reflected in versions of the polymer-natural mulching compositions.
EFFECT: use of said compositions improves the environment.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: aqueous mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Pallavicinia moss and Juniperus h. Wiltonii juniper needles, in different amounts which are reflected in versions of the polymer-natural mulching compositions.
EFFECT: improvement of the environment.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: aqueous mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Sphaerocarpus moss and Juniperus virginiana Nana Compacta juniper needles, in different amounts which are reflected in versions of the polymer-natural mulching composition.
EFFECT: improvement of the environment.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: aqueous mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Takakiopsida moss and Tamafiscifolia juniper needles, in different amounts which are reflected in versions of the polymer-natural mulching composition.
EFFECT: use of said compositions improves the environment.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions for mulching different types of soil, lawn and parking areas. The mulching composition contains, wt %: lignosulphonate 0.1-0.4, carbamide 0.2-0.6, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose 0.3-0.4, potassium chloride 1-3, and as natural additives - Jungermanniales moss 10-15 and Larix ochotensis larch needles 8-9 or 9.1-9.5 or 9.8-11, water - the balance.
EFFECT: wider range of soil mulching compositions.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing, disking, subsurface treatment and combing. At that in July the fallow field is ploughed along the perimeter to the depth of 0.15 m, the width of the band is 10-15 m. The fallow soil of the entire field is cut to the depth of 0.06 m, and the plants are pressed to the ground. The aboveground mass is dried and burned, and the roots in the soil loosened to a depth of 0.15 m are removed to the surface of the soil and dried to lethal outcome.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of cleaning fallow soil from hardly-exterminable weeds.
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: method includes area treatment, beds forming, potato tubers planting, scraping, fertilizers addition, irrigation and crop gathering. To receive second crop the tubers are planted at the area where previously grain, legume crops or even annual or perennial grasses wer cultured. The potato tubers with sprouts of the previous crop are used as planting material. At that the tubers are planted during last ten days of July till first ten days of August. Second crop tubers are irrigated during sprout appearance. Crops is gathered from last ten days of October to first ten days of November.
EFFECT: method ensures high quality planting material for next year.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, mainly to industrial grape culture and gardening. The method includes agriculture soil treatment, seeding of halophytes and green manure. At that in May of first year grain salt enduring sorgho is seeded in amount of 50 kg/ha. In August it is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). The cut sorgho mulching layer is held till October. In October phosphogypsum 4 t/ha is spreaded, and is ploughed in soil to depth 25-30 cm. In November Grenader winter triticale is seeded (130 kg/ha). In May of second year triticale is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). In July disk treatment is performed with triticale with heads plough in soil. In August phosphogypsum is spreaded with rate 4 t/ha, and poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). In September soil is ploughed to depth 25-30 cm. In May of third year sorgho grains are seeded (50 kg/ha). In August sorgho is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). The cut sorgho mulching layer is held till October. In October phosphogypsum with rate 4 t/ha is spreaded, and in November the deep-ploughing is performed to depth 60-70 cm.
EFFECT: method ensures high degree of soil desalination for vineyards, ecologically optimal and safe crops of grapes.
3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to vegetable farming. Method includes seeding of legume grasses and mulching by them of the seeded garlic with participation of the zeolite-containing clay. At that grasses-and-legumes of perennial grasses is seeded by solid rows, and on the next year after first hay cutting on the grass stand a wide rows of seeds are formed, between rows bushed kidney bean with short vegetation period is seeded. After its harvesting in these rows garlic is seeded with the created grooves addition by layer 5-6 cm of zeolite-containing clay dialbekulit saturated with 0.1% water solution of sodium selenite, for 6-10 days with further mulching by mixture of grasses-and-legumes of the second hay cutting and stubbly residues of kidney bean.
EFFECT: method reduces erosion and increases garlic crop with high content of selenium.
SUBSTANCE: method includes main treatment of soil transverse to slope, and seeding. In spring upon soil physical readiness grains are spreaded over its surface, rolled using smooth rolls, and overall spraying of soil surface is performed in amount 200-250 l/ha with the following composition, %wt: chalk - 5-6, ammonium nitrate - 3-4, organic glue - 2-3, water - rest.
EFFECT: reduced water erosion of soil by decreasing of number of treatments resulting in soil decompression, and increased moisture provision and crops.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The method comprises application of material in the field by the machine having a plurality of devices for dispensing the material. The dispensers of material are arranged to form rows when the machine moves along the field. The machine has a control system for selective stopping for dispensing the material by one or more dispensers while continuing to dispense the material by remaining dispensers. The machine has the means of translational motion and the means of automated determining of position and direction. The method comprises determining the perimeter of the field, identifying the areas of passage of headlands, determining the remaining central region of the field inside the passages of the headlands, the choice of a starting place to begin application of the material. The method also comprises determining a travel route for application of the material starting from the passages in both sides in the central area and turning the machine in the areas, and determining a route plan for the subsequent application of the material in the areas of the headlands. Each headland created around the field is equal to the full width of the machine. The area of passage of the first headland in the perimeter is adjacent to the outer edge of the field. All areas of the passages of the additional headlands are created inside the area of passage of the headland around the perimeter. According to the second embodiment, the method also comprises the use seeds as the material.
EFFECT: technology enables to minimise or eliminate compacting the areas with sown seeds due to exclusion of double passing of the machine on areas with sown seeds.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the basic tillage, sowing, care and harvesting. And the soil tillage is carried out with chisel tool with the formation of ridge bottom of the furrow, and sowing the crop is carried out over the deepening of the furrow bottom in every second deepening in the first year of sowing. In the second year the sowing is carried out over the unused deepening of the furrow bottom of the first year, and the width of row-spacing after tillage is equal to half the distance between the rows. The direction of sowing the crop is oriented perpendicular to the motion of the dominant wind. Sowing the crop over the deepening of the furrow bottom alternates with the steam bands, which are loosened during the growing season to the depth of 0.08-0.12 m at least 2 times. After harvesting the crops the plant residues are treated with biomineral preparation of nitrogenous fertilizers, complex humic concentrate and water taken in the ratio of 5:0.2:94.8 based on 310-320 kg per hectare.
EFFECT: method enables to preserve the soil fertility, destroy weeds, obtain quality products and save seeding material.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises planting grass mixtures of legume crops. The tillage to a depth of 20-25 cm, surface levelling and sowing seeds is carried out with inter-row spacing of 15 cm under the scheme leban-alfalfa-alfalfa-leban. In the first year of life in May, in the budding phase - the beginning of flowering, the alfalfa is harvested together with leban for hay. On the second year in spring leban is used for hay, and in winter it is grazed off by sheep or cattle. In other years leban is grazed off at the grassroots alternatively - in summer and in winter, with seeding rate of leban of 5 kg/ha, alfalfa - 6 kg/ha of seeds. Two-component mixtures of leban and alfalfa are sown in winter. For self-sowing of leban every two years grazing of leban is alternated in summer and the following year in winter.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the productivity of grassland crops and to improve soil nutrient content.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.