Method of analysis of set of ferromagnetic particles

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of analysis of a set of ferromagnetic particles. The method is characterized by that the particles of the named set are levelled in such a way that each of the named particles is oriented practically in the same direction. Then the particles of the named set are fixed in this aligned direction and the internal areas of the named particles levelled in such a way are uncovered. After that the nature of the alloy comprised by each of the named particles is identified, the named particles are grouped by categories depending on their nature and the metallurgical structure and chemical composition of one or more of the named particles in each category are determined.

EFFECT: improvement of accuracy and reliability of the analysis of ferromagnetic particles.

14 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method of analysis of a plurality of ferromagnetic particles.

Device in a certain circuit circulates fluid, maybe when you work to highlight in this fluid medium metallic or other particles. As an example, such a device is a motor, in particular an aircraft engine (turbomachine), and the circuit may, for example, to constitute a refrigeration cycle or smudging. Particles contaminate the fluid and need to be removed from the circuit. For this purpose, established in the magnetic circuit of the tube and/or filters that retain particles, so that these particles can be removed from the circuit and to conduct their tests.

Typically, these particles originate from various parts constituting the engine (or device), as a result of wear or damage of parts. When the particles are extracted from the contour, it is very important to identify those parts from which they happen, so you can check these parts and replace them, if appropriate.

Thus, to establish the origin of the particles, it is necessary to analyze each of these particles.

This analysis is to determine the nature of these particles (metal, ceramic, polymer) and, if appropriate, their microstructure to pinpoint �e details from which they occur. In most cases of interest only ferromagnetic particles, the components of which it is desirable to identify damaged or worn whether they are ferromagnetic.

Now remove particles captured by the magnetic plugs or filters, and then some of the particles are chosen randomly and analyzed by a spectrometer (energy dispersive spectrometer, or EDS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine their chemical composition. Considering that the particles have a size of the order of a millimetre, and that they are extracted in quantities of hundreds or even thousands, only tens of particles can be analyzed in a reasonable period of time and with reasonable costs.

This method has the following disadvantages.

The analyzed particles necessarily chosen at random, since it is impossible to determine the types of metal alloys by the appearance of their surface. In most cases, the particles come from many different parts and, thus, even not being analyzed. Therefore, the existing method of analysis does not allow an exhaustive way to determine the category of metal parts that are worn or damaged.

Investigation of the surface of the particle by the method of SEM and EDS spectrometer to determine �metallurgicheskoe the state of the particle and, in particular, its metallurgical history (pre heat treatment) or microstructural modification, and this represents a limitation.

In the case where the surface of the particle is different from the rest of the particles (such as particle covered by foreign bodies, coming from another part, as a result of friction, or because the particle is oxidized, or because the particle from the surface of the workpiece which is initially subjected to a surface treatment), the study of the surface of the particles by the method of SEM and EDS spectrometer does not reveal the nature of the rest of the particle, i.e. its initial nature.

These shortcomings in the accuracy of the analysis of the existing method has already led to the fact that aircraft engines were disassembled pointless and costly due to the fact that the damaged items have not been correctly identified, or lead to failures of engines due to the fact that the defective part has not been replaced in a timely manner.

The purpose of the invention is to provide a method that allows you to do more robust analysis of the ferromagnetic particles extracted by filters and magnetic plugs.

This goal is achieved due to the fact that:

(a) align the particles of this set such that each of the particles orientirova�and almost in the same direction;

(b) fix the particles of the given set in this alignment;

(c) expose the inner region of the particles are aligned so;

(d) determine the nature of each of the particles and the particles are grouped into categories depending on their nature;

(e) determine in each category metallurgical structure and chemical composition one or more of the particles.

Through these steps, the inner region of each particle is naked (open) and can then be analyzed directly, in order to eliminate difficulties (the presence of a surface coating or treatment of the particles, surface contamination of the particles as foreign bodies, etc.) that distort the results of analyses in the methods according to the prior art.

In addition, it is possible to calculate and analyze the category of metal particles, and also by Association with precision used to determine the part or parts, from which some of these particles.

For example, in step (a), the particles align, placing them in a magnetic field in the region where field lines are parallel.

This allows easy and reproducible way to align the ferromagnetic particles in the same direction, namely in the direction of the magnetic field lines B.

