Manufacturing method of heat-insulating materials
SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of heat-insulating material consists in manufacture of products from composite material based on cement, mortar sand and CHP ash and slag wastes at the ratio of cement:sand:ash and slag wastes components equal to 33:22:44, their saturation in a modified sulphur melt; titanium chloride, or iron chloride, or zinc chloride is used in the amount of 0.8-1.2 % of sulphur weight as a modifying agent of the sulphur melt.
EFFECT: improving strength, reducing coefficient of heat conductivity and water saturation of a heat-insulating material.
The invention relates to the construction materials industry, in particular to a method for manufacturing a heat-insulating material, and can be used for the manufacture of insulating material intended for thermal insulation of attic, basement floor slabs, interior partitions, facades of buildings. The material obtained by the proposed method can be also used as sound insulation material.
For insulating materials specified destination extremely important indicators are: low thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength, low water absorption.
A method for manufacturing a heat-insulating material, which comprises impregnating a melt of sulfur Solomona (Turapov Mahmoud. Development of technology and the study of the properties of Solomona soaked grey: dis. Cand. tech. Sciences: 05.23.05. - Moscow, 1979).
However, the disadvantages of this method are:
- low strength (12-43 MPa);
- high water absorption (7-8%);
- high thermal conductivity (0,66-1 W/(m·°C));
- long lasting impregnation (at atmospheric pressure was 3, 5, 24 and 48 hours).
The closest analogue to the claimed invention is a method for the manufacture of insulating materials, sign�ISA in the manufacture of products from composite material based on cement, construction sand and ash and slag waste of thermal power plant, the impregnating them in the sulfur melt, modified to reduce the viscosity and improve a sealing ability of the sulfur melt with sodium silicate (Medvedev G. A., Akhmetov R. T., etc. Disposal of waste heat in a water-resistant composite materials. // News kgasu. - 2013. - №2 (24) - P. 320-325).
However, these materials have insufficient strength.
The aim of the invention is to provide a method of manufacturing a heat-insulating material having low thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength, low value of water absorption.
The technical result - increasing the strength of the insulating material, reduction of thermal conductivity and water absorption.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a heat-insulating material, which consists in the manufacture of products from composite material based on cement, construction sand and ash and slag waste of thermal power plant, the impregnating them in a modified sulfur melt, according to the invention the composite material is produced at a ratio of cement:sand:ash wastes, is 33:22:44, and as a modifier of the sulfur melt using titanium chloride, or ferric chloride, or x�arid of zinc in the amount of 0.8-1.2% by weight of sulfur.
For the preparation of thermal insulation materials used composite material comprising a binder - cement, filler and construction sand and slag wastes of thermal power stations and the impregnating material is modified sulfur melt.
The binder used:
- Portland cement grade 100 (GOST 31108-2003).
As fillers used:
- ash and slag wastes (ASW) Kazan CHP-2 (GOST 25818-91) of the following composition (wt.%):
- sand for construction Udinskogo field RT (GOST 8736-93).
For the preparation of modified sulfur melt used sulfuric waste Nizhnekamsk refinery RT (GOST 127-93) containing 99,98% sulfur.
chloride titanium (TU 6-09-2118-77);
- ferric chloride (GOST 4147-74);
chloride Qing�a (GOST 4529-78).
The samples were prepared as follows. The original components of the composite material were milled to a fineness of not more than 0.5 mm. Cement, sand and ash wastes were taken in the ratio 33:22:44 and mixed to obtain a homogeneous powder mass. Was then added water (depending on the rate of water absorption), again thoroughly mixed and the resulting composition was placed in the forms. To avoid sticking of the composition to the metal of the mold wall was lubricated with machine oil. Each sample was kept in special forms of 2×2×6 cm within 28 days for curing.
Next was carried out by impregnation of the samples in the sulfur melt, modified titanium chloride, or zinc, or iron. The amount of modifier is equal to 0.8 to 1.2% by weight of the sulfur melt. Modified sulfur melt is prepared by mixing sulfuric waste with each modifier.
For impregnation of samples of insulating material, a modified sulfur melt is pre-heated at T=140°C for 30 minutes, then the samples were dipped into the melt and held for 40 min. Then the prepared samples were removed and cooled to room temperature.
