Method of drying average-loamy soils with high soil fertility with closed regulatory network
SUBSTANCE: method comprises a device of drainage trench with a drainage pipe laid on its bottom with a protective-filtering material, the filtering elements in the form of prisms of soil of humus horizon, arranged in a trench to the arable layer, and the final backfilling the trench with soil of humus horizon. Each drainage trench is made with the depth of at least 1.1 m and the width of at least 50 cm across the direction of flow of surface waters at an angle of not more than 30 degrees to the horizontal. The drainage pipe with protective-filtering material is sprinkled with soil of humus horizon, cut off from the upper edges of the trench, not less than 15 cm above the pipe crown. The filtering elements are made in the form of a single block composed of the nth odd number (n≥3) of the vertical regular prisms parallel to the trench walls, in which the prism of soil of humus horizon alternates with the prism from the excavated soils. The width of the prism from the excavated soil is two times greater than the width of the prism of soil of humus horizon, and the width of the trench B and the width of each odd prism of soil of humus horizon b"n" are related to each other as b"n"=2B/(3n-1).
EFFECT: improvement of hydrological action of the closed regulatory network, increase in efficiency of the use of topsoil and the ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of average-loamy soils.
2 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to agriculture and complex melioration of agricultural landscapes and can be applied in the non-Chernozem zone as in the design, construction, reconstruction, repair and maintenance of drainage systems, and when using drained medium loam soils with high fertility and atmospheric water-supply of the soil. To medium loam the soils include soils with a content of physical clay particles with a diameter less than 0.01 mm 30...40% dry weight.
As is known, the mineral fertility of the soil are divided into three groups (best practices for cultivation and agricultural use of reclaimed lands in the Nonchernozem zone of the RSFSR. / I. M. Yemelyanov, etc. - L: Sevdiyim, 1978. - S. 4...6). To soils of high fertility is attributed to mineral soil in the humus horizon depth of more than 22 cm, the content of mobile phosphorus more than 15 mg/100 g of soil acidity and pH greater than 5.5. To the group with average fertility include mineral soils with humus horizon from 17 to 22 cm, the phosphorus content of 10 to 15 mg/100 g of soil acidity and pH from 4.5 to 5.5, and the group with low fertility - when the power of the humus horizon of less than 17 cm, the content of mobile phosphorus below 10 mg/100 g of soil and pH below 4.5.
To a closed drainage regulatory network is considered as W�indoor gatherers, diverting the water from the soil surface and gravitational water from the topsoil and subsurface drains, lowering the level of infiltration, soil-soil, groundwater and soil water pressure.
Known for the trench drainage closed drainage soil, preserving soil layer along its route. The method involves before otryvnoi of the trench by removing its track layer of the soil, laying it on the edge of the trench and the powder placed at the bottom of the pipe trench with the protective filter material soil humus horizon, cut from the edges of the trench (A. S. SU 1377328 A1, CL. EV 11/00, 1988. The method of construction of drainage. / C. N. Skinkis, I. J. Gailitis and H. A. Smilga). Powder pipe plant and soil provides for VSN-With-4-79 (manual VSN-With-4-79 construction of subsurface horizontal drainage drainage of agricultural lands. Approved by order of Ministry of water resources of the USSR №252 dated may 18, 1979, agreed by the Gosstroy of the USSR's letter No. 1 - 4558 from 01 December 1978 - M.: Ministry of water resources of the USSR - In "Soyuzvodproekt", 1979. - S. 13, p. 3.44).
The disadvantage of the method: the lack of efficiency of drainage, because it does not consider particle size distribution, level of soil fertility and the validity of its use for coating pipes.
Known method of drying soils of closed drainage (A. S. SU 1484861 A1, CL. EV 11/00, 1989. The method of construction Dre�Azha. / P. p. Elcik, V. M. Mucoid and S. I. Brusilovsky), including the passage of the trench and laying in the drain pipe, covered with a protective layer, on which is poured a jumper from the excavated soil with a slope coefficient from 0.2 to 0.8. The top jumper is placed below the plow layer at 10...20 cm Between the ridges hold the aggregation of the protective layer by chameleontom and backfilling filter material.
The disadvantage of this method: insufficient drainage intensity as a consequence of an uneven flow of water to the pipe along its length and lack of contact filtering on the border is poured into the trench material (see Patent RU 2411322 C1, CL. EV 11/00, 2011).
A method of draining a low permeable soils drainage trench method (Patent SU 1794130 A3, CL. EV 11/00, 1993. The method of construction of drainage in slabovodopronitsaemyh soils. / A. I. Balchunas, B. A. Tamasauskas and M. A. Urbutis; prototype), providing for the removal of soil humus horizon and dumping it along the edge of the trench, the passage of the trench, and backfilling the excavated soil along the second edge of the trench, laying on the bottom of the trench and drainage pipe and the protective layer, the filling of a bulldozer every 10...15 m jumpers from the excavated soil to the plow layer, and on natural slopes jumper - filter elements from the soil humus layer in the form of oblique prisms of a thickness of 30...35 cm pop�rivers of the trench, backfilling prior to topsoil excavated soils and final backfilling of the soil humus horizon, the remainder of the filter device of oblique prisms.