The invention becomes clearly understandable language.�m, but its advantages are more apparent when reading the following detailed description of a variant implementation, presented as non-restrictive examples. Description includes references to the accompanying drawings, in which:

- figure 1A is a schematic representation illustrating a step (a) of the method according to the invention;

figure 1B is a schematic representation illustrating the step (b) of the method according to the invention;

figure 1C is a schematic representation illustrating the step (c) of the method according to the invention;

figure 1D is a schematic representation illustrating the step (d) of the method according to the invention;

figure 1E is a schematic representation illustrating the step e of the method of the invention; and

- figure 2 is a photograph of the particles analyzed by the method of the invention.

Ferromagnetic particles 1 are collected by filters and/or magnetic tubes and bring them together, thus forming a number of particles.

All particles 1 multiple line in a single step so that each of the particles 1 are oriented in almost the same direction.

For example, each of the particles 1 extends in the main plane (P), and at the stage of (a) all principal plane (P) is almost level.

"Th�bone (P)" particles 1 understand the plane in which mainly extends this particle, i.e. if the particle is placed between two parallel planes tangent to the particle, these two planes will be parallel to the plane (P) when they are separated by the minimum distance.

Figure 1A shows a plane (P) for particles 1 arbitrary shape.

This alignment can be implemented with a magnet, as described below.

To achieve the alignment of particles 1 (step (a) of the method according to the invention), the particles 1 are placed at the bottom of a non-magnetic container 10. The container 10 is placed on the magnet 30. Particle 1, thus, find themselves in a magnetic field generated by the magnet 30, and are distributed to almost aligned along lines L of the magnetic field. At the level of the bottom of the container 10, which is encapsulated particles 1, the lines of force L of the field are almost parallel to each other and perpendicular to the bottom of the container 10, so that the particles 1 are aligned perpendicular to the bottom of the container 10.

Particles 1 thus raised (raised) perpendicular to the bottom of the container, as shown in figure 1A.

For example, particles 1 align so that one of the main dimensions of each of the particles 1 is substantially perpendicular to the bottom of the container.

If necessary, navigate between the magnet 30 and the container 10 nemanic�th strip 20, which separates the container 10 from the magnet 30 in such a way that at the level of the bottom of the container 10 lines of force L of the field almost parallel to each other and perpendicular to the bottom of the container 10.

As an example, used the magnet 30 created magnetic field of 50 A/m.

This method allows easy and in one step to align a large number of particles.

Thus, the method of the invention is more rapid and less expensive than methods according to the prior art.

Advantageously, the container 10 is transparent, allowing you to check that the particles 1 were indeed aligned.

The inventors found that if before putting the particles in a magnetic field of the magnet 30 to place the container containing the particles 1, demagnetization device, mainly particles 1 tend to separate from each other, prevented overlap between them, which facilitates their subsequent metallurgical analysis.

Alternatively, you can use other means besides magnetic to alienate from each other particle 1 before the alignment.

The use of a magnetic field to align the particles 1 is just one of the means to achieve this alignment.

Then to lock the particles 1 in their raised (vyrovna�nom) position pour into container 10 material 40, which surrounds and inundates the particles 1, as shown on figure 1B. The material 40 is sufficiently liquid to completely envelop (cover) each of the particles 1 without changing the position of particle 1, and is able to be cured (hardened).

As an example, the material 40 is a resin.

Once the particles 1 are completely submerged material 40, the metal sheet material 40 to harden, so that by the end of the process of solidification of the particle 1 is fixed permanently in the raised position. This step (b) of the method according to the invention is illustrated in figure 1B.

During the entire duration of the operation of encapsulating and until the hardening resin 40 is supported particles 1 "immersed" in a magnetic field so that the particles 1 are held in the raised position.

Advantageously, the use of transparent or translucent resin 40 so as to have the opportunity to observe the provisions of the particles 1.

For example, the resin 40 may be a transparent epoxy resin.

Thereafter, the solidified resin 40 is removed from the container 10. Then the resin block 40 is cut or polished in a plane perpendicular to the direction of alignment of the particles 1. This step (c) of the method according to the invention are shown in the figure 1C.

Given that all particles 1 hundred�t at the bottom of the container 10 during their wrap-around, all particles 1 are located in the same region of the resin block 40 (the area that was in contact with the bottom of the container 10). This arrangement of particles 1 allows, by cutting the resin block 40 in this area, at one stage cut all particles 1, which results in the saving of time.

