Encoding signal into scalable bitstream and decoding said bitstream

FIELD: physics, computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for bit-plane coding of signals, for example, an image or video signal in the DCT transform domain. The bit planes of the DCT blocks are transmitted plane by plane in order of significance. As each plane contains more signal energy than the less significant layers together, the resulting bitstream is scalable in the sense that it may be truncated at any position. The later the bitstream is truncated, the smaller the residual error when the image is reconstructed. For each bit plane, a zone or partition of bit plane is created that encompasses all the non-zero bits of the DCT coefficients in that bit plane. The partition is created in accordance with a strategy which is selected from a number of options depending on the content of the overall signal and/or the actual bit plane. A different zoning strategy may be used for natural images than for graphic content, and the strategy may vary from bit plane to bit plane. The form as well as other properties such as the size of each partition can thus be optimally adapted to the content. Two-dimensional rectangular zones and one-dimensional zigzag scan zones may be mixed within an image or even within a DCT block. The selected zone creating strategy is embedded in the bitstream, along with the DCT coefficient bits in the actual partition.

EFFECT: high efficiency of a scalable method of compressing signal content.

13 cl, 5 dwg

 

The technical field TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for encoding signals into a scalable bit stream using bit-plane coding. The invention also relates to a method and apparatus for decoding such a scalable bitstream. The invention more particularly relates to compression at bit-plane DCT coefficients in the scalable image compression based on DCT.

The prior art INVENTIONS

Method scalable image compression based on DCT from the prior art is disclosed in international patent application WO2005/112467. A method is provided for use in the wireless transmission of television signals in high definition, also called WirelessHD, in particular, with the aim of invisible connections wall-mounted flat-screen HDTV monitor to an external source of HDTV.

In the experimental evaluations of the compression method from the prior art in relation to WirelessHD, the inventors have found that for some of the contents of computer graphics have been improving the performance of compression. For WirelessHD should be maintained as the contents of natural images and graphic content, but the manner of the prior was designed to compress with�keep a natural image and is not optimized specifically for graphical content.

OBJECTIVE AND summary of the INVENTION

The present invention is directed to improving the performance of scalable compression method of the prior art, so that a single compression method can be used both for natural and for graphical content. This would simplify the implementation and reduce the complexity of the implementation WirelessHD.

In the first aspect of the invention specifies a method of encoding a signal containing blocks of values to obtain a scalable bit stream. Every block is represented as a sequence of bit planes, wherein the most significant bits mentioned values form the highest bit plane, and the corresponding lower bits mentioned values form the corresponding Junior bit-plane. For each bit-plane is created the division in accordance with the selected method of the many ways, so you divide accommodates all set bits. In a stream of bits transmitted identifier that identifies the selected method and data representing the bits of the split. The method preferably is applied to the blocks of transform coefficients.

Using the invention is achieved that the optimal strategy for the division can be selected for each bit-plane. Examples of divisions are

- rectangular partitioning, set the highest row number and the greatest number of the column

- rectangular partitioning, set the lowest line number and the smallest number of the column

- a one-dimensional scan, set the highest sequence number,

- a one-dimensional scan, given the lowest sequence number,

- template positions for which the bits already sent in previous bit planes.

The last example is particularly advantageous, since no additional separation properties, such as size or location, no need to add in the bit stream.

In an additional embodiment the method includes the step of transmitting, together with the actual separation, sign bits for new values, for which no bits have not sent in previous bit planes.

In a second aspect, the invention specifies the method for decoding such a coded signal. The signal is in the form of a possibly truncated bit stream, so that one or more younger bit planes may be missing. For each accepted the bit-plane bit-plane separation is restored based on the identifier and the data representing the bits of the bit-plane separation.

The invention further specifies appropriate devices to�of debugger and decoding, as well as a stream of bits (possibly truncated) representing the encoded signal.

BRIEF description of the DRAWINGS

Fig.1 shows a multilayer structure of bits in the block of values.

Fig.2 and 3 show examples of separation schemes that may be used in the method of encoding in accordance with the invention.

Fig.4 shows a block diagram of the algorithm to illustrate the General compression algorithm in accordance with the invention.