The disadvantage of the method: the lack of efficiency as it does not include the level of soil fertility (the degree of culturenet) and the feasibility of its drainage and use to create the filter elements, and also due to lack of contact filtering on the border is poured into the trench soil and uneven water flow to drainage pipe along its length.
Known private collector (Patent RU 2411322 C1, CL. EV 11/00, 2011), including rainwater, an element in the form of a prism, placed in a drainage trench with vertical walls and laid in it the drain pipe. Prism made of n-th number correct vertical prism, where n≥2. Prisms form a single unit and each filled dissimilar filter material. As the filter material can be used sand, slag, linen fire, the mixture was removed from the drainage trench soil with the soil plow layer or emaciated with additives, such as sand, ass, dolomite, etc. Drainage pipe wrapped protective filter material.
The use of this design of a private collector is limited due to the lack of objects on�of osenia, especially with heavy slabovodopronitsaemyh soils, as a rule, sufficient local filter material and the backfilling imported filter material increases the cost of construction of drainage lines in 2...3 times.
When draining soil closed drains a minimum depth of their laying, is $ 1.1 m, take on the basis of conditions ensuring the norms of drainage in the settlement period (SNiP 2.06.03-85, p.3.25). In this case the slope of the soil surface, less than or equal to 5‰, applied longitudinal drains. When draining soil closed gatherers used only transverse drainage lines. Minimum depth of private collectors, equal to 0.8 m, staff recommend VNIIG (Pechenya B. C., Yurchenko I. F. Collector. - Sat: Reclamation encyclopedia, volume III. / Comp. B. S. Maslov. - M.: FSSI "Rosinformagrotech", 2004. - S. 188 189...). In Mosgyprovodhoz depth bookmarks private collectors took no less than 0.8 m (design Manual drainage and drainage-watering systems. / Mosgyprovodhoz. - M.: Glavneftestroy, 1976: p.5.18; PL.5 and 6; p.5.2; p.5.21; p. 5.5).
In the manual (textbook for the course project for the drainage of agricultural land in the Nonchernozem zone of the Russian Federation. / Comp. A. P. Averyanov. - M.: HPE �sue, 2005), the depth of the regulatory network, and to her, as is well known, and include the private collector, "in Istok was adopted 1,1...1,2 m (mineral soils)" (p. 2 notes to the table.4), the difference in the depths of laying drains (private collectors) at the source and the mouth is not more than 0.2...0.3 m (see section 3 of this note). Tutorial (Agricultural hydrotechnical melioration. / AA Bogushevsk, A. I. Golovanov, Vladimir Kutergin A. and others; ed. by E. S. Markov. - M.: Kolos, 1981. - 250 S....253, §92 and p. 266 §100), also created by the leading scientists of the same educational institution (formerly mgmi, now MGUP), p. 250 read: "...the device is closed gatherers at a depth of 1.3...1.5 m inappropriate. Depth of backfill closed gatherers, not exceeding 1 m, more consistent with the nature of their work". On page 266 of the textbook emphasizes: "When slope gradients less than the minimum allowed when the required bias is created by embedding the mouth of drains, possible irregularity of the mode of draining along its length. In this case, the difference in the elevations of the drains at the source and the mouth allow a maximum of 0,2...0,3 m. As you can see, here is the difference in elevations only covers the drains.
It must be reiterated that unlike state Mosgyprovodhoz and VNIIG minimum depth of the closed collector is recommended equal to 0.8 m.
I. M. Krivonosov (Krivonos�in I. M. Depth of backfill drains. - In kN.: Gubar N. With. etc Agricultural reclamation in the non-Chernozem zone. / Sevdiyim. - M.: Kolos, 1964. - S. 208 210...) believes that reducing the depth of drains in heavy clay soils improves drainage systems and leads to a significant reduction in the cost of works on the device as drainage and, especially, public transport and main canals and inlets. TS. N. Skinkis (Skinkis C. N. Hydrological effects of drainage. / Latihan. - L.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1981. - S. 216), on the contrary, recommends the use of a deeper (1,3...1,5 m) drainage and deep drainage on heavier soils.
Generalizing the experience of the destination depth of drainage in heavy soils, B. S. Maslov (Maslov B. S. Deep ripping of soils: experiences and challenges of science // Hydraulic engineering and land reclamation. - 1979. - No. 7. - S. 28...33.17, p. 32) emphasizes that "the progressive tendency to increase the depth of the drainage in our practice is very slow... Zonal research institutes recommend the following depth drainage in heavy soils: the Latvian SSR (TS. N. Skinkis) - 1,3...1,5 m, of the Lithuanian SSR (A. Blais) - more than 1.2...1.5 m, Byelorussian SSR (V. M. Prong) - 1,2...1,3 m, the center of the non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR (V. J. chervenak, B. C. Pechenya) - 1,2...1,4 m. At the same time, numerous studies show that heavy soils require more HL�deep drainage... apparently and we should clarify (upward) average and a minimum depth of drains".