In addition, since all particles 1 is aligned perpendicular to the plane of the cut surface 45 of the cut (the cut plane of the block 40, see figure 1D) passes through the Central portion of each of the particles 1 that allows you to open (expose) their internal area (the core). Thus, for each of the particles 1 that are subject to further analysis (steps (d) and (e)), the results of the analysis will relate to the material constituting the core of the particle (and thus to the material constituting the other piece, from which the particle), and not to any coating or surface material on the particle 1.

In addition, the resin 40 to firmly hold the particles 1 in the cutting process and thereby avoid the release of any particles 1 from the state of alignment.

Alternatively, the resin block 40 can plane until such time as there is no exposed inner region of each of the particles.

Thus, according to the invention the inner area of all particles 1 strip per edinstvennaya.

After step (c) perform an initial analysis (phase (d)), which reveal the nature of the alloy constituting each of the particles 1, i.e. the category to which belongs each alloy. To determine whether this particle 1 to a specific category, perform the test, which allows to identify this category, i.e. which is typical for this category.

Thanks to the method according to the invention, the inner area of all particles 1 are simultaneously accessible and visible on the surface 45 of the section of the resin block 40. Each test characteristic of one category, thus, to detect in a single step all the particles belonging to this category, thus saving time. Exercising consistently many trials, each of which is specific to one category of alloys, determine the category to which belongs each particle.

For example, testing is carried out using chemical reagents that can detect the nature of each of the particles 1.

Figure 1D schematically illustrates an example of the result of tests performed with three known reagents on the surface 45 of the section of the resin block 40: reagent No. 1 (Nital 2), reagent No. 2 (Nital 6) and reagent No. 3 (15/15). These names are known to those skilled in the art Nonalloy steel react with the reagent No. 1 (particles, number 101 figure 1D), low-alloy steel (of a particle, identified by the number 102 figure 1D) react with reagent No. 2 and high-alloy steel (particle number 103 figure 1D) react with reagent No. 3. Particles that are not subject to etching by any of these agents (particles, number 104 figure 1D), consist of other steels or other alloys.

The reagents are chosen so that each category is associated with each reagent, unites materials that meet specific detail categories (e.g., categories-bearing steels). Thus, it becomes known that all of the particles reacting with the reagent, necessarily originate from this category of parts.

Advantageously, in step (d) using an optical microscope after the application of chemical reagents in order to determine more precisely the nature of each of the particles 1.

To more precisely set the origin of some of the particles, make the second analysis (step (e)) on one or more particles selected in each category identified in the first analysis. Mainly, there is no need to analyse all of the particles each category, since the result of the first analysis it is already known that the particles belonging to one and the �e category are almost identical.

The purpose of this second analysis is to determine the metallurgical structure and chemical composition of each of the selected particles. It allows you to determine exactly what parts in the engine (or mechanical device) is analyzed particle, linking the results of this second analysis with the position of the filter or a magnetic mirror, where he was selected analyte particle, and knowing what parts are on the way of circulation of the fluid passing through the filter or a magnetic tube.

Mainly, using an electron microscope and a spectrometer to determine in each category metallurgical structure and chemical composition one or more of the particles 1.

In the method according to the level of technology the analysis of the EDS spectrometer does not allow to quantify the carbon in the metal alloy, so this analysis does not allow to distinguish between the two alloy, which have significantly different carbon content, but the composition of the alloying elements is the same or similar. For example, this analysis does not allow to distinguish bolted steel and bearing steel and therefore can lead to an erroneous conclusion as to the actual origin of the particles.

On the contrary, in the method of the invention, given that the first anal�memory (step (a)) is qualitatively known, at least a part of the composition of the particles (for example, its carbon content), studies with the electron microscope and spectrometer (figure 1E) in the second analysis allow to draw reliable conclusions about the chemical composition and the microstructure of the particle.

For example, the particles analyzed by the spectrometer (energy dispersive spectrometer, or EDS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine their chemical composition and their microstructure.

Figure 2 is a photograph of the particles 1, analyzed using the method of the invention after her studies in stage (e).

The surface of the particle 1 is covered with a coating of silver 3. Thus, the analysis of this particle method according to prior art would represent exclusively the study of its surface, which would have made the wrong conclusion that this particle consists of silver.

Core 2 particles 1 naked the method according to the invention. Analysis of the core 2 with an electron microscope and an EDS spectrometer revealed that the core consists of a low alloy steel martensitic microstructure released in the quenched condition.

