Method of cleaning fallow soil from weeds
SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing, disking, subsurface treatment and combing. At that in July the fallow field is ploughed along the perimeter to the depth of 0.15 m, the width of the band is 10-15 m. The fallow soil of the entire field is cut to the depth of 0.06 m, and the plants are pressed to the ground. The aboveground mass is dried and burned, and the roots in the soil loosened to a depth of 0.15 m are removed to the surface of the soil and dried to lethal outcome.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of cleaning fallow soil from hardly-exterminable weeds.
The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for intensive weed control in deposits by special treatment of the soil with the destruction of plant residues on its surface.
Known chemical-mechanical method of cleaning soil from weeds, which consists in spraying the herbicide continuous action (tornado, etc.). After the death of the plants is disking in two or three track with harrowing and subsequent sowing of cereals (Vityazev V. G., Makarov I. B. "General farming", Moscow University press, 1991, p. 105). Costs 2012 prices for these works constitute 1665 RUB./ha. the Disadvantages of this method are the high material costs, incomplete destruction of weeds (75-80%) and partial regrowth of weeds in subsequent years. Persists in soil for a living potential weed seeds.
The known method of intensive technological grinding machine (disk multirows DM-5,2 JSC "Belagromash" service to them. Ryazantseva, Belgorod) long-fallow. Shredded pieces of rhizomes and seeds of weeds especially in wet soil germinate quickly, requiring several re-treatments. The disadvantage is the repeated grinding, spraying the soil and conservation of the living potential weed seeds.
As a prototype the selected method of cleaning soil from weeds, including 2-3 Crat�e disking - (grinding rhizomes) after regrowth, subsequent deep plowing to a depth of 0.25 m and finally 2-3 cultivation with harrowing (Ermolayev, V., Tip I. P., DUDUK, A. A., etc., Agriculture: a textbook for students of agronomy specialty institutions providing higher agricultural Education - Mn: computer center of the Ministry of Finance, 2006. - 463 p.) the Disadvantages of this method - multistage, high cost of fuel and cleaning of rhizomes not more than 80%, remains alive potential crumbled weed seeds.
None of the known methods do not efficiently cleanses the soil from the roots and seeds of weeds. These features prompted us to use a new clean fallow soil from weeds.
The difficulty of clearing the soil from weeds is that in deposits, due to inter-specific struggle, a growing number of deeply rooted rhizomatous, creeping-rooted (e.g. couch grass) weeds. For many years in the absence of economic activity due to zavoianu in the upper soil layer is 0.03 m and the surface of the field focus millions of weed seeds that can germinate decades, reducing the yield of field crops.
Therefore, the method should destroy as living roots and primarily weed seeds. In the use of arable land seeds, leaving the rest condition, the active prorest�Ute, forming a large new lot of weeds, reducing the yield.
The purpose of the invention is to significantly reduce energy costs, improve the quality of clean fallow soils from hard to eradicate weeds.
This object is achieved in that fallow field, forest chopping, old perennial grasses for fire-prevention purposes ophelius plow on the perimeter (moldboard treatment to a depth of 0.15 m width 10-15 m). In July, the top layer (0-0,06 m) cut to desiccation living and dead parts of weeds. By July grows new crop, which increases the heat of the fire and increases the lethal effect of viable weed seeds. Stems and seeds are burned, and the roots are destroyed subsurface cultivator treatment to a depth of 0.15 m with simultaneous extraction of ground for natural drying to a lethal condition.
Fallow, overgrown with weeds, old grass, removing the weeds, effective fertility restored, after the application of the proposed method can be used productively - collecting 3-4 tons of grain per hectare. The area of such fields in Siberia makes millions of hectares.
Method is used in two stages the first is an old (over 10 years) fallow field, overgrown mainly rhizomatous, creeping-rooted and other hard to eradicate weeds, upahivaeshsya on �arimatsu, and its territory finely (0.06 m) cut by blade cultivator with simultaneous pressing of plants to the soil. This enhances the burning of seeds and powerful stems of weeds. Elevated weight gets dry and burnt. This is the only radical acceptance of the destruction of long-term water supply of seeds located in the surface layer of the soil.
