Method of enhancing drying action of close collectors

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.

EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.

 

The invention relates to techniques for drying of agricultural land private collectors and technology usages of these lands during the implementation of precision agriculture.

As you know, to a closed drainage regulatory network include subsurface drains, lowering the level of infiltration, soil-soil, groundwater and soil-water pressure, and private collectors that remove water from the soil surface and from the plow layer.

When the use of private collectors on arable lands filtering backfilling perform to the feet of the arable layer using, as a rule, local natural and artificial materials: sand and gravel mix, gravel, crushed stone, slag, etc. (SNiP 2.06.03-85, p.3.37 and 3.38).

When designing closed-gatherers in the Leningrad region as activities aimed at enhancing their drainage operation, and also for the purpose of conservation of moisture and its accumulation in the subsurface horizon complemented by the deep loosening (recommendations for the design of private collectors in the Leningrad region / A. M. Smirnov, N. And. Serpina, N. And. Khrisanov. Ed. by A. I. Klimko. - L.: Sunnii-ShM, 1976. - Page 29...31). In another literary source (Zaidelman F. R. Reclamation of waterlogged soils in non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR: the Reference book. - M.: Kolos, 1981. - S. 89...91, PL.17) when capital stroitelstvo.tsena soil private collectors recommended in one direction continuous or strip tilling to a depth of 0.6 m. The same technological scheme recommend loosening and operation of constructed drainage systems.

A disadvantage of the known methods of deep loosening of soil, drained private collectors: do not account for anthropogenic erosion trench filling of a private collector, the working body of the cultivator and the resulting way and loosening of possible non-uniform inflow of surface waters along the length of the trench.

One of the main parameters of the deep loosening drained soil is loosening direction relative to the drainage pipes of a private collector.

The known method of deep loosening-crotolaria heavy slabovodopronitsaemyh soils, drained private collectors, laid in a trench with subsequent filling below the sole of the plow layer filter material of high permeability in comparison with natural soils, including periodic deep ripping-krotovaya at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Thus to mitigate anthropogenic erosion trench backfilling gatherers each subsequent deep ripping-krotovaya soil is carried out in a direction opposite to the preceding (Patent RU 2465760 C1, CL. AV 79/00 and EV 11/00, 2012; prototype).

The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency d�istia private collectors, due to the following.

It is known that the duration of the aftereffect disposable deep loosening heavy mineral soils is about 8 years old, i.e. N≤8, based on what method of appointment term of reopening the deep loosening of soil (Zaidelman F. R. Genesis and ecological basis of land reclamation of soils and landscapes. - Moscow: KDU - MSU, 2009. - Page 325...326). This suggests that filtering the backfilling of a private collector violated as a result of anthropogenic erosion at single previous deep loosening, can be returned to a position close to the source prior to loosening, only the occasional subsequent loosening during this period. In connection with the same lack of land users (especially farmers), as a rule, the technical means to perform a second deep loosening heavy soils disturbed after deep loosening of the filter filling can stay in this state for many years, which of course will lead to deterioration of the action of a private collector.

Furthermore, it is known that for deep loosening of the soil in practice mainly used passive rippers: rack and with the working body of the V-shape (Kitaev B. M., Z. M. Mamaev, Pershina O. F. Agroforestry activities on mineral wetlands. - M.:�IIA RAAS - VNIIG RAAS, 2013. - S. 68...73). This exercise solid or strip tilling with the distance between the bands Inp=4...5 m (ibid., p. 130...131).

Rack rippers depending on the traction grade of basic machines have one, two or three racks (rippers RC - 1,2, RU - 65.2,5, PC to 0.8 PC to 0.6). At the end of the racks installed shingles, which operates on the type of dihedral wedge, lifting and destroying the formation of soils.

B. C. Kazakov (VNIIG) developed rippers WP - 0.8 and WG - 0,5 displacement body is V-shaped. The results of their tests on the object "Grebnevo" in the Tver region showed that the main difference between these rippers from rack - a rack structure comprising a chisel and two side blades arranged in a transverse plane at an angle of 45° to the vertical. The process of loosening the soil resistant V-shape differs from loosening soils rack the Ripper: the Ripper V-shape produces lift of a layer of soil, then the fracture, the fracture and backfilling behind the Ripper knife; after the passage of the Ripper band formed uniformly loosened soil, and adjacent strips loosening the soil unlike loosening rack rippers, leaving at continuous hoeing between adjacent passes of the strip nerazlichennoe soil, overlap by 30...40 cm