From this I conclude that particle 1 is made of steel 40NCD7 ball bearing cage (rolling). The presence of this particle 1 let�et to conclude, what happened bearing damage in the path of circulation of the fluid passing through the magnetic tube, where he was selected particle 1. Thus, it is necessary to remove and replace the bearing.

1. Method of analysis of a plurality of ferromagnetic particles (1), characterized in that it comprises the following steps:
(a) align the particles (1) of the said array such that each of the particles oriented in the same direction;
(b) fix the particles (1) of the said sets in this alignment;
(c) expose the inner region of the mentioned particles (1) aligned;
(d) determine the nature of the alloy constituting each of the said particles (1), and group mentioned particles into categories depending on their nature; and
(e) determine in each category metallurgical structure and chemical composition one or more of the above-mentioned particles (1).

2. Method of analysis of a plurality of particles according to claim 1, characterized in that in stage (a) all the particles align in a single step.

3. Method of analysis of a plurality of particles according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that in step (c) reveal the inner region of the mentioned particles (1) in one step.

4. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the mentioned particles (1) extends to g�avnoj plane (P), and the fact that in step (a) of the said main plane almost all aligned.

5. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that in step (a) align the mentioned particles by placing them in a magnetic field in the area of this field where the lines of force (L) of the magnetic field are parallel.

6. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 5, characterized by the fact that the premises mentioned particles in said magnetic field placed above-mentioned non-magnetic particles in the container (10) located above the magnet (30).

7. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 6, characterized by the fact that navigate the non-magnetic spacer (20) between said magnet (30) and the container (10).

8. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that before step (a) is placed mentioned particles in the container (10), and the fact that at the stage (b) fix the mentioned particles, filling in said container material (40) which surrounds and inundates mentioned particles and which, solidifying, fixes mentioned particles in aligned position.

9. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that in step (c) the inner region of each of the particles (1) strip, slitting the particles in the plane perpendicular to the direction of their alignment.

10. Method of analysis�and a plurality of particles (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that in step (a) alienate the said particles (1) from each other in front of their alignment.

11. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 10, characterized by the fact that the place mentioned particles (1) in the demagnetization device, to alienate them from each other.

12. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that in step (d) cause one or more chemical agents on the said particles (1) in order to identify the nature of each of these particles.

13. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 12, characterized in that in step (d) using an optical microscope after the application referred to(s) of chemical(s) of reagent(s) in order to determine the nature of each of the particles (1).

14. Method of analysis of the number of particles (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that in step (e) use the electron microscope and the spectrometer so as to determine in each category metallurgical structure and chemical composition one or more of the above-mentioned particles (1).



 

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2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: static, dynamic or vibration sensing is carried out preliminary at the selected points to the depth from 1 m with respect to the top of the earth fill. At the same time the samples of compacted soil of undisturbed structure are selected in order to determine the moisture and density of skeleton of the specified soil from several drilled wells at points at a distance of not more than 1 metre in plan from sensing points. Laboratory researches of standard compaction with definition of compacting factor depending on the density of soil skeleton, are carried out on the selected samples of soils from the body of compacted fill. Construction of correlation dependence is performed between the specified values of compaction factor and values of the resistance to penetration of standard cone into the soil during sensing, taking into account determinations previously performed in the laboratory followed by evaluation of compaction quality of the earth fill.

EFFECT: improving the accuracy of definition and identifying the areas of non-compacted soil for its subsequent local postcompaction.

3 cl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method includes the preparation of smear from peripheral blood with preliminary fixation with methyl alcohol, drying, washing with distilled water. After that, the smears are placed in a potassium chloride solution in a ratio of 0.57 g of potassium chloride per 100 ml of distilled water for 20 min and washed with distilled water. Additionally prepared is a mixture of solutions, prepared ex tempore, containing a solution "A" and "B". The solution "A" includes a 50% silver nitrate solution in an amount of 5 g of silver nitrate + 5 ml of distilled water. The solution "B" includes a 2% solution of gelatin on a 1% formic acid solution in an amount of 15.8 ml of distilled water + 0.2 ml of 100% formic acid + 4.0 ml of 10% gelatin. The solutions "A" and "B" are mixed in an amount of 5 ml of each, in darkness, with further submergence of the blood smears for 20 min in darkness in the thermostat at a temperature of 37°C with the further submergence of the smears into distilled water for 2-3 seconds. After that, they are twice subjected to a 8 min exposure in a 5% sodium thiosulphate solution in darkness in the thermostat at a temperature of 37°C. After that, they are washed successively with tap water and distilled water, after-staining is performed in the Romanovskiy dye for 30 min. After that, the smears are washed again with tap water, air-dried, placed in the Canadian balm and covered with a coverslip.