In the second stage, to destroy the roots. For this root layer of soil (0-0,15 m), which focuses up to 98% of the rhizomes of couch grass and other weeds, pruned upgraded blade cultivator and also crushed a disk harrow to a depth of 0.06 m, breaking the lumps, penetrated by roots. With roots simultaneously extracted from soil using ring modular harrow (MBC - Leader, Siberian agro-industrial House). The roots are deprived of contact with the ground, dry up and die. Cleared of weeds fallow field and sown winter rye provided in 2012, a yield of 5.1 t/ha (OPH Siberian Agro-industrial House, Mashkovsky district, Novosibirsk region).
If the cost of fuel when using chemical-mechanical method amounted to $ 1665 $ /ha, according to the proposed method is 772 USD/ha.
The way to clean fallow soil from weeds, including plowing, disking, subsurface cultivator processing, combing, characterized in that in July-month fallow field on Prime�ru aphiwat to a depth of 0.15 m, band width 10-15 m, fallow soil of the entire field are cut to a depth of 0.06 m, and the plants are pressed to the soil, aboveground mass issuepedia and burned, the roots on the loosened soil to a depth of 0.15 m is recovered on the soil surface and dried to death.
SUBSTANCE: device contain image recording unit with video camera and laser security camera to observe relief, image processing and evaluation unit and connected data storage unit. It also contains weeds data base. The device (100) also consists of a light source and location unit provided with an element to define location and to estimate found special coordinates more precisely. There is also location specification element. The image recording unit, location unit and light source are connected to exchange data with image processing and evaluation unit. Besides the image processing and evaluation unit is provided with one or more control outputs and one of the said outputs ensures possibility of being connected with separate unit control system to exchange data and to remove weeds. The invention allows for mapping weeds at high precision rate.
EFFECT: reliable calculation of weed contamination rate and identification of weed type.
22 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport, pipeline systems and power engineering, particularly to kill weed vegetation in non-agricultural lands, namely near rail and motor roads.
SUBSTANCE: method involves using working liquid comprising herbicide, wherein antifreezing agent, namely ethylene glycol, is additionally mixed with the liquid before weed vegetation treatment with the liquid. Ethylene glycol amount depends on ambient air temperature during weed vegetation treatment and is equal to 3-15% of working liquid amount.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of herbicide action and increased time of weed vegetation treatment.
FIELD: forestry and agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: proposed self-propelled set contains tractor with linkage mounting provided with shoots cutting device installed for lowering onto support surface in operating position and lifting over support surface in traveling position. Device is essentially duct 1 opened at front and from bottom and divided by cross vertical partition 2 into two spaces. Device is connected with linkage mounting. Drive shaft 3 is installed in each space for vertical rotation and it carries knife units installed at distance from each other and detachably secured. Said knife units are made in form of two opposite or four cross-mounted blades with knives. Each shaft is driven from power takeoff shaft of tractor through belt drives 8.
EFFECT: increased capacity at clearing of area from shrub shoots and efficiency of shredding of sawn-off branches.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: method includes area treatment, beds forming, potato tubers planting, scraping, fertilizers addition, irrigation and crop gathering. To receive second crop the tubers are planted at the area where previously grain, legume crops or even annual or perennial grasses wer cultured. The potato tubers with sprouts of the previous crop are used as planting material. At that the tubers are planted during last ten days of July till first ten days of August. Second crop tubers are irrigated during sprout appearance. Crops is gathered from last ten days of October to first ten days of November.