When solid richline� rack Ripper, feasible only when the distance between the strips of cultivation not less than the minimum allowed by the technology of deep loosening, i.e. a bandwidth of nerazlichennoe soil

InpInmin,(1)

the backfilling of a private collector, given the uneven flow of surface water along its length after the loosening rack the Ripper, in comparison with the tillage Ripper V-shape and to prevent the flow of water through the backfill on slope or its stagnation over the filling with smooth surfaces have a coefficient of filtering a bandwidth of loosened soilPat least in kctimes greater, i.e.

kc(Bp+Bmin)/Bp,(2)

but when a band-loosening

kp=(Inp+Inp)/Inp, (3)

at continuous tillage Ripper V-shaped kcv=1,0.

Given the above, as well as the need to maintain after deep loosening of the soil filter trench filling for loosening soil, drained private collectors, the most appropriate passive the use of rippers rippers with the working body of the V-shaped form, which is not considered in the prototype. Thus it is necessary to conduct continuous loosening of soils.

The task used in the present invention, is to strengthen the drainage action of private collectors.

The technical result is to accelerate the discharge of surface water and perched water from the arable layer, obtaining a landholder durable and reliable in action private collector, providing the design intensity draining soil and moisture regime required of cultivated plants, for a minimum service life of the drainage system.

Put in the invention the task is solved in that the method of enhancing drainage of the action of private collectors is to complement their deep loosening of the soil, including periodic loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage t�UB. Each subsequent periodic deep tillage is performed in the direction opposite to the preceding, and every time continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out Ripper with working body V-shaped in two directions: the first direction at an angle of 90° to the direction of drainage pipe collector, the second direction is at the angle of 150° to the first.

When implementing periodic deep loosening of the soil by the proposed method, each time filtering the backfilling of a private collector at the completion of deep loosening is returned to a position close to the source prior to loosening. This is achieved by conducting continuous ripping Ripper with working body V-shaped in the two areas mentioned above. Each subsequent periodic deep tillage is performed in the direction opposite to the previous one. The use of angle of 150° is due to the opposite loosening direction and a minimum slope of 30° to the first and loosen the soil. Thus, holding each time a periodic deep loosening of the soil based on the type of the working body of the Ripper and method of tillage that reduce the anthropogenic erosion filter trench filling of the closed collector and ensure her safety in position b�Eskom to the source before the deep loosening, eliminates the unevenness of the surface water inflow along the length of the trench, thereby increasing the drying action of private collectors.

The claimed method of enhancing drainage of the action of private collectors include the following:

- establishment on the plot, intended to enhance drainage of the action of private collectors, location and direction of private collectors and private collectors;

- the markup in the nature areas of deep loosening of the soil by the installation of landmarks (landmarks);

- conducting solid deep loosening of soil on a plot cultivator with a working body V-shape in the first direction at an angle of 90° to the direction of drainage pipes of a private collector: the penetration of a Ripper start on the track first pass for 2...3 m from the plot boundaries with access to a project depth to the boundary, previously held a Ripper strip parallel to the boundary of the site in 2...3 m from it, and the gradual penetration of the Ripper carried out promihlennii strip;

- after loosening the first direction is performed loosening in the second direction at angle of 150° to the first.

After N years is carried out each subsequent periodic deep loosening of soil Ripper with working body of the V-shape that� same in only two areas mentioned above. With each deep loosening is carried out in a direction opposite to the foregoing.

The inventive method provides the achievement of the expected technical result, namely: the acceleration of discharge of surface water and perched water from the arable layer, obtaining a landholder durable and reliable in action private collector, providing the design intensity draining soil and moisture regime required of cultivated plants, for a minimum service life of the drainage system. On the object "Grebnevo" in the Tver region on the background of deep loosening, ensuring the safety of the trench filling of a private collector, the rate of drawdown of perched water was doubled, drainage outflow volume increased by up to 33%, which helped boost crop yields by 21...24%.