Small in-ground drains in slabovodopronitsaemyh soils, wetlands connected with moisture and stagnant surface waters, it is recommended in Germany (Eggersmann R. guidelines for drainage. Transl. with it. V. N. Gorinsky; ed. by F. R. Seidelman. - M.: Kolos, 1984. - P. 145).
In terms of the Byelorussian SSR according to V. T. Klimkova (Melioration: ENCYCLOPAEDIA. Guide. / Group of authors, ed. by Acad. Of agricultural Sciences A. I. Murashko. - Mn.: Belarusian. Owls. ENCYCLOPAEDIA., 1984. - P. 136) to the drainage of heavy soils, pereuvlazhnennykh the bleak, depth of drain for cropland and pasture was taken equal to 0.9...1.1 m, for meadows - 0,8...1,0 m.
Known data from the literature do not consider that under otherwise identical conditions the calculated value of the filtration coefficient K decreases with depth. For gley soils generally lower than for gleyic. For example, in terms of the Rzhev-Staritsky of the Volga region for sod-podzolic loamy in ordinary loam gleyic soils used in field crop rotation, the geometric average value of the coefficient of filtration of 25 per cent probability of understating in mm/day can be approximated by the dependence (correlation coefficient of 0.91)
where H - depth of the subsurface layer, IP�aleema from the soil surface; 110 cm≥N≥27 cm
For the same, but gleevac soil (with the correlation coefficient of 0,92)
where 110 cm≥N≥35 cm.
Above shows that, unfortunately, is still not clear, in which case, apply the drying slabovodopronitsaemyh soils, which typically require drainage, closed drainage, and in some private collectors. In this case, and operating instructions for the design of closed-gatherers (Handbook P 1-98 to SNiP 2.06.03-85, section 6. - Minsk: Ministry of architecture and construction of Belarus, 1999. - 85 p.) do not take into account the degree of culturenet of the soil.
The problem solved by the present invention is to develop an efficient method of draining medium loam soil with high soil fertility of the closed regulatory network by establishing the place and role of subsurface drains and private collectors when draining medium loam soil with good soil, timely release of water from the soil surface and gravitational water from the topsoil and depletion of the soil and groundwater to normal dehumidification when saving topsoil, ensure uniform flow of water to the closed regulatory network along its length and contact filtering on the limits of soil and soil used to backfill the trench, with�building and maintaining consistently high permeability backfill of the trench.
The technical result of the resolution of the task is how to improve the hydrological action of a closed regulatory network and the efficiency of topsoil and the economic and environmental efficiency of drainage medium loamy soils.
Put in the invention the task is solved by that in a method of draining medium loam soil with high soil fertility of the closed regulatory network of drainage trench with laid on its bottom drain pipe with the protective filter material, the filter elements in the form of prisms from the soil humus horizon, arranged in the trench up to the plow layer, and final backfilling of the soil humus horizon, each of the drainage trench at a depth of not less than 1.1 m and a width of not less than 50 cm across the direction of flow of surface water at an angle not exceeding 30 degrees to the horizontal, a drain pipe with the protective filter material covered with soil humus horizon, cut from the upper edges of the trench, not less than 15 cm above suligoi tubes, filter elements made in the form of a single block composed of the n-th odd number (n≥3) parallel to the vertical walls of the trench right prisms, in which the prism from the soil humus horizon are parallel with the prism of �analogo soil, the width of the prism from the excavated soil to twice the width of the prism from the soil humus horizon, and the width of the trench and the width of each odd prism of soil humus horizon bnrelated ratio
The diameter of the drain pipe will be based on the distance between the regulatory network that diverts water by gravity mode, and the calculated intensity of drainage exceedance probability p%.
As research suggests that private collectors are applicable when draining loam and clay soil with atmospheric and alluvial types of water supply, drains same dry, sandy, sandy loam and light loam soils. When draining medium loam soil subsurface drainage works in two possible modes: as a collector in the diversion of water from the soil surface and gravitational water from the topsoil and as the drain by lowering the level of groundwater.
Method of draining medium loam soil occupies an intermediate position between the means of drainage of light and heavy soils and is based on the two possible modes of operation of subsurface drainage in them. When applied to the trench of a subsurface drainage devices, including its laying in a trench with a minimum width of 50 cm
When OSU�attachment loam and clay soils private collectors implement a method of accelerating surface runoff and method of accelerating runoff on arable layer. Due to the extremely low water resistance of subsurface layers, the rate of drainage in this case could not be reached: the level of the gravitational water may be reduced only to the bottom of the plow layer, so as to obtain the necessary gradient level of the gravitational water in the subsurface horizon requires frequent location for regulating the drainage network (4...6 m), which is not economically justified. Therefore, when draining soil private collectors that part of the excess water that cannot drain into the drainage network, is removed by evaporation.