With the obtained samples was carried out physical and mechanical tests according to:
GOST 10180-90 (STSM 3978-83). The concretes. Methods for determination of strength to control samples;
GOST 12730.3-78. The concretes.Method for determination of water absorption;
GOST 12730.1-78. The concretes. Method of determining density;
GOST 7076-99. Materials and construction products. Method for determination of thermal conductivity and thermal resistance under a stationary heat flux.
The proposed and known compounds of insulating materials shown in table 1.
The results of physico-mechanical tests of the samples are given in table 2.
Table shows that the proposed formulations characteristics (compressive strength, water absorption and thermal conductivity coefficient) is significantly better than in the prototype.
Thermal insulation material, manufactured by the proposed method has a high compressive strength of 2.5 times, a low coefficient of thermal conductivity (40%) and low value of water absorption (20%).
A method of manufacturing a heat-insulating material, which consists in the manufacture of products from composite material based on cement, construction sand and ash and slag waste of thermal power plant, the impregnating them in a modified sulfur melt, characterized in that the composite material is produced at a ratio of cement:sand:ash wastes, is 33:22:44, and as a modifier of the sulfur melt using titanium chloride, or ferric chloride, or chlorine� of zinc in the amount of 0.8-1.2% by weight of sulfur.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the production of construction materials, namely to a composition for light concrete manufacturing, a method of preparing the composition for light concrete manufacturing and methods of manufacturing light constructive-heat-insulating concrete products. The composition for light concrete manufacturing contains, wt %: Portland cement 45-50, GRES ash microspheres 30-40, reinforcing filler 0.5-11.0, water - the remaining part, with the GRES ash microspheres and reinforcing filler being activated to a cement clinker. The method of preparing the composition for manufacturing light concrete includes the introduction of the reinforcing filler into Portland cement in the form of inorganic disoriented fibres and mixing until a homogeneous mixture is obtained, introduction of the GRES ash microspheres, the surface of which is preliminarily activated to the cement clinker, and the obtained mixture is tempered with water or water with a plasticising additive C3. The method includes the activation of the surface of the GRES ash microspheres by the application of a finishing agent or chemical processing. The method of light concrete manufacturing, obtained by mixing Portland cement, GRES ash microspheres and water consists in the following: the GRES ash microspheres, the surface of which is preliminarily activated to the Portland cement clinker, are preliminarily introduced into Portland cement, the mixture is tempered with water, with the application of the preliminarily activated to Portland cement clinker reinforcing filler in the form of oriented fibres in the formation of light cement, introduction of the oriented fibres is realised layer-by-layer in the process of moulding, which is carried out by layer-by-layer vibrocompacting with the further mixture exposure at 100% humidity. The invention is developed in independent and dependent claims of the invention formula.
EFFECT: obtaining constructive-heat-insulating and constructive-fire-resistant light concrete with an increased strength and with reduced moisture-absorption.
9 cl, 7 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method to produce a gypsum cement pozzolan binder includes hydraulic activation of portland cement with surfactants for 1 minute with subsequent addition of gypsum and pozzolan component and repeated hydraulic activation for 2 minutes in a rotor-pulsation device with speed of shaft rotation of at least 5000 rpm, surfactants are a mixture of aqueous solution of carboxylate polyester "Glenium Ace® 430", a controller of setting and hardening times "BEST-TB" and a homogeneous mix of oligoethoxysiloxanes "Ethyl silicate -40" at the ratio of 1:0.17:0.07, he pozzolan component is metakaolin with hydraulic activity of at least 1000 mg/g at the following ratio of components, wt %: calcined gypsum 56.7-57.4, portland cement 14.6-15.4, specified surfactant 1-1.8, metakaolin 2.7-3.3, water - balance.
EFFECT: increased frost resistance, longer times of composition setting, giving it self-compacting property, increased strength, higher water resistance and reduced water absorption.