Fig.5 shows a block diagram of the algorithm illustrating the recovery of the bit stream using a decoder.

DESCRIPTION of embodiments of

Fig.1 illustrates a multilayer structure of bits of block values, for example, the DCT coefficients of the image block. The multilayer structure contains bits iconic plane BPSIGNand eleven of bit planes from the highest bit-plane BPMSBto the lowest bit-plane BPLSB. In this example, the DCT coefficients can range from -2047 to 2047. Each bit plane contains the bits of a certain significance. Single (or non-zero) bits in bit-plane hereinafter referred to as "established" bit. It is clear that the value of one and zero can be changed to the opposite.

A given layer in Fig.1 contains more energy than all the layers of less significance together. To extract the most �important information first, the unit processes the information plane for plane, starting with the most important bit-plane BPMSB. The exception to this rule may be that the DC coefficient, which is usually the most important, completely goes first. This resulting bit stream is scalable in the sense that it can be truncated at any position. Than later clipped a stream of bits, the smaller the residual error when restoring the image.

In each bit-plane is selected, the bit-plane region, which contains all the set bits of a bit plane. In the method of the prior art mentioned region (additionally called a zone or division) is selected in accordance with a predetermined division scheme. Fig.2 and 3 show examples of separation schemes, taken from WO 2005/112467.

Fig.2 illustrates a two-dimensional rectangular area that contains all the set bits of a bit plane. The division sets the highest line number RMAXand the highest number in column CMAX. Shown in Fig.2 division, respectively, is defined by RMAX=3, CMAX=4 and contains 20 bits, six of which are fixed (set).

Fig.3 illustrates a one-dimensional separation. This division maintains a predetermined zigzag path�AI on bit-plane. In this case, the separation is set to the highest sequence number SMAXcontaining a set bit. Fig.3, where the positions of bits set within the circle (compare with Fig.2), the separation is set using the SMAX=18. The area contains 19 positions, six of which were installed. It should be noted that the procedure illustrated positions, although preferred, is an example only. Acceptable alternate positions.

The separation shown in Fig.2 and 3 are adjacent region bit-plane. It is also possible to use discontinuous separation.

In the method of the prior art are sent parameters of a pre-established separation (parameter RMAX, CMAXfor two-dimensional rectangular area, the parameter SMAXfor one-dimensional separation) and the values of the bits for all of the coefficients in the division. Additionally depart the iconic bits of "new" coefficients, if available. New coefficients are the coefficients in the division that haven't made in a previous bit-plane, i.e. they are in positions outside of the previously transmitted bit-plane separations. It is clear that all the coefficients in the division BPMSBare new. Thereafter, the method continues with the next bit-plane, processed until all bit planes.

The problem �kodirovanie bit-plane is finding the most efficient way to transfer the contents of the bit-plane decoder. For natural image content it turned out that the above zone (RMAX,CMAX) or SMAXprovide a good solution. However, analyzing the number of images in computer graphics, the inventors found that the bit-plane DCT coefficient for such content is not always efficient compressed-known one-dimensional rectangular or zone template.

It is therefore proposed to add additional templates to encode the bit-plane that best matches the template bit-plane in the graphical content. Instead of using one of the permanent way (or template) to encode all bit planes, the encoder selects one of several alternative ways/patterns and transmits to the decoder the ID to specify which method is chosen (e.g., one-dimensional rectangular or separation), plus the parameters of the selected method/template, if available (e.g., RMAX, CMAXor SMAXrespectively), followed by bit-plane information, compressed using the selected method. This method is called SMART (Choice of several alternatives).

The General compression algorithm in accordance with the invention is illustrated in Fig.4. For each bit-plane (steps 101, 102) in the block of DCT coefficient is sent shadowmachine:

- in phase 1 ID to identify which template separation and/or coding method is selected for splitting. Note that the pattern/method of encoding may be different for different bit planes of one and the same DCT block.

- At the stage 2 bits value in the current bit-plane for each coefficient using the selected template/the compression method.