A method of enhancing drainage of the action of private collectors, namely, to Supplement their deep loosening of the soil, including periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes, with each subsequent periodic deep tillage is performed in the direction opposite the preceding, characterized in that each time a solid deep loosening of soil is carried out Ripper with the working body of the V-way�Oh form in two directions: the first direction at an angle of 90° to the direction of drainage pipe collector, the second direction is at the angle of 150° to the first.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: system includes supply drain lines 1, manifold 2, and storage well 3, in which siphon block 7 is mounted. The system is provided with self-regulating mechanism 4 of ground water level installed in well 3 and consisting of float chamber 6 rigidly fixed in the upper position above the ridge of siphon block 7 and connected by means of a rigid float drive through valve 8 with a blind section of pipe 13 on a descending branch of siphon block 7. The descending branch of siphon block 7 is connected to discharge pipe 14. Float chamber 6 is connected via hydraulic channel 12 to well 3. The lower part of well 3 is sealed, and above discharge pipe 14 it has outlet opening 15 with branch pipe 17, which is shut off with a level control by means of an additional float drive for control of gate 16. Float gate 16 has L-shaped lever 19 with flange 20, on which float 18 and horizontal plate 23 is fixed. Branch pipe 17 is connected to storage well 3 below the ridge of siphon block 7 by value Δh providing maximum design water filling of well 3 with further discharge to discharge pipe 14. Value Δh is calculated by the following formula: Δh=h1-h2. The self-regulating mechanism is connected to hydraulic channel 12 and well 3 as per a principle of communicating vessels. When the level of the ridge of siphon block 7 is achieved, a charging device is actuated and water discharge through siphon block 7 is performed in a pressure mode to the level of the inlet opening of its ascending branch. The level control in well 3 is actuated when maximum water level achieves the fixed restraining bracket 21, and opening of opening 15 with gate 16 is performed.

EFFECT: use of the invention will allow automating of a ground water level control process and maintaining correct soil humidity balance; automatic flushing of the well with pressure water flow.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating a closed water area in the form of a storage pond 8 with the area of accumulation of sludge from liquid flows. The storage pond 8 is a water area with a levee 12, in which body the inlet water intake hole is made, and the opposite - a water receiver 9 of the water intake pipeline 22. According to the first embodiment of the method, at the bottom of the storage pond 8 the closed air-injecting devices 14, 15 are mounted to form a number of beams diverging from the device as horizontal perforated pipelines 16 in the direction of the base of the upper slope of the dam 12. The perforated pipelines 16 end with a dead end. The air-injecting devices 14, 15 are connected to the central supply pipeline 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air. With the increase in the accumulation of sediment in the form of sludge in the zones of the storage pond 8 the air supply in portions into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is resumed with brief connection of the compressor 19 on the command of the time relay 20 on the air duct in the intake pipeline of the closed air-injecting device. Breaking through the holes of the perforated pipeline 16, the compressed air loosens and roils the sludge, with simultaneous saturation of manure flow with it, and transports it to the discharge water intake pipeline 22. As the reduction in the sludge layer in the storage pond 8 the air supply into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is stopped. According to the second embodiment of the method, in the storage pond a floating platform is placed, on which a compressor is located, connected to the pressure hose air duct. The nozzle of the pressure hose air duct is made in the form of a metal trunk with a perforation in its end part, attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the section of sludge residual accumulation, the end of which is inserted into the precipitate formation. The floating platform is attached on both sides of the dam using a rope and block system in the areas of erosion of the sediment of sludge precipitation.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of transport capacity of roiled manure flow coming from the livestock complex, and increased in functional capabilities of the storage pond with possible disposal of flows on irrigated fields of reclamation.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.

EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.

2 cl

Drainage system // 2547406

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises a collector 1 connected with the drains 2 entering into it, vertical tubes 3 and a device for flushing of sediments. The device for flushing is made of perforated pipes 4 in the form of air outlets 7 arranged inside the drains 2 attached to the upper part of the pipes above the bottom. The perforated pipe 4 by the metal barrel 6, placed in the tube 3 is connected to the pressure hose 8, which inlet is connected to the discharge pipe 9 with the valve 10 of the receiver 11. The receiver 11 is connected to the compressor 12 generating the compressed air. The compressor 12 is connected to the timing relay. The invention increases the transporting capacity of disturbance sediments and other compounds in the drain cavity and accelerates their removal into the open channel 17.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of flushing and increased drainage term by air exposure to sediments.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: in the drain well 1 a chamber 11 is located, communicated with the outlet orifices 12 and 25, and a container 13. In the chamber 11 a float articulation linkage is placed, the rod 18 of which is passed through the orifice 12 into the container 13, in which the cone valve 14 with the load 15 is placed. The container 13 through the pipeline 16 is connected to the outlet drain 4. The bottom of the chamber 11 is communicated with the drain well 1 by the inlet opening 17 and is made in the form of a valve 23 and a float sensor 22 interconnected with the rod with the ability of axial displacement. The inlet opening 17 of the float sensor 22 is formed with projections-limiters 24 with windows. The housing 10 of the shut-off device has a recess in which a pipe 26 with a spring 27 with a screw 28 is placed. The spring 27 is placed in the cavity of the flexible sleeve 29, which serves as protection from clogging with debris and deposits. The sensing element in the form of a spring 27 supports the valve 3 in opening and closing the opening 9 in the seat of the housing 10, which eliminates the shock loading of the valve on the seat in the housing 10. Closing the opening of the shut-off device is carried out only after emptying of the float chamber. As a result of this the work of the float drive is balanced by moments of forces from the minimum to the maximum water level in the well 1.