EFFECT: increased quality of smear staining and provision of a possibility to identify and further evaluate parameters of nucleolus organiser regions.

4 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of selection of horizontal soil monolith comprises embedding along the genetic horizons of nth thin-walled metal cylinder-monolith-selector of the ith diameter with a pointed lower end of a triangular shape. The selection of the horizontal soil monolith from the pit is carried out with the number of cylinders-monolith-selectors k, equal to where i - number of the cylinder diameter (n > i > 1), n - number of cylinders of different diameters, ki - the number of repetitions of the cylinder of ith diameter (ki > 3). And each time, prior to selection of the horizontal soil monolith the inner surface of each used cylinder-monolith-selector is greased with petroleum jelly, and the load on the cylinder-monolith-selector is performed in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the pit stepwise with fixing the load of each step. The set of devices for selection of the horizontal soil monolith comprises the said k-th number of thin-walled metal cylinder-monolith-selectors and a metal cylindrical nozzle on the cylinder-monolith-selector. The metal nozzle is provided with a cylindrical recess in one of its ends, which diameter is equal to the outer diameter of the cylinder-monolith-selector having a maximum diameter of n cylinder-monolith-selectors, and the axis of symmetry coincident with the axis of symmetry of the metal cylindrical nozzle. The set also comprises (n-1) washer with an outer diameter equal to the diameter of the recess and the thickness equal to the height of the recess in the end of the metal cylindrical nozzle with the ability of mounting of each of them to the recess, followed by fixing in it. The inner washer diameters are different and equal to the outer diameter of each of the (n-1) cylinder-monolith-selector, constituting a pair: washer-cylinder-monolith-selector. Set is provided with a screw press with a head and a heel of cylindrical shape and a shield with a recess on its axis of symmetry with the ability of mounting in it through the heel of the screw press. And in the other end of the metal cylindrical nozzle on the cylinder-monolith-selector on its axis of symmetry a recess of cylindrical shape is made, the diameter and depth of which correspond to the diameter and thickness of the head of the screw press.

EFFECT: improvement of quality of sampling soil of undisturbed placement and increase in the accuracy of determining the water-physical and filtration properties of soil on genetic horizons of the soil profile, reduction of time for selection of the monolith and the complexity of operations in selection of quality horizontal soil sample.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a floating element 10, which is placed onto the sea surface and connected to a pump, rigidly fixed to the sea bottom or to massive floatage 8. The pump is made in the form of a cylindrical pipe-shaped vertically arranged chamber 1 semi-submerged into the sea, which in its upper and lower parts is equipped accordingly with lower 3 and upper 6 nozzles. At the lower nozzle 3 there is a hose 4 with certain length arranged in water depth. In the chamber there is a piston in the form of an inlet check valve placed on the stem 9, which is made as capable of passing water in the chamber only in direction from the lower nozzle to the upper one and is connected by means of the stem 9 with a floating element 10. The piston may be made within a membrane 12 adjacent to the plane of a disc 11 made with through holes, axes of which are parallel to the axis of the disc.

EFFECT: simplified design, expanded area of application of a device for water lifting.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: automatical aids for sampling liquids.

SUBSTANCE: system for sampling and delivering filtrate has filter submerged into tested medium and connected with collecting tank and vacuum pressure source which is connected with top hole of collecting tank by means of pneumatic pipe. System has sample receiving tank connected with collecting tank and control unit which has first output to be connected with vacuum pressure source. Collecting tank has two separated chambers - washing chamber and dispatching chamber. Lower hole of washing chamber has to be lower hole of collecting tank and side hole of dispatching chamber has to be side hole of collecting tank. Floating valve is installed inside washing chamber to shut off lower and top holes. Filter is connected with lower hole of collecting tank through sampling pipe. Side hole of collecting tank is connected with lower hole of tank for receiving samples through sampling pipe. Flow-type sensor and check valve are installed inside transportation pipe. Output of flow-type sensor is connected with input of control unit; second output of control unit is connected with control input of analyzer.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of sample ion composition; prolonged service life of filter.

1 cl, 1 dwg

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