Phantom test

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: phantom test consists of two parts being a single whole. One part has a constant longitudinal height, while the other part has a continuously varying longitudinal height forming a wedge. On the side of the wedge, there are calibrated notches.

EFFECT: more accurate determination of the bone mineral density by X-ray images formed with the help of a general-application X-ray machine, and simplifying the design.

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The invention relates to fluoroscopy, more specifically to the elements of medical radiology.

One of the most important indicators of various bone pathologies of the person determining (especially in the elderly) the occurrence of diseases such as osteoporosis and osteopenia, is a mineral bone density (BMD). X-ray study of the internal structure of the bone tissue, as it is known, is carried out by observing the x-ray photographic film pattern of the intensity distribution of x-ray radiation transmitted through the object of study. When using x-ray film assessment of BMD along with other parameters is performed according to the degree of blackening areas of the image in the characteristic regions of the human body. However, the degree of blackening is not only dependent on the density of the bone material, but also on a substantial number of additional factors. Chief among them are the intensity of x-ray radiation source, the characteristics of the x-ray photographic film, in particular, its contrast, and sensitivity to x-rays, the conditions of subsequent processing in proyavlyaya-fixing solutions, the chemical composition and purity of the solution, the treatment temperature and some other factors that change from one picture to another.

On practices� when using x-ray machines General application to monitor the impact of all the above factors, acting on film in a specific session for x-ray image, is not possible. So, in essence, compensation accounting use different calibration elements have, in particular, to medical x-rays near the diagnosed object. Such elements have the name of the test phantoms (G. V. Chizh, palaiko J. F. "Evaluation of quality characteristics of medical x-ray films. Instruction for use", the Ministry of health of the Republic of Belarus, 2003, 26 p.).

In x-ray machines General application as calibration elements are often used n-speed test-phantoms in the form of stepped wedges, made of a material absorbing x-ray radiation, where n is the number of steps (EN 2320267 S2 of 27.03.2008, EN 2177724 C2 of 10.01.2002). The height of each step in the direction of passage of x-rays determines the degree of blackening of x-ray film for a field relevant to that degree. The equivalent value of BMD for each stage in a known material of the wedge is determined by calculation or experimentally known methods. Thus, knowing the coordinate of each stage from the beginning of the wedge, and comparing the degree of blackening of steps with a blackened areas on the x-ray image of diagnostiche�wow medical facility you can determine BMD for these areas. The number of stages is chosen from the required resolution, which is necessary to determine the degree of blackening of the film, and therefore, the resolution with which you want to measure BMD in the diagnosis of medical facilities.

Step wedge test phantoms are typically made from copper or aluminum alloys and are manufactured by many firms. For example, from an Internet publishing company Margraf Dental Mfg Inc. known 9-step wedge test phantom, which can be used to calibrate x-ray densitometers.

Also known information about the test phantom in the form of n-stepped wedge and assessment of BMD using it in children with bone pathologies (Ziatdinov N. In. "Clinical-diagnostic value of determination of zinc, chromium and strontium in various forms of rickets in children" - the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of candidate of medical Sciences, Karaganda state medical Academy, Kazan, 2001).

The closest in design to the claimed invention is a graded n-step wedge described in (EN 2177724 C2 of 10.01.2002), which is selected as a prototype of the claimed invention. This wedge includes n-stage element, made of a material absorbing x-ray radiation, and optionally contains n records, fully absorbing x-ray radiation and having a length equal to the width of STU�Yeni, a width less than the width of the step. The first plate is located adjacent to the wedge from the degree with the lowest elevation, and the remaining n-1 plates are installed at appropriate stages of the wedge close to the risers, the next higher level.

Known test phantom in the form of a graded n-step wedge has some significant shortcomings.

Chief among these is the limited ability to determine the exact values of BMD for areas having a degree of blackening equal to the spacing between the steps of the wedge. Therefore, to detect a continuous distribution of BMD at all points of the diagnosed region fails. In this case, the value of BMD is determined by interpolation between the values of adjacent stages that may not correspond to the real value of BMD for the corresponding points in the diagnosed region.

The second drawback occurs when to the picture (due to carelessness of the staff or other circumstances) gets only a thin part of the wedge and the degree of blackening in the picture is the most delicate steps of the wedge is so great that it coincides with the blackening of the film, due to the background. In this case you cannot determine which levels are visible in the picture (not possible to determine the coordinates of these steps) and therefore n�, one can evaluate the corresponding BMD values for the areas of interest of the object.

In addition to these drawbacks graded n-step wedge, which is selected as a prototype, is complex in construction, because it contains n additional fully absorbing x-ray radiation fins, each of which you want to set on the steps of the wedge in a certain way.

Patent-pending test-phantom does not contain these shortcomings.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the accuracy of determining the mineral density of bone tissue on x-ray images obtained by x-ray machines General use and simplifying the design.