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture concrete and reinforced concrete products, solid structures and facilities from concrete mix consists in the fact in a mixer for 1.5-3 minutes they mix sand, cement and crushed stone with water and electrolyte. The produced mix is poured into a curb, a cassette or a form, working surfaces of which are electrodes, and the mixture is exposed to electric stabilisation by sending alternating current pulses, the current density of which is in the range of 10-49 A/m2, with duration of 3-7 min with a stop before each change of polarity of the pulse for more than 2 min. At the same time in process of mixture pouring into a curb, cassette or a form the mixture is exposed to vibration, then into the poured mix they install an emitter and a receiver of ultrasound at the fixed distance, for instance, 1 m. Ultrasound pulses, which are recorded in the ultrasound receiver, are generated in the emitter via identical equal time intervals, in the period of each pause before each change of polarity of the current pulse. Duration of the specified fixed distance travelling by each ultrasound pulse is determined, and by results of the measurements they calculate the value α according to the given mathematical expression. At that moment of time, when the value α takes the value below 1, they disconnect the pulse current and perform secondary vibration of the mix poured into the curb, cassette or form for 1-2 minutes. Afterwards the product is maintained for 5-6 hours until structural strength is achieved.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and improved characteristics of manufactured products.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of concrete mix preparation consists in preliminary mixing of 50% of rated amount of cement with tempering water containing superplasticiser - Relamix PK, and mechanical and chemical activation in a rotor-pulsation device with the number of rotations of the working organ of 5000 rpm for 2 min, with subsequent mixing of the remaining part of the cement and fillers.
EFFECT: increased strength, frost resistance and water impermeability.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and processing (deactivation) of drilling wastes together with secondary wastes of thermal utilisation of oil slurries with ash and slag mixtures so that road-building composite materials are obtained. The task at which this invention is aimed is to create a processing method of drilling wastes on the territory of a cluster site. The processing method of drilling sludge on the territory of the cluster site involves arrangement at the site of components of the mixture and a processing capacity, placement of drilling sludge into the capacity, addition to the sludge of components and mixing of the mixture with an excavator so that road-building composite material is obtained; with that, the processing capacity is installed into soil so that its upper edge is elevated above relief to the height of not more than 0.5 m.
EFFECT: reduction of costs for transportation of wastes to the nearest sludge pit, a possibility of processing of drilling wastes immediately after their formation, a possibility of using secondary materials obtained as a result of processing at the site.
6 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare concrete mix consists in the fact that previously 50% of the rated amount of cement is mixed with tempering water, containing superplasticiser of the condensation product on the basis of sodium salt of naphthalenesulphonic acid and formaldehyde - RELAMIX T2 and hardening accelerator - sodium sulphate, exposed to mechanical and chemical activation in a rotor-pulsation device for 2 minutes with subsequent mixing of the remaining part of cement and fillers.
EFFECT: increased strength, mobility of concrete mix, frost resistance and water impermeability.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining of gypsum cement-puzzolan mix includes hydroactivation of portland cement with surfactants for 1 min. with the subsequent adding of gypsum and puzzolan component and repeated hydroactivation within 2 min., in the rotor and pulsation device with a shaft speed of rotation no less than 5000 rpm, the surfactant is a mix of polymeric polycarboxylated ether "Glenium® 115", the setting and cuing time regulator "BEST-TB" and the organic silicon compound "N-octyl sulfosuccinate" in the ratio 1:0.3:0.07, the puzzolan component is a metakaolin with the hydraulic activity no less than 1000 mg/g, at the following ratio of components, by weight %: semi-water gypsum 55.8-56.5, portland cement 14.3-15.4, the named surface-active substance 1.1-1.9, metakaolin 2.5-3.3, water - the rest.
EFFECT: increase of frost resistance, increase of time of mix curing, getting self-sealing ability, increase of flexural and compression strength, increase of water resistance and decrease of water absorption.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce a gypsum cement pozzolan binder includes hydraulic activation of portland cement with surfactants for 1 minute with subsequent addition of gypsum and pozzolan component and repeated hydraulic activation for 2 minutes in a rotor-pulsation device with speed of shaft rotation of at least 5000 rpm, surfactants are a mixture of carboxylate polyester "Odolit-K", a controller of setting and hardening times "BEST-TB" and water emulsion of octyltriethoxysilane "Penta®-818" at the ratio of 1:0.23:0.07, the pozzolan component is metakaolin with hydraulic activity of at least 1000 mg/g at the following ratio of components, wt %: calcined gypsum 57-57.7, portland cement 14.9-15.3, specified surfactant 1.3-1.8, metakaolin 2.7-3.3, water - balance.