EFFECT: method ensures high quality planting material for next year.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, mainly to industrial grape culture and gardening. The method includes agriculture soil treatment, seeding of halophytes and green manure. At that in May of first year grain salt enduring sorgho is seeded in amount of 50 kg/ha. In August it is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). The cut sorgho mulching layer is held till October. In October phosphogypsum 4 t/ha is spreaded, and is ploughed in soil to depth 25-30 cm. In November Grenader winter triticale is seeded (130 kg/ha). In May of second year triticale is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). In July disk treatment is performed with triticale with heads plough in soil. In August phosphogypsum is spreaded with rate 4 t/ha, and poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). In September soil is ploughed to depth 25-30 cm. In May of third year sorgho grains are seeded (50 kg/ha). In August sorgho is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). The cut sorgho mulching layer is held till October. In October phosphogypsum with rate 4 t/ha is spreaded, and in November the deep-ploughing is performed to depth 60-70 cm.
EFFECT: method ensures high degree of soil desalination for vineyards, ecologically optimal and safe crops of grapes.
3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to vegetable farming. Method includes seeding of legume grasses and mulching by them of the seeded garlic with participation of the zeolite-containing clay. At that grasses-and-legumes of perennial grasses is seeded by solid rows, and on the next year after first hay cutting on the grass stand a wide rows of seeds are formed, between rows bushed kidney bean with short vegetation period is seeded. After its harvesting in these rows garlic is seeded with the created grooves addition by layer 5-6 cm of zeolite-containing clay dialbekulit saturated with 0.1% water solution of sodium selenite, for 6-10 days with further mulching by mixture of grasses-and-legumes of the second hay cutting and stubbly residues of kidney bean.
EFFECT: method reduces erosion and increases garlic crop with high content of selenium.
SUBSTANCE: method includes main treatment of soil transverse to slope, and seeding. In spring upon soil physical readiness grains are spreaded over its surface, rolled using smooth rolls, and overall spraying of soil surface is performed in amount 200-250 l/ha with the following composition, %wt: chalk - 5-6, ammonium nitrate - 3-4, organic glue - 2-3, water - rest.
EFFECT: reduced water erosion of soil by decreasing of number of treatments resulting in soil decompression, and increased moisture provision and crops.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The method comprises application of material in the field by the machine having a plurality of devices for dispensing the material. The dispensers of material are arranged to form rows when the machine moves along the field. The machine has a control system for selective stopping for dispensing the material by one or more dispensers while continuing to dispense the material by remaining dispensers. The machine has the means of translational motion and the means of automated determining of position and direction. The method comprises determining the perimeter of the field, identifying the areas of passage of headlands, determining the remaining central region of the field inside the passages of the headlands, the choice of a starting place to begin application of the material. The method also comprises determining a travel route for application of the material starting from the passages in both sides in the central area and turning the machine in the areas, and determining a route plan for the subsequent application of the material in the areas of the headlands. Each headland created around the field is equal to the full width of the machine. The area of passage of the first headland in the perimeter is adjacent to the outer edge of the field. All areas of the passages of the additional headlands are created inside the area of passage of the headland around the perimeter. According to the second embodiment, the method also comprises the use seeds as the material.
EFFECT: technology enables to minimise or eliminate compacting the areas with sown seeds due to exclusion of double passing of the machine on areas with sown seeds.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the basic tillage, sowing, care and harvesting. And the soil tillage is carried out with chisel tool with the formation of ridge bottom of the furrow, and sowing the crop is carried out over the deepening of the furrow bottom in every second deepening in the first year of sowing. In the second year the sowing is carried out over the unused deepening of the furrow bottom of the first year, and the width of row-spacing after tillage is equal to half the distance between the rows. The direction of sowing the crop is oriented perpendicular to the motion of the dominant wind. Sowing the crop over the deepening of the furrow bottom alternates with the steam bands, which are loosened during the growing season to the depth of 0.08-0.12 m at least 2 times. After harvesting the crops the plant residues are treated with biomineral preparation of nitrogenous fertilizers, complex humic concentrate and water taken in the ratio of 5:0.2:94.8 based on 310-320 kg per hectare.