At step 3 sign bit of each coefficient, which became significant in the current bit-plane. The coefficient becomes significant in bit-plane if it contains a set bit for the first time in the bit-plane. It is clear that this requires the encoder to track the position of these coefficients.

Mainly that the DC coefficient is treated separately, so the bit values for the DC coefficient is not sent using the above method, and it is sent separately.

Alternative for stage 2 would not send the values of all bits of the coefficients of the current division, and only the bits of the coefficients that become significant in the current bit-plane (containing a set bit for the first time in this bit-plane), and the coefficients that become significant in a previous bit-plane.

Alternative for stage 3 would be to send the iconic bits of all coefficients in the division (and make them meaningful�and), as was done in the compression method of the prior art. In this case, the presence of non-zero bit values in the bit-plane is not a condition that the coefficient became significant. The sign bit of the coefficient is now sent as soon as the factor first appears in the division. This leads to a slightly simpler implementation (because of the smaller data dependencies), but can be inefficient when the zone/pattern does not quite match the data (which was correct for some graphic content using the method of the prior art).

In a preferential embodiment, the implementation is checked whether the current bit plane new coefficients. If no new significant coefficients, only a bit of clarification is sent to the previously significant coefficients. In this embodiment, the implementation of the selected division is essentially a template positions previously significant coefficients, i.e. the coefficients for which the iconic bits sent in previous bit planes. It is essentially set in step 1. Not need to pass any additional data in the form to the division or its parameters. It is clear that this requires the encoder and decoder to track the position of significant coefficients. If there are significant new coefficienty current bit-plane, the smallest area that contains all non-zero bits (for example, the pattern area RMAX,CMAX), is detected and transmitted, as described earlier, with the subsequent bit values of each coefficient within the zone (with the possible exception of the DC coefficient, as explained above).

In the phase 1 alternative or additional areas/templates compression to the already mentioned rectangular template (RMAX, CMAX) and one-dimensional template SMAX are:

1. Adaptive to the data template that contains all the coefficients within a certain distance (e.g., Manhattan distance or Euclidean distance) from the currently known significant coefficients. The rationale for this template is that often significant coefficients that are close to the already known significant coefficients. This is a generalization of the preferential embodiment mentioned above, which uses only coefficients with zero distance from important nowadays coefficients.

2. The same as in claim 1, but now limited to a certain direction. For example, are only considered "neighbors" in the vertical direction (or in a horizontal or diagonal direction).

3. Same as in PP.1 and 2, but excluding some of the coefficients. In particular, containing, e.g.�measures neighbors only on "odd" distances(0, 2, 4, ...), therefore, excluding the neighbors at odd distances(1, 3, ...).

4. Area SMAX using interlaced scan order.

5. The zone template RMIN, CMIN (or SMIN), starting with the highest frequency (instead of beginning from DC).

6. An alternative known approach of bit-plane coding, for example, method (RUN, EOP) as described in international patent application WO2003/045067, or standard MPEG4-FGS, or in the open literature.

Of course, the more the compression, the higher will be the official weight for the identification of the selected method. However, typically the gains from better use of a suitable zone/template much more than the service load for the identification method. In addition, could be used for more entropy coding (e.g., arithmetic coding) to further reduce service load information from the identifier.

It is clear that the decoder performs the opposite operation to restore the original or, if the received bit stream is clipped, the most important part of the original block of values. Fig.5 shows a block diagram of the algorithm illustrating the operations performed by the decoder. For each bit-plane (steps 21, 22) performs the following steps.

In step 23, the accepted identifier that identifies the selected W�Blon separation and/or the encoding mode, as well as the parameters for the zone (for example, RMAX, CMAX, RMIN, CMINfor rectangular areas, SMAX, SMINfor one-dimensional zones), if any.

In step 24, the current division is recovering from its ID and parameters. Note that the identifier may indicate that there are no new factors in the current bit-plane, and that the separation is set by the positions of the previously significant coefficients. In this case, the decoder restores the separation of the positions of the previously significant coefficients (which the decoder has registered in step 26, see below).

Knowing the separation, the decoder knows how many subsequent bits in the bitstream bits are the magnitude. In step 25, the decoder reads data from the bit stream and specifies the corresponding coefficients.