Solvable problem in the proposed test phantom made of a material absorbing x-ray radiation, is achieved by the fact that its shape is composed of two parts forming a unified whole, and one part has a constant height in the longitudinal direction, and the other part has a continuously changing pitch in the same direction, forming a wedge, while on the side of the wedge are made of grooved cutouts. The geometrical dimensions of the test phantom are known in advance. Therefore, even with incomplete ingestion of a test phantom at the picture and match the degree of blackening the most thin part of the wedge with the background, the beginning of the wedge and, consequently, the number of any visible cut easily ODA�delaude, that allows you to define and coordinate of each point of the wedge, visible in the picture, and therefore, the equivalent value of BMD for her. Comparing the blackening of the film for the points of the wedge with the blackening of the film for the areas of interest of the medical object, you can determine BMD for these areas.

Fig.1 is a diagram of the patent test phantom.

Fig.2 presents a 9-step wedge test phantom firms Margraf Dental Mfg. Inc.

Fig.3 shows a photograph of the experimental sample are patenting a test phantom.

Fig.4 shows a computer image of the diagnosed medical object and the image of the test phantom beside him.

Fig.5 shows a graph of the equivalent BMD values obtained with the help of a computer program for points in the wedge part of the test phantom, which runs the track, made by the operator on a computer image of the test phantom.

Fig.6 shows the diagnostic object image with the alignment performed by the operator on the diagnosed medical facility,

Fig.7 shows a continuous distribution of BMD points along this route.

The invention is illustrated as follows.

The proposed test phantom of Fig.1 consists of two parts, one of which is 1 in the longitudinal direction has a constant height, and the height of the other part 2 �ararauna decreases, forming a wedge. Both parts are a single unit made of a material absorbing x-ray radiation. The test phantom also contains on the side of its wedge portion grooved cutouts 3. Their primary purpose is to facilitate the measurement of the coordinate of any point of the wedge and, consequently, BMD to that point even in the case of coincidence of the degree of blackening of the most thin part of the wedge with the background and incomplete contact with a picture of the whole test phantom.

The experimental sample are patenting a test phantom, shown in Fig.3, is provided with lugs 4, made of aluminum angles that facilitate maintenance staff to correct the orientation of the test phantom in obtaining x-ray image diagnostic object. In addition, parts of the test phantom with a constant height, is a through hole 5 for quick identification numbers corresponding to the calibrated neck.

Consider patenting a test phantom to use, which is as follows. After fabrication and prior to use of the test phantom is calibrated equivalent BMD values for each height of its wedge part and, consequently, for each point of this part. Such a calibration can be made by known calculation methods are described, for example, (Not T. A. etc., Bulletin of the center, Siberian division of the Russian Academy of medical Sciences, 2006, No. 5 (51), pp. 46-49), or experimentally certificated measuring densitometers.

When receiving x-ray image for medical diagnostic object test phantom feature next to the object. On x-ray film simultaneously recorded image of the object and the image of the test phantom. Therefore, all factors affecting densitometric properties of the film (in particular, on the degree of blackening), including the parameters of x-ray radiation, in the same way will affect the image of the object and the image of the test phantom. After chemical treatment and drying of x-ray film is scanned, allowing you to get a computer diagnostic object image and the test phantom. In this image compares the degree of blackening of the plots to be diagnosed of the object and plots of the wedge. The equality of the degree of blackening of the site to be diagnosed of the object and the area of the wedge-like portion of the test phantom allows you to define the desired BMD footage diagnosed object.

Using the proposed test-phantom and the corresponding software (e.g., Voronov V. I., Voronov T. V. "the Program processing digital x-ray images" // Certificate of trade registration of a design No. 6635 dated 20.07.2006, the Branch Fund of algorithms and programs (OFFICE�P) of the Federal Agency for education), it is possible to measure BMD in automatic mode for all significant areas of the object. No significant areas are characterized by overexposure or exposure underexposure and overexposure or underexposure of the film in the processing solutions and are usually ignored in the analysis image. The software allows you to enable calibration values for BMD of the material of the wedge, as well as settings for height, length and calibrated cut.

An example of using the proposed test-phantom together with a computer program for processing digital x-ray images is illustrated in Fig.4-7.

Fig.4 shows a computer image of the diagnosed medical object and the image of the test phantom caught on tape in this case is not fully. The density of blackening of the thin wedge part of the test phantom coincides with the density of the background so that to define the beginning of the wedge only this part is impossible. However, on the part of the test phantom with a constant height, to determine its beginning is not difficult. On the wedge part of the test phantom is visible calibration track (white line) performed by the operator on the image using the mouse. Fig.5 shows a computer generated graph is equivalent to the BMD values for all points of this route, bounded top and bottom marginal not significant �velichinami BMD.

Fig.6 shows the diagnostic object image with the alignment performed by the operator along the area of interest on the diagnosed medical facility, and Fig.7 shows a continuous distribution of BMD points along this route. The value of BMD is determined at any point of the track, which is held by the operator in an area of interest.

The test phantom, made of a material absorbing x-ray radiation, characterized in that its shape is composed of two parts forming a unified whole, and one part has a constant height in the longitudinal direction, and the other part has a continuously changing pitch in the same direction, forming a wedge, while on the side of the wedge are made of grooved cutouts.



 

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