EFFECT: method enables to preserve the soil fertility, destroy weeds, obtain quality products and save seeding material.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises planting grass mixtures of legume crops. The tillage to a depth of 20-25 cm, surface levelling and sowing seeds is carried out with inter-row spacing of 15 cm under the scheme leban-alfalfa-alfalfa-leban. In the first year of life in May, in the budding phase - the beginning of flowering, the alfalfa is harvested together with leban for hay. On the second year in spring leban is used for hay, and in winter it is grazed off by sheep or cattle. In other years leban is grazed off at the grassroots alternatively - in summer and in winter, with seeding rate of leban of 5 kg/ha, alfalfa - 6 kg/ha of seeds. Two-component mixtures of leban and alfalfa are sown in winter. For self-sowing of leban every two years grazing of leban is alternated in summer and the following year in winter.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the productivity of grassland crops and to improve soil nutrient content.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and soil science. The method comprises cutting a groove along the site for determining the soil moisture capacity with the length of 0.5-0.7 m, width of 0.25-0.30 m to the depth of the estimated soil layer. Then, the groove is filled with water, water is supplied to the site from the grooves with infiltration for 7-14 cm, the water is discharged from the groove 30 minutes after pouring water. The groove is closed with boards or metal sheet, and the surrounding area within a radius of 1.0 m from the centre of the groove - with polyethylene film, 20 cm layer of straw and 20 cm layer of soil. The soil moisture capacity in the walls of the groove is determined on layers on the investigated depth in three, five, seven days in four-fold replications to establish a constant humidity, which will be considered its lowest moisture capacity (HB). Water to moisten the soil is fed from the groove, cut on the side of the experimental site, infiltration simultaneously in all layers.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the period of determining HB by 16-18 days, the cost of water for its determination in 2,4 times, the need in electronic water meters in 6-11 times.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cultivating soil by forming ridges after germination of weedage and providing subsequent cultivation procedures by breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ridges; providing presowing soil treatment by embedding germinated weedage, stubble and other plant remains axially of ridges and simultaneously introducing microbiological humus-forming preparation; 20-40 days after introducing of humus-forming preparation (according to first version), breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ones and simultaneously sowing late crops; according to second version, providing sowing of farm crops simultaneously with embedding of germinated weedage and introducing of humus-forming preparation. Methods allow total of active soil temperatures during presowing period to be increased owing to composting effect.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of weedage control and improved soil fertility.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, amelioration method used for creating of fertile layer on low-humus sandy soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying lime and organic fertilizer into humus-depleted soil, said organic fertilizer being introduced in the form of ground plant remains and/or other forms in an amount of up to 40% the volume of ridges by distributing said fertilizer in furrows between ridges; forming ridges in the course of presowing treatment; applying layer of colmatant providing total volume of at least 20% the volume of pores of formed fertile layer; forming ridges with following breaking of formerly created ridges; embedding organic fertilizer and simultaneously applying biologically active preparation; 30-40 days later, reapplying organic fertilizer; reforming ridges and simultaneously irrigating ground organic with biologically active preparation; sowing seeds of cultured crops.
EFFECT: reduced time for creating on humus-depleted sandy soil of fertile layer adapted for immediate agricultural application, reduced wind and water erosion and provision for forming of recreational zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing sorts of soya with different ripening time; simultaneously sowing sorts of soya of at least four different ripening time in adjacent rows, with early ripening sorts being combined with late ripening sorts; setting seeding norm for early ripening sorts of soya in the range of 600,000-650,000 pieces/hectare and for late ripening sorts of soya in the range of 400,000-450,000 pieces/hectare.
EFFECT: improved quality of seeds and reduced seed losses.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protection of wheat crops from complex of pests with reduced application of insecticides.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming entomofauna of crop agrocenosis by accumulating pests on restricted territory for creating attracting strips of spring wheat of two sowing periods with break-off time between said periods of five to seven days around winter wheat strips; providing feed stock conveyor system for complex of pests; applying insecticides only on basic winter wheat strips and attracting strips of spring wheat strips, with basic spring wheat strips being excluded from treatment process.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in protecting of sown wheat crops by accumulating of pests on restricted territory, reduced consumption of insecticides and provision for keeping grain yield and grain quality.
1 tbl, 1 ex