Traced the factors that have worked before, the decoder also knows many of the coefficients have just passed the bit value of the first time. For these new coefficients, if any, significant bits are then considered in step 26. At this stage the iconic bits are assigned to the respective coefficients, and their respective positions are marked as significant.

Thus, the invention relates to a method of bit-plane coding of the signals, for example, image signal or video signal in about�lusty DCT transformation. Bit-plane DCT blocks are transmitted plane behind plane in order of importance. Since each plane contains more signal energy than the less significant layers together, the resulting bit stream is scalable in the sense that it can be truncated at any position. Than later clipped a stream of bits, the smaller the residual error when restoring the image.

For each bit-plane creates a zone or the separation of the bit-plane, which includes all non-zero bits of the DCT coefficients in the bit-plane. The division is created in accordance with the strategy, which is selected from a number of options depending on the content of total signal and/or the actual bit-plane. For natural images can be used different strategy zoning than for graphical content, and the strategy varies from bit-plane by bit-plane. Shape, and other properties, such as the size of each division, respectively, are able to optimally adapt to the content. Two-dimensional rectangular area, and a one-dimensional zigzag of the scan area can be mixed within the image or even within a DCT block. The strategy of creating a zone is embedded in the bit stream together with bits of DCT coefficient in the FA�political division.

1. A method of encoding a signal containing blocks of values, to obtain a bit stream, the method contains the stages at which:
represent the unit as a sequence of bit planes, wherein the most significant bits mentioned values form the highest bit plane, and the corresponding lower bits mentioned values form the corresponding Junior bit-plane;
for each bit-plane creating separation mentioned bit-plane in accordance with the selected method of the many ways to create this separation, so you divide accommodates all set bits,
transmit in said bit stream identifier that identifies the method used to create separation, and data representing the bits mentioned separation.

2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the said blocks contain values of the transform coefficients representing mentioned signal.

3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, in which mentioned many ways to create separation involves creating a rectangular separation, given the highest row number (RMAX) and the highest number in column (CMAX).

4. A method according to claim 1 or 2, in which mentioned many ways to create separation involves creating a rectangular separation, given Naim�Nisim line number (R MIN) and the lowest number in column (CMIN).

5. A method according to claim 1 or 2, in which mentioned many ways to create division includes the creation of a division corresponding to one-dimensional scan bit-plane and is given the highest sequence number (SMAXposition that contains a set bit.

6. A method according to claim 1 or 2, in which mentioned many ways to create division includes the creation of a division corresponding to one-dimensional scan bit-plane and a predetermined lowest value (SMINposition that contains a set bit.

7. A method according to any one of claims. 1 or 2, additionally containing a stage on which to transmit, together with the actual separation of the iconic bits of at least the values containing a set bit for the first time in the current bit-plane.

8. A method according to claim 7, in which mentioned many ways to create separation includes identification as a separation for the current bit-plane pattern of the positions of values, whose iconic bits sent in previous bit planes.

9. Method of decoding a coded signal received in the form of a possibly truncated bit stream, wherein the signal contains blocks of values, and the method contains the stages at which:
- represents a block of values that you want �restore, as a sequence of bit planes, wherein the most significant bits mentioned values form the highest bit plane, and the corresponding lower bits mentioned values form the corresponding Junior bit-plane;
- taking for consecutive bit planes identifier that identifies the selected method of the many ways to generate the bit-plane separation, and data representing the bits of the bit-plane in the above-mentioned separation;
- restore mentioned separation of bit planes in accordance with the relevant methods and data.

10. A method according to claim 9, additionally containing a stage at which is taken together with the actual separation of the iconic bits of at least the values containing a set bit for the first time in the current bit-plane.

11. A method according to claim 10, in which the said stage on which to restore the division in response to the predetermined identifier, contains the stage at which restore the distribution in the form of the template positions of values, whose iconic bits taken in previous bit planes.

12. Device for encoding signal, configured to implement the method according to claim 1.

13. A device for decoding a signal made with the possibility of implementation with�according to claim person 9.



 

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