EFFECT: improved reliability of the device, improved accuracy of regulation and enhanced range of technical means for regulation of the water level in the closed drainage systems.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: body of a water-diversion ditch comprises two substantially identically formed surface blocks, namely: a bottom block and a substantially identically formed cover block, which with the help of spacing elements are connected to each other at the mounting distance. Surface blocks are proposed to be made substantially as capable of engagement when laid into stacks, so that the mounting distance of the surface blocks is considerably more than their distance when laid into a stack. Spacing elements are substantially shaped in the form of a truncated cone or a truncated pyramid, with a limited surface of the cross section, which with increased distance from the surface blocks becomes less. The first alternative version may include placement of the spacing elements on the surface units so that bottom blocks and bottom covers are laid as overlapping each other according to the type of stonework tying. The second alternative version may provide for overlapping connection of the bottom blocks and the cover blocks to each other according to the type of stonework tying.

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14 cl, 23 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises twisting the device for drain formation in the ground or soil to the desired depth. The device consists of dual hollow tubes. The outer tube has uniformly spaced protrusions of constant rectangular section rigidly fixed on the lateral cylindrical surface along the helical line with a constant pitch. After reaching the desired depth by the device, the inner tube together with the cohesive soil is removed from the outer tube to form a hollow space. The soil is removed from the inner tube. Then the inner tube is wrapped with anti-suffusion material and placed back into the hollow space of the outer tube. Then filter material is poured. The dual outer and inner tubes as filled with the filter material are twisted using a handle.

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4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for horizontal draining of waterlogged structures on pile foundations relates to construction, namely to the construction of drainage systems for the protection of structures on pile foundations against ground water logging. As per the proposed method, dewatering of a waterlogged object is achieved due to the fact that from one radial drain well developed along the outer wall outside the structure normally to rows of the load-carrying piles and equipped with a filter there passed are additional side drain wells between the rows of piles. Drilling of additional shafts is performed by means of a downhole motor and diverting devices out of the above said radial well. The steadiness of walls of the additional wells at drilling is provided by the application of hydrolysed polyacrylonitrile or other self-decomposed drill fluids. After driving of the side additional shafts is completed, the drill tool is disconnected and used for the shutoff of the well bottom, and the motor together with drill pipes is removed through a filter pipe that was drawn by means of the downhole motor.

EFFECT: proposed drainage system allows solving a problem of protection against waterlogging of structures on pile foundations.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: mouth of the drain manifold comprises a shut-off valve 32 with the float drive 23 and the rod 31 mounted on the drain headwall, located in the drainage well 16. The mouth of the drain manifold comprises a plug-ended pipe 1 and is equipped with two chambers 10 and 11. The lower chamber 10 is connected to the upper chamber 11. The chambers 10, 11 through the inlet openings 12, 13 with the pipes 14, 15 are connected through the side wall 16 of the well mounted in the channel 17, and constitute a hydraulic switch, in which the water levels are recorded by the flap valves 19, 20. The upper chamber 11 is connected with a water-filled container 27 with a float 23 connected by the hinged-lever drive with a valve 19 and rigidly through the rod 31 with the shut-off valve 32. The lower chamber 10 is connected through the check valve 7 with the gate 6 with the drain tube 5 connected to the Venturi tube 4 of the drain 3. The outlet opening 18 at the bottom of the chamber 11 is provided with a flat flap valve 19, and the tube 14 - with the flap valve 20. The flap valve 20 through the hinges with the rod 21 is connected with the flap valve 19 which is connected by the hinged-lever drive through the fixed hinge 22 with a float 23. The water-filled container 27 with a calibrated water outlet opening 33 has a float movement limiter made in the form of the level retainers 24.

EFFECT: reliability of operation in transient conditions, depending on the position of water level in the channel is provided by the presence of hydraulic relay consisting of two chambers, interconnected by the valves, and the container, in particular the calibrated opening in it, calculated from the condition that the water level in the retainer of closing of the shut-off device is slower.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes area treatment, beds forming, potato tubers planting, scraping, fertilizers addition, irrigation and crop gathering. To receive second crop the tubers are planted at the area where previously grain, legume crops or even annual or perennial grasses wer cultured. The potato tubers with sprouts of the previous crop are used as planting material. At that the tubers are planted during last ten days of July till first ten days of August. Second crop tubers are irrigated during sprout appearance. Crops is gathered from last ten days of October to first ten days of November.

EFFECT: method ensures high quality planting material for next year.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, mainly to industrial grape culture and gardening. The method includes agriculture soil treatment, seeding of halophytes and green manure. At that in May of first year grain salt enduring sorgho is seeded in amount of 50 kg/ha. In August it is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). The cut sorgho mulching layer is held till October. In October phosphogypsum 4 t/ha is spreaded, and is ploughed in soil to depth 25-30 cm. In November Grenader winter triticale is seeded (130 kg/ha). In May of second year triticale is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). In July disk treatment is performed with triticale with heads plough in soil. In August phosphogypsum is spreaded with rate 4 t/ha, and poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). In September soil is ploughed to depth 25-30 cm. In May of third year sorgho grains are seeded (50 kg/ha). In August sorgho is cut and cut mass is poured with solution in concentration 1/100 of microbiologic fertiliser Tamir EM-1 (800 l/ha). The cut sorgho mulching layer is held till October. In October phosphogypsum with rate 4 t/ha is spreaded, and in November the deep-ploughing is performed to depth 60-70 cm.

EFFECT: method ensures high degree of soil desalination for vineyards, ecologically optimal and safe crops of grapes.

3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to vegetable farming. Method includes seeding of legume grasses and mulching by them of the seeded garlic with participation of the zeolite-containing clay. At that grasses-and-legumes of perennial grasses is seeded by solid rows, and on the next year after first hay cutting on the grass stand a wide rows of seeds are formed, between rows bushed kidney bean with short vegetation period is seeded. After its harvesting in these rows garlic is seeded with the created grooves addition by layer 5-6 cm of zeolite-containing clay dialbekulit saturated with 0.1% water solution of sodium selenite, for 6-10 days with further mulching by mixture of grasses-and-legumes of the second hay cutting and stubbly residues of kidney bean.

EFFECT: method reduces erosion and increases garlic crop with high content of selenium.

1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes main treatment of soil transverse to slope, and seeding. In spring upon soil physical readiness grains are spreaded over its surface, rolled using smooth rolls, and overall spraying of soil surface is performed in amount 200-250 l/ha with the following composition, %wt: chalk - 5-6, ammonium nitrate - 3-4, organic glue - 2-3, water - rest.

EFFECT: reduced water erosion of soil by decreasing of number of treatments resulting in soil decompression, and increased moisture provision and crops.

2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.

EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.

2 cl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The method comprises application of material in the field by the machine having a plurality of devices for dispensing the material. The dispensers of material are arranged to form rows when the machine moves along the field. The machine has a control system for selective stopping for dispensing the material by one or more dispensers while continuing to dispense the material by remaining dispensers. The machine has the means of translational motion and the means of automated determining of position and direction. The method comprises determining the perimeter of the field, identifying the areas of passage of headlands, determining the remaining central region of the field inside the passages of the headlands, the choice of a starting place to begin application of the material. The method also comprises determining a travel route for application of the material starting from the passages in both sides in the central area and turning the machine in the areas, and determining a route plan for the subsequent application of the material in the areas of the headlands. Each headland created around the field is equal to the full width of the machine. The area of passage of the first headland in the perimeter is adjacent to the outer edge of the field. All areas of the passages of the additional headlands are created inside the area of passage of the headland around the perimeter. According to the second embodiment, the method also comprises the use seeds as the material.

EFFECT: technology enables to minimise or eliminate compacting the areas with sown seeds due to exclusion of double passing of the machine on areas with sown seeds.