Minimum depth of backfill regulatory network is adopted for drains and is $ 1.1 m, the location of the regulatory network for private collector (across the direction of flow of surface waters), and to increase the slope of the regulatory network trace her angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal. The distance between the regulatory network is calculated as for drains and clarify the expectation for private collectors and complementary and drains, and collectors of soil-conservation measures. The diameter of the drain pipe is determined depending on the distance between the regulatory network that diverts water by gravity mode, and the calculated intensity of drainage exceedance probability p%, settable holding of a special computations techno-ek�economic justification.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, illustrating the device in a closed regulatory network for draining medium loam soil with fertile soil.
Fig.1 shows a cross section of the trench after removing the soil humus horizon and dumping her 1 along the edge of the trench. Fig.2 - the same, after excerpts of the trench 2 to the full depth to the design level, dumping 3 excavated subsurface soil horizons and rollers 4 ground soils formed after the development of the trench excavator-trencher, which are used for dusting pipes, wrapped protective filter material is not allowed because it's basically loosened soils subsurface horizon. Fig.3 - the same, after laying on the bottom of the trench pipe 5, wrapped protective filter material 6, body 7 soil from the humus horizon (plow layer) 8, cut from the top edges of the trench 9. Fig.4 - the same, in the process of backfilling the trench of the humus horizon (n=3), while section 10 is filled with soil 1, taken before otryvnoi trenches, and section 11 - 3 soils removed during the passage of the trench. Fig.5 shows a cross section of the trench after completion of all works for n=3, where bn- the width of the prism (odd) from the soil, and bh- the width of the prism (even) from ground.
The removal of excess water � regulatory network is carried out on the soil surface, arable layer 8 and the plow sole 12 through backfilling of drainage trenches, and through the inflow into the trench and then into the pipe regulatory network, groundwater from subsurface horizons that provides the necessary for growing plants rate of drainage. When this closed regulatory network for draining medium loam soil is intended for drainage of the soil with only their high fertility (for soils with a high degree of culturenet), which provides for the presence of cultivated topsoil of a power exceeding 22 cm Device filter elements provides for the presence of vertical boundaries between the vertical walls of the drain trench and backfilling with soil, and between the backfill soil and excavated soils. The processes of swelling and shrinking soils and soils and frost cracks contribute contact filtration, the pipe having a high drainage ability, contributes to the ventilation of the backfill, the preservation of cracks in it and maintain its consistently high water permeability. This is achieved and due to the high level of soil fertility. Backfilling of drainage trenches cultivated arable soil layer (humus horizon) is not the full width, but only its odd sections having a width bn(see Fig.5), leads to the preservation of fertile soils. In this complex and�especial the task and the achievement of planned technical result.
Field experiments on draining medium loam soil with soil of different levels of fertility, held at the experimental-production plot Karelian experienced reclamation station, showed that the proposed method can significantly improve the hydrological action of the closed regulatory network and enhance the ecological and economic efficiency of drainage medium loamy soils. So, when you fall during the hydrological year precipitation 3% probability, if the thickness of the arable layer 15...18 cm and the distance between the drain lines 12 m duration of perched water in the topsoil during the hydrological year was 28 days, and the yield of winter wheat a 4.24 t/ha. increase the level of soil fertility - increase the capacity of cultivated topsoil of up to 30...35 cm - contributed to the improvement in drainage - reduction of location of perched water in the topsoil to 4 days and yield of winter wheat to 4,94 t/ha. closed drainage regulatory network of more cultivated soils yield increase was 16.5%.
1. Method of draining medium loam soil with high soil fertility of the closed regulatory network of drainage trench with laid on its bottom drain pipe with the protective filter material, the filter elements in the form p�ISM from the soil humus horizon,
arranged in the trench till the plow layer, and final backfilling of the soil humus layer, wherein each trench at a depth of not less than 1.1 m and a width of not less than 50 cm across the direction of flow of surface water at an angle not exceeding 30 degrees to the horizontal drain pipe with the protective filter material covered with soil humus horizon, cut from the upper edges of the trench, not less than 15 cm above suligoi pipe, in addition, filter elements made in the form of a single block composed of the n-th odd number (n≥3) vertical parallel walls trenches right prisms, in which the prism from the soil humus horizon are parallel with the prism removed from soil, the width of the prism from the excavated soil to twice the width of the prism from the soil humus horizon, and the width of the trench and the width of each odd prism of soil humus horizon bnrelated ratio
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the diameter of the drain pipe will be based on the distance between the regulatory network that diverts water by gravity mode, and the calculated intensity of drainage exceedance probability p%.
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: system includes supply drain lines 1, manifold 2, and storage well 3, in which siphon block 7 is mounted. The system is provided with self-regulating mechanism 4 of ground water level installed in well 3 and consisting of float chamber 6 rigidly fixed in the upper position above the ridge of siphon block 7 and connected by means of a rigid float drive through valve 8 with a blind section of pipe 13 on a descending branch of siphon block 7. The descending branch of siphon block 7 is connected to discharge pipe 14. Float chamber 6 is connected via hydraulic channel 12 to well 3. The lower part of well 3 is sealed, and above discharge pipe 14 it has outlet opening 15 with branch pipe 17, which is shut off with a level control by means of an additional float drive for control of gate 16. Float gate 16 has L-shaped lever 19 with flange 20, on which float 18 and horizontal plate 23 is fixed. Branch pipe 17 is connected to storage well 3 below the ridge of siphon block 7 by value Δh providing maximum design water filling of well 3 with further discharge to discharge pipe 14. Value Δh is calculated by the following formula: Δh=h1-h2. The self-regulating mechanism is connected to hydraulic channel 12 and well 3 as per a principle of communicating vessels. When the level of the ridge of siphon block 7 is achieved, a charging device is actuated and water discharge through siphon block 7 is performed in a pressure mode to the level of the inlet opening of its ascending branch. The level control in well 3 is actuated when maximum water level achieves the fixed restraining bracket 21, and opening of opening 15 with gate 16 is performed.
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow automating of a ground water level control process and maintaining correct soil humidity balance; automatic flushing of the well with pressure water flow.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating a closed water area in the form of a storage pond 8 with the area of accumulation of sludge from liquid flows. The storage pond 8 is a water area with a levee 12, in which body the inlet water intake hole is made, and the opposite - a water receiver 9 of the water intake pipeline 22. According to the first embodiment of the method, at the bottom of the storage pond 8 the closed air-injecting devices 14, 15 are mounted to form a number of beams diverging from the device as horizontal perforated pipelines 16 in the direction of the base of the upper slope of the dam 12. The perforated pipelines 16 end with a dead end. The air-injecting devices 14, 15 are connected to the central supply pipeline 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air. With the increase in the accumulation of sediment in the form of sludge in the zones of the storage pond 8 the air supply in portions into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is resumed with brief connection of the compressor 19 on the command of the time relay 20 on the air duct in the intake pipeline of the closed air-injecting device. Breaking through the holes of the perforated pipeline 16, the compressed air loosens and roils the sludge, with simultaneous saturation of manure flow with it, and transports it to the discharge water intake pipeline 22. As the reduction in the sludge layer in the storage pond 8 the air supply into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is stopped. According to the second embodiment of the method, in the storage pond a floating platform is placed, on which a compressor is located, connected to the pressure hose air duct. The nozzle of the pressure hose air duct is made in the form of a metal trunk with a perforation in its end part, attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the section of sludge residual accumulation, the end of which is inserted into the precipitate formation. The floating platform is attached on both sides of the dam using a rope and block system in the areas of erosion of the sediment of sludge precipitation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of transport capacity of roiled manure flow coming from the livestock complex, and increased in functional capabilities of the storage pond with possible disposal of flows on irrigated fields of reclamation.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises a collector 1 connected with the drains 2 entering into it, vertical tubes 3 and a device for flushing of sediments. The device for flushing is made of perforated pipes 4 in the form of air outlets 7 arranged inside the drains 2 attached to the upper part of the pipes above the bottom. The perforated pipe 4 by the metal barrel 6, placed in the tube 3 is connected to the pressure hose 8, which inlet is connected to the discharge pipe 9 with the valve 10 of the receiver 11. The receiver 11 is connected to the compressor 12 generating the compressed air. The compressor 12 is connected to the timing relay. The invention increases the transporting capacity of disturbance sediments and other compounds in the drain cavity and accelerates their removal into the open channel 17.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of flushing and increased drainage term by air exposure to sediments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the drain well 1 a chamber 11 is located, communicated with the outlet orifices 12 and 25, and a container 13. In the chamber 11 a float articulation linkage is placed, the rod 18 of which is passed through the orifice 12 into the container 13, in which the cone valve 14 with the load 15 is placed. The container 13 through the pipeline 16 is connected to the outlet drain 4. The bottom of the chamber 11 is communicated with the drain well 1 by the inlet opening 17 and is made in the form of a valve 23 and a float sensor 22 interconnected with the rod with the ability of axial displacement. The inlet opening 17 of the float sensor 22 is formed with projections-limiters 24 with windows. The housing 10 of the shut-off device has a recess in which a pipe 26 with a spring 27 with a screw 28 is placed. The spring 27 is placed in the cavity of the flexible sleeve 29, which serves as protection from clogging with debris and deposits. The sensing element in the form of a spring 27 supports the valve 3 in opening and closing the opening 9 in the seat of the housing 10, which eliminates the shock loading of the valve on the seat in the housing 10. Closing the opening of the shut-off device is carried out only after emptying of the float chamber. As a result of this the work of the float drive is balanced by moments of forces from the minimum to the maximum water level in the well 1.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the device, improved accuracy of regulation and enhanced range of technical means for regulation of the water level in the closed drainage systems.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: body of a water-diversion ditch comprises two substantially identically formed surface blocks, namely: a bottom block and a substantially identically formed cover block, which with the help of spacing elements are connected to each other at the mounting distance. Surface blocks are proposed to be made substantially as capable of engagement when laid into stacks, so that the mounting distance of the surface blocks is considerably more than their distance when laid into a stack. Spacing elements are substantially shaped in the form of a truncated cone or a truncated pyramid, with a limited surface of the cross section, which with increased distance from the surface blocks becomes less. The first alternative version may include placement of the spacing elements on the surface units so that bottom blocks and bottom covers are laid as overlapping each other according to the type of stonework tying. The second alternative version may provide for overlapping connection of the bottom blocks and the cover blocks to each other according to the type of stonework tying.
EFFECT: high stability simultaneously with the possibility to save area during storing and transportation.
14 cl, 23 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises twisting the device for drain formation in the ground or soil to the desired depth. The device consists of dual hollow tubes. The outer tube has uniformly spaced protrusions of constant rectangular section rigidly fixed on the lateral cylindrical surface along the helical line with a constant pitch. After reaching the desired depth by the device, the inner tube together with the cohesive soil is removed from the outer tube to form a hollow space. The soil is removed from the inner tube. Then the inner tube is wrapped with anti-suffusion material and placed back into the hollow space of the outer tube. Then filter material is poured. The dual outer and inner tubes as filled with the filter material are twisted using a handle.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and productivity in the construction of vertical drains in cohesive soils.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for horizontal draining of waterlogged structures on pile foundations relates to construction, namely to the construction of drainage systems for the protection of structures on pile foundations against ground water logging. As per the proposed method, dewatering of a waterlogged object is achieved due to the fact that from one radial drain well developed along the outer wall outside the structure normally to rows of the load-carrying piles and equipped with a filter there passed are additional side drain wells between the rows of piles. Drilling of additional shafts is performed by means of a downhole motor and diverting devices out of the above said radial well. The steadiness of walls of the additional wells at drilling is provided by the application of hydrolysed polyacrylonitrile or other self-decomposed drill fluids. After driving of the side additional shafts is completed, the drill tool is disconnected and used for the shutoff of the well bottom, and the motor together with drill pipes is removed through a filter pipe that was drawn by means of the downhole motor.
EFFECT: proposed drainage system allows solving a problem of protection against waterlogging of structures on pile foundations.
SUBSTANCE: mouth of the drain manifold comprises a shut-off valve 32 with the float drive 23 and the rod 31 mounted on the drain headwall, located in the drainage well 16. The mouth of the drain manifold comprises a plug-ended pipe 1 and is equipped with two chambers 10 and 11. The lower chamber 10 is connected to the upper chamber 11. The chambers 10, 11 through the inlet openings 12, 13 with the pipes 14, 15 are connected through the side wall 16 of the well mounted in the channel 17, and constitute a hydraulic switch, in which the water levels are recorded by the flap valves 19, 20. The upper chamber 11 is connected with a water-filled container 27 with a float 23 connected by the hinged-lever drive with a valve 19 and rigidly through the rod 31 with the shut-off valve 32. The lower chamber 10 is connected through the check valve 7 with the gate 6 with the drain tube 5 connected to the Venturi tube 4 of the drain 3. The outlet opening 18 at the bottom of the chamber 11 is provided with a flat flap valve 19, and the tube 14 - with the flap valve 20. The flap valve 20 through the hinges with the rod 21 is connected with the flap valve 19 which is connected by the hinged-lever drive through the fixed hinge 22 with a float 23. The water-filled container 27 with a calibrated water outlet opening 33 has a float movement limiter made in the form of the level retainers 24.
EFFECT: reliability of operation in transient conditions, depending on the position of water level in the channel is provided by the presence of hydraulic relay consisting of two chambers, interconnected by the valves, and the container, in particular the calibrated opening in it, calculated from the condition that the water level in the retainer of closing of the shut-off device is slower.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises undercutting soil on the contour lines of the slope, its turnover and laying not in their furrows. The layer is undercut in cross section in the form of rectangles of different widths. The two extremes layers are undercut to a depth of (0.7…0.8)h and placed in the furrows formed by ploughing of the middle layers, without turnover, where h is the depth of treatment with double bodies (middle layers). The device comprises a frame, a disc blade, joggers, double body, right- and left-handed plough bodies. The right- and left-handed plough bodies are made with a cylindrical working surface. The plough bodies are mounted on the frame vertically higher than the double body by the magnitude Δh=(0.2…0.3)h, where Δh is the distance between the blades of ploughshares on the vertical.
EFFECT: such technology and constructive implementation enable to increase the efficiency of retention of meltwater on sloping lands at optimal costs.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural engineering and is intended for embedding into soil of hard-crushed plant residues such as stalks of oil flax. The pusher is mounted at an angle to the direction of movement and is mounted either in front of the tractor or in the rear part of the plough at the side of the untreated field.
EFFECT: invention provides offset of roller of plant residues by the pusher in the furrow opened by the plough, compaction of the roller at the bottom of the furrow by the tractor wheels moving on it, and then ploughing of the compacted roller and uncut stubble by the plough bodies with trash covers.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises milling the soil as strips. The soil of milled strip is subjected to separation. Unseparated part of the soil is subjected to impact action, followed by separation, accompanied by crushing of undisrupted clumps of soil on the rods and pushing them into the gaps between the rods of the separating grid. The device comprises a milling drum, a rear rotor the separating grid located behind it. The working bodies of the rear rotor are made in the form of rubber blades. The blades strike the clumps falling on a wide plate fastening the rods of the separating grid.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of agronomically valuable aggregates over the entire thickness of the treated land.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to the technologies of precision agriculture. The device comprises a bearing frame connected to the means of moving on the field, a support element mounted on the frame and determining its position above the ground, the knife-milling chisel plough placed on a frame, creating longitudinal slit channel in the soil during motion, a measuring unit with the measuring sensors, made elongated along the direction of motion, of the same thickness with the knife-milling chisel plough and mounted behind it in the direction of motion, the assembly of stepped depth adjustment of the position of the measuring unit in the longitudinal slit channel when moving on the field, the assembly of protection of the measuring unit from damage by collision of the knife-milling chisel plough to the obstacles, the control unit of measurements, collection and conversion of the measurement information, the on-board computer and the receiver of the geopositioning system for registering measurement information and mapping. And the housing of the measuring unit is made in the form of a monolithic metal plate with a pointed and bevelled downwards and backwards frontal anterior edge and is fixedly connected to the bearing frame by the front and rear racks. The sensors are embedded in the measuring unit and located on its side walls along the common straight line with the same depth of location of the sensing elements from the soil surface. The support element is made in the form of a support skid located under the measurement unit, pivotally connected with the rack mounted on the bearing frame. And this rack is mounted on the bearing frame with the ability of a stepped change in the given distance between the sole of the support skid and the straight horizontal line with the same depth of location of the sensing elements in the measuring unit from the soil surface. The said knife-milling chisel plough mounted on the frame in front of the measuring unit, has an axial connection with the frame, ensuring the formation of a common vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry with the measuring unit and made with the ability to control the angular position of the knife-milling chisel plough in this plane. The knife with the cutting edge has a length that ensures creation of the slit channel in the soil with the depth enough for embedding the measuring unit until it stops of the support skid on the surface of the soil at any given distance between the sole of the skid and the horizontal line of position of the sensors and any specified angle of the knife-milling chisel plough mounting. The upper end part of the knife-milling chisel plough, located on the other side of the axial connection, is fixed by the safety shear bolt in the assembly of stepped fixing of the angular position of the knife-milling chisel plough located on the frame, and this assembly is equipped with a stop for fixing the position of the blade of the knife-milling chisel plough along the frontal measuring unit when collision to the stone and cutting the safety shear bolt, moreover, to retain the measuring unit in the vertical plane of symmetry coinciding with the direction of movement of the device. The bearing frame is provided with a rigid drawbar to connect with the vehicle for motion on the field.
EFFECT: unit provides measurement efficiency of agrotechnological characteristics.
17 cl, 24 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to vegetable farming. The method is implemented by means of laying of milled soil for the formed furrows to the surface of unprocessed soil. For long-term provision of cultivated crop with accessible (capillary) water entering the soil mass with capillary porosity, formed within a long period after qualitative autumn treatment the dried surface layer of this mass id destructed and removed. Meanwhile newly formed surface layer additionally compacted, that prevents to excessive loss of capillary water. The soil with non-capillary porosity hard-worked on the usual mass making side slopes and sowing layer, forming the hole soil mass as a furrow slice. The device includes the power shaft, fixed on the frame, with interspaces between milling drums with covers, shaping furrow slices. Meanwhile it is equipped with chains fixed on the driving shaft in interspaces between the milling drums.
EFFECT: group of inventions allows to prevent an excessive loss of capillary water and for a long time to provide the cultivated crops with accessible water.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises cutting, crumbling of the treated soil layer, the layer turnover, the destruction of "plough pan" and formation of slits with the inter-slit distance of 70-90 cm. When crumbling the upper part of the treated layer its turnover is carried out in both directions with respect to the rack of the working body and movement to the field surface with the formation of cavities in the passage ways of the working bodies to form a ridge on the untreated part of the field surface. Then with the working bodies of the second row the process of formation of cavities is repeated. Then with the working bodies of the following rows cutting, crumbling of the untreated surface of the field to greater depth is carried out, moving it into the formed cavities and forming slits. Then the surface of the field is levelled. The tool comprises a frame consisting of longitudinal and transverse beams. The frame is provided with replaceable working bodies located to form parallel rows, enabling treatment of soil over the entire working width of the tool. The working bodies are made in the form of removable A-blades mounted on the rack, consisting of right and left ploughshares in the direction of motion. The ploughshares are made of triangular or quadrangular form, located with displacement of the cutting edges and have mouldboards. The working bodies are fixed to the longitudinal beams of the frame using the racks. The left and right ploughshares are mounted with displacement of 0.5-1.5 width of the ploughshare relative to each other horizontally and are located at an angle of 20-35° to the horizontal and 30-55° to the vertical planes. The cutting edges of the ploughshares are formed with displacement of 0-30 mm relative to each other vertically. On the rack of the working body over the ploughshares the right and left mouldboards are mounted at an angle of 25-50° relative to the side part of the rack in the horizontal plane and at an angle of 25-40° relative to the front part of the rack in the vertical plane. The lower edges of the mouldboards are made with the cutting at an angle of 20-40° relative to the horizontal plane. In the front part of the rack at the junction place of the left and right mouldboards the fairing is mounted made of a rod with the cross-section of a circle or part of a circle, corresponding to the length of conjugation of the mouldboards from the upper part of one of the ploughshares to the upper part of conjugation of the mouldboards. Two last rows of the working bodies consist of a rack, a fairing and a chisel, fixed through the side slot on the front part of the rack of the working body, which is attached to the equalizer by means of brackets. The working bodies of each of the next row are located with displacement with respect to the working bodies of the previous row.