EFFECT: increased frost resistance, longer times of mixture setting, giving it self-compacting property, increased strength, higher water resistance and reduced water absorption.
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare concrete mix includes double-stage mixing of a binder, fillers, a superplasticiser and tempering water, at the first stage they first mix the binder, fine filler, 70-80% of coarse filler and 75-85% of tempering water to produce a homogeneous mix, then at the second stage to the previously mixed mixtyre they add the remaining part of the coarse filler, superplasticiser with remaining part of the tempering water, and finally all components are mixed to produce a homogeneous concrete mix of required workability. The superplasticiser is additive of Cemaktiv SU-1.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of superplasticiser and provision of the possibility to reduce duration of heat and moisture treatment of concrete.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in the method to prepare a haydite concrete mix, including preparation and mixing of mixture components, mixing of the haydite concrete mix is carried out in a turbulent concrete mixer with rotor rotation frequency of at least 8 sec-1 and not more than 30 sec-1, at first 30% of required tempering water is supplied into the turbulent concrete mixer, and gradually haydite gravel is loaded with the running turbulent mixer, and mixed for 120 sec., then the required balance of water is supplied to the continuously running turbulent concrete mixer with addition of technical modified lignosulphonates and a gas forming additive PAK-3, then fly ash and cement are loaded, and the mix is mixed for 2-3 min. to produce homogeneous mix with required cone slump, at the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement 20.00, haydite 41.50, superplasticiser LSTM 0.0312, fly ash of TPP 17.50, PAK-3 0.025, water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced process operations in production of haydite mix, increased frost resistance, heat insulation properties and reduced average density of haydite without strength reduction.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for manufacture of fine-grained concrete contains, by weight %: portland cement 28.0-30.0; coal ash 69.75-71.7; carbamide 0.05-0.1; casein glue 0.1-0.15; wool waste 0.05-0.1, at the water cement ratio 0.45-0.55.
EFFECT: increase of durability of fine-grained concrete.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to raw material mixture for concrete production and can be applied in industry of building materials, in particular, in manufacturing products from concretes. Raw material mixture for concrete production contains, wt %: Portland cement 24-26; ash of coal burning 71.5-73.5; polyaminotriazole fibre cut into 5-15 mm long segments 1-1.5; sodium methylsiliconate 1-1.5, with water-cement ratio 0.45-0.5.
EFFECT: increased concrete strength.
SUBSTANCE: raw material mixture for concrete production contains, wt %: Portland cement 27.0-31.0; TPP fly ash 52.3-58.9; superplasticiser S-3 0.8-1.4; sodium ethylsiliconate or sodium methylsiliconate 0.2-0.5; 5-30 mm long lavsan fibre 0.05-0.1; water 13.0-15.0.
EFFECT: reduction of cement consumption with provision of concrete strength.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of unsintered fly-ash gravel on the basis of acid ash. Mix for production of said gravel on the basis of acid ash of thermal electric power station contains the following elements in wt %: quicklime 5-15, anhydrite 5-15, hardening accelerator - steel-refined slag ground to smaller than 100 mcm 5-50, acid ash of thermal electric power station making the rest.
EFFECT: higher hardness without heat treatment.
SUBSTANCE: method to process ash and slag wastes on coal thermal power plants equipped with boilers with liquid or solid slag removal, for their subsequent industrial recycling and/or piling consists in the following. Liquid slag or molten solid slag is converted into condition suitable for industrial recycling and/or piling by means of quick cooling of slag melt by air-water jets during its aerohydrodynamic spraying. To produce a binding component of processing of fly ash, they perform fine dry grinding of the required quantity of the produced solid granulated slag, if necessary, with additives of hardening activators with subsequent mixing of the grinding product during intense mixing with water and fly ash at the following ratio of components: fly-ash 72-81 wt %, slag binder 18-9.0 wt %, water - not more than 10 wt %, additives-activators of hardening - up to 0.5 wt %. Simultaneously with intense mixing of the specified components they perform granulation of the mixture, then thermal treatment of produced raw granules of the processed fly ash is carried out with steam, generated in process of cooling of the specified slag melt. The fly ash processed in this manner before industrial recycling or piling is exposed to regulated cooling.