13 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises the basic tillage, sowing, care and harvesting. And the soil tillage is carried out with chisel tool with the formation of ridge bottom of the furrow, and sowing the crop is carried out over the deepening of the furrow bottom in every second deepening in the first year of sowing. In the second year the sowing is carried out over the unused deepening of the furrow bottom of the first year, and the width of row-spacing after tillage is equal to half the distance between the rows. The direction of sowing the crop is oriented perpendicular to the motion of the dominant wind. Sowing the crop over the deepening of the furrow bottom alternates with the steam bands, which are loosened during the growing season to the depth of 0.08-0.12 m at least 2 times. After harvesting the crops the plant residues are treated with biomineral preparation of nitrogenous fertilizers, complex humic concentrate and water taken in the ratio of 5:0.2:94.8 based on 310-320 kg per hectare.

EFFECT: method enables to preserve the soil fertility, destroy weeds, obtain quality products and save seeding material.

5 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises planting grass mixtures of legume crops. The tillage to a depth of 20-25 cm, surface levelling and sowing seeds is carried out with inter-row spacing of 15 cm under the scheme leban-alfalfa-alfalfa-leban. In the first year of life in May, in the budding phase - the beginning of flowering, the alfalfa is harvested together with leban for hay. On the second year in spring leban is used for hay, and in winter it is grazed off by sheep or cattle. In other years leban is grazed off at the grassroots alternatively - in summer and in winter, with seeding rate of leban of 5 kg/ha, alfalfa - 6 kg/ha of seeds. Two-component mixtures of leban and alfalfa are sown in winter. For self-sowing of leban every two years grazing of leban is alternated in summer and the following year in winter.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the productivity of grassland crops and to improve soil nutrient content.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and soil science. The method comprises cutting a groove along the site for determining the soil moisture capacity with the length of 0.5-0.7 m, width of 0.25-0.30 m to the depth of the estimated soil layer. Then, the groove is filled with water, water is supplied to the site from the grooves with infiltration for 7-14 cm, the water is discharged from the groove 30 minutes after pouring water. The groove is closed with boards or metal sheet, and the surrounding area within a radius of 1.0 m from the centre of the groove - with polyethylene film, 20 cm layer of straw and 20 cm layer of soil. The soil moisture capacity in the walls of the groove is determined on layers on the investigated depth in three, five, seven days in four-fold replications to establish a constant humidity, which will be considered its lowest moisture capacity (HB). Water to moisten the soil is fed from the groove, cut on the side of the experimental site, infiltration simultaneously in all layers.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce the period of determining HB by 16-18 days, the cost of water for its determination in 2,4 times, the need in electronic water meters in 6-11 times.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises watering using the system of mole drainage, flooding rice checks, mowing rice in rolls with two-three-fold threshing of rolls while leaving rice straw on the surface of the check. In autumn before fall ploughing the chemical ameliorant phosphogypsum is applied along with 60 t/ha manure on the surface in the dry state by spreading on the surface using spreaders. The ameliorant dose depends on the degree of soil salinisation: in case of the exchangeable sodium content of less than 15% 3-5 t/ha is applied, in case of 15-20% - 8-10 t/ha, and if it is greater than 20% - 10-15 t/ha. In spring the mole drainage of subsurface layer is carried out, the disease-treated rice seeds are sown in ordinary way. Then flooding of rice checks is carried out with water layer of 10-12 cm. In case of a very strong degree of soil salinity the originally created layer is drained after 2-3 days, and the checks are flooded again with fresh water, in the initial period of development of rice plants - from seed germination till emergence of 2-3 leaves, for the period of germination and seedling emergence (23-27 days) the water is drained and during this period dressing with fertilisers and growth stimulants is carried out, treatment with herbicides using aircraft is carried out. After the mass seedling emergence in phase of 2-3 leaves on the rice field layer of water of 10-12 cm is created again and supported up to tillering period, and then reduced to a level of 5-10 cm. If increase in mineralisation of water to 2 g/l in the check is recorded, its drainage and replacement with fresh water is required. In the early phase of booting the water layer is increased to 15 cm and kept to the end of the milk stage. In case of increasing of mineralisation of water its systematic replacement is carried out, then the water supply is stopped and by the beginning of full ripeness of grain the water is completely drained.

EFFECT: method enables to prevent the surface redistribution of irrigation water during irrigation, to reduce infiltration groundwater recharge, to prevent resalinisation of the soil root zone, and to reduce the salinity of the upper layer of soil, and to increase the grain yield of rice.

1 tbl

FIELD: environment protection.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

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