EFFECT: technology and constructive implementation enable to improve the quality of soil treatment and to reduce the tractive resistance.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises undercutting of contaminated topsoil, throwing to the bottom of the furrow and piling it with an uncontaminated layer. The contaminated soil layer is undercut by the soil tillage body of a scraper type and moved aside to form a ridge, and the uncontaminated soil fertile layer is opened. The open uncontaminated soil layer is undercut by the combined working body and lifted to the conveyor without the layer overturning. The soil layer is transported first up, then down, leaving a passage for the contaminated layer undercut by the lateral working body of a scraper type under the ridge of the contaminated layer formed by the first working body, and together they are moved to the bottom of the furrow. Then the contaminated soil layer is compacted and closed with the uncontaminated layer passing down from the conveyor. After that the soil is levelled and compacted to the operating width of the device. The device comprises a rectangular frame, support wheels, a mechanism of attachment to the tractor and the working bodies. The first and the lateral working bodies are made of a scraper type. The device also has a combined working body composed of two arranged towards each other rigidly interconnected working bodies of the mouldboard type plough. The total mouldboard part of the combined working body is made truncated in the form of a trough. Behind the combined working body there is a conveyor with ascending, horizontal and descending parts, having a drive of PTO of the traction unit through the power shaft, a reducer and a chain drive. Behind the conveyor a pusher is mounted for levelling the surface of the field after the passage of the device and a packing roller, which is a support one in the transfer of the device to the transport position by the hydraulic cylinder attached to the median longitudinal bar of the frame.
EFFECT: improving the quality of treatment of soil contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metals by avoiding mixing of the contaminated and uncontaminated soil layers in the process of their moving.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to restoring of the productivity of perennial grasses in the chestnut soil zone. The method comprises chisel ploughing of soil under perennial grasses to the depth of 40 cm. The spacing between the working elements is set in the gap providing first the continuous loosening the soil until appearance of untreated soil surface, equal to the width of capture of one working element.
EFFECT: method enables to enhance replenishment of perennial grasses by discontinuous chisel ploughing of soil.
SUBSTANCE: it can be used in nonchernozem belt, as well as industrial, municipal, township and other territories and can be used in the design, construction and maintenance of drainage systems and the use of drained soils. The method comprises carrying out land clearance operations and construction of a closed collector and sparse parallel drains. The construction breakdown of the drains attached to the collector is carried out, followed by shrinkage of soil of humus horizon - the arable layer on the pathway of drain by the bulldozer with an angled blade. The trenching with depth of not less than 1.1 m with a given slope is carried out. The bottom of the trench is levelled and the pipe is placed on it, wrapped with protective filter material. The drain pipe at least 20 cm above its crown is padded with water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil of binomial deposits cut from the trench shoulders. The filling of the trench is carried out, which has the width of not less than 0.5 m, to plough pan of the arable layer by its ploughing also with water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil by monohull hinged brush-and-bog plough PBN-100A with mould and hanging cutter. The levelling layer of soil is carried out excavated during the digging of the trench, in depressions construction band of drain and reclamation of shrinked soil layer on the construction band with a bulldozer with angled blade. Planning of the soil surface and ploughing the soil is carried out. For sustainable spilling the water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil in the loosened area of cohesive poorly water-permeable soil, as well as the slit behind the drive rod and the rack of the ripper and plough pan of the moving ploughshare and fixed feet pad of the ripper the continuous deep cross loosening of soil is carried out with vibration ripper in the period when the level of soil water stand id not higher than the bottom of the trench of drain to a depth of not less than 30 cm less than the minimum depth of the drain location. Deep loosening of soil is carried out in two mutually perpendicular directions at an angle of 45 degrees to the drain direction.
EFFECT: reliable hydrological effect of subsurface drainage in the course of its operation is provided, creation of optimised mineral soil with improved soil, water and environmental properties of the root layer, and ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of these soils is increased.
SUBSTANCE: in the method originally 2/3 of the height of the upper part of the hillocks is milled. The milled mass is distributed between the hillocks. Before ploughing the remaining lower part of the hillocks with the milled mass is compacted.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of ploughing, to reduce the complexity and energy consumption of processing the tussock swamp lands.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, basic tillage of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves calculating required power of individual and string-type cumulative charges; providing field marking and forming holes in soil; placing cumulative charges in holes; sequentially blowing charges so that after explosion soil is transferred from one strip onto adjacent strip; leveling field surface by means of any known farm machine.
EFFECT: increased quality and effectiveness of plowing soil.