EFFECT: recycling of by-products - fly ash and slag produced when fuel is burnt at coal TPPs.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industry of construction materials, in particular to production of fine-grained concretes. Raw material mixture for production of fine-grained concrete contains, wt %: Portland cement 26.0-28.0; ash after burning lignite/coal 57.16-61.0; sodium methylsiliconate 0.1-0.14; superplasticiser C-3 0.7-0.9; grinded to passing through No 014 mesh quartz sand 12.0-14.0; with water-cement ratio 0.4-0.45.
EFFECT: reduction of cement consumption in composition of raw material mixture for production of fine-grained concrete.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of porous aggregate for light concrete. The mixture for making porous aggregate contains, wt %: clay rock 69.0-72.0; thermal power plant ash 16,0-22,0; ground flax shive 6,0-10,0; sulphite-yeast wash 2.0-3.0.
EFFECT: high strength of the porous aggregate.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques for producing unfired fly ash aggregate based on acidic ash and additives. The composition for producing unfired fly ash aggregate, which includes acid ash from heat power industry, portland cement, ground blast-furnace slag, an additive which accelerates hardening of gummy granules - sodium sulphate, additionally contains ground basic rock - hornblendite, with the following ratio of components in wt %: portland cement - 15-20, ground blast-furnace slag - 0-25, sodium sulphate - 2; hornblendite - 10-25, acidic ash - the balance.
EFFECT: high strength and frost resistance of unfired fly ash aggregate through optimisation of the composition which is taken for granulation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for making concrete mixes, mortars and other mixes containing cement. Method of processing puzzolanes including slag and flue ash such as Class F and/or Class C comprises subjecting puzzolanes to high-intensity grinding in appropriate grinders. Note here that low-density hollow particles as larger particles of slag get decomposed to activate surface of said particles to make finished product feature the following distribution of particles by sizes (in wt %): ≤5 micron - 15-25, ≤10 micron - 30-40, ≤30 micron - 90-95. Invention is developed in its subclaims.
EFFECT: higher activity of puzzolanes and strength of construction materials.
7 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: technology to produce a composite material on the basis of polyvinyl chloride wastes and fly ash from burning of coal on thermal power plants for production of construction materials relates to the field of construction materials production. At first industrial wastes of polyvinyl chloride PVC and modifying additives are mixed, then fly ash is added from coal burning at thermal power plants and mixed to produce a homogeneous mass. The composition containing the following ingredients are exposed to extrusion: industrial wastes of polyvinyl chloride PVC 100 wt parts, fly ash from coal burning at thermal power plants 50.0-170.0 wt parts, modifying additives: thermal light stabiliser - AKSTAB 3.0-7.0 wt parts, fluidity modifier - AKDENIZ 2.5-12.0 wt parts, lubricant - stearic acid 0.1-0.5 wt parts, modifier of crash worthiness - Tyrin 1.0-3.0 wt parts. Also a formula of the composition is characterized for production of a fire resistant construction material.
EFFECT: higher performance indices of a final product, reduction of water absorption, higher impact viscosity and fire resistance.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: production of micro-spheres from fly ash of thermal power stations.
SUBSTANCE: micro-spheres are used as fillers for building materials and light cements and composite materials; they are also used for manufacture of light sealants, putties, dyes, adhesives, composite wood materials, explosives; manufacture of materials sorbing toxic metals at preservation and protracted storage of radioactive wastes. Proposed method of obtaining micro-spheres from aqueous suspension of fly ash of thermal power stations includes hydraulic separation, removal of emersed micro-spheres, dehydration of micro-spheres and drying them. Removal of emersed micro-spheres by means of mobile plant - ejector pump with filtering attachment at rate of suction of aqueous suspension of 20-250 m3/h from surface of pontoon bottom having area of 5-100 m2 which is pressed to lower layer of micro-spheres by fractions in multi-stage rotary drum-type classifier provided with self-cleaning surfaces of screens for screening-out the micro-spheres.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and technical reliability; intensification of micro-sphere extraction process.
4 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex