Setting of underwater vessels overboard ship in ice conditions
SUBSTANCE: this method relates to setting of underwater vessels overboard the ship in ice conditions. Strong air-inflatable tanks are used to make a bunch of required length to be secured at two bars aboard the ship. Produced structure is lowered in water to inflate said tanks and to push broken ice off the board. Note here that inflated structure draft exceeds the ice draft owing to deadweight.
EFFECT: higher safety, accelerated handling of submarines and other underwater equipment.
The invention relates to the field of use of technology of ocean management, as well as conducting underwater engineering and rescue operations in Arctic conditions, in the presence of ice cover in the area of statement of underwater vehicles from the ship.
The growing interest in the development of the Northern latitudes requires the creation of technical means of offshore zones, control the transport routes of oil and gas products and the actual development of the Arctic regions. In these circumstances there may be situations that require the examination of technological objects on the ground or assisting the crew of undersea vehicles in icy conditions. Arrived in the area and rescue the vessel may require the help of an icebreaker for crushing ice during the descent of the submersible vessel, if the ice thickness in the study area is significant. Even broken by the icebreaker ice may impede the process of setting underwater vehicle.
There are a number of technical solutions for the cleaning of a designated area of ice cover, for example, by using the directional effect of the explosion. For realization of this method used two closely spaced charge under water, and explosions are carried out with the specified millisecond delay. The explosion formed a lane with an area of up to 40-0% free from thrown ice (B. C. Kulikov. Features breaking the ice and permafrost in the explosion. Kolyma, 1971, No. 2.). However, such a method and the tools used to implement it despite the apparent effectiveness of analogue, unacceptable at the side of the rescue ship. Additionally, it may damage on the bottom of the object.
Known constructive solutions to ensure the safe transfer of devices from the vessel the carrier, for example, the American ship-carrier underwater vehicles with lowering the elevating shaft-type device inside the case - "Mizar" (A. V. Sytin. Unmanned underwater vehicles, M., Voenizdat, 1975). The descent and ascent uninhabited tethered devices through the mine with the help of special tripping device. The method used is mine and special technical devices allow the use of a production apparatus during the unrest, and with appropriate hull ice class is theoretically applicable in the Arctic.
However, the disadvantage of this method is the complexity of technical solutions and high cost projects because of these design features, and the question of ascent and enter the narrow hatch opening of the mine in the case of inhabited apparatus dangerous and complicated technologically.
Known attempts to use tunneling lag propellers in the bow cor�shit to flush ice from the ship, as it occurred during the dive manned submersibles "Mir" on the North pole in 2007 with R / V "Akademik Fedorov" (A. Chilingarov. The Arctic: the ecology and Economics, No. 3, 2012). Considered as a prototype method gave a temporary effect, surpassing the powerful jet of ice from the nose to the middle of the hull. However, the underwater vehicle while attempting the ascent of the stream drove under the ice, where he was chosen 40 minutes, breaking the outer part of the instrument and damaging the hull. Polynya is maintained thanks to the work of the atomic icebreaker.
The object of the invention is the possibility of the formation at the side of the rescue ship free from broken ice of the water surface reasonable size to ensure the launch and recovery of the manned and other subsea assets.
This is achieved by pushing off the ice, a wrecked ship or vessel, with lowered from the vessel displacement placesthe of high-strength elastic material, by means of supercharging air, and receive a free water surface in the shape of a half circle or ellipse.
The essence of the claimed method lies in the fact that they take an elastic solid vozduhonosnye capacity, attach them to the garland of the required length between spaced Board rods and connect the air hoses to the bottom part of the tanks are fixed ballast,�will escaut garland in the water then carry out a pressurization of the tanks and pushed back from the edge of the broken ice, draught displacement of the inflatable containers by a hinged ballast sediment exceeds tasneema ice.
The proposed solution has significant advantages over the considered prototypes:
a simple technical solution;
- cost in comparison with the design of the ship with a mine;
- less risk of maneuvering of the apparatus at the side than under the hull;
- prevents the possibility of impact of the device on the ice during the ascent.
The proposed method of setting underwater vehicles overboard in ice conditions has novelty in the use of inflatable displacement due to the ballast garlands of strong elastic vessels, pushed back the ice from the vessel, creating a free zone for the production of underwater vehicles.
The method is carried out as follows. In the guide grooves, welded vertically on Board a ship at a distance corresponding to the dimensions landers, insert two rods, between which is attached a garland elastic vodokanalnyh containers of cylindrical or cubic shape made of durable material, associated power hinges and air hoses between themselves and with the air line of the vessel. To the bottom of the containers is attached to the ballast. Garland put the crane�m overboard, from the vessel's mainline air is supplied for filling containers. Fluff the garland vessels thronging around the perimeter of the device of the ice. Attached to the bottom of the ballast tanks promotes uniform extension bit in the ice tanks with the necessary weight and draft, to all sides before making a regular geometric contour (hemisphere, ellipse). The effect is similar unfolding when inflating a Bicycle tire. Inside zone formed created a mirror of ice-free water, where you can make a descent underwater vehicles.
Positive is the ability to conduct salvage operations and underwater research existing part of a rescue and research vessels-media devices without having to develop specialized, expensive projects of special design.
The proposed method for the formation of a zone free from broken ice surface will provide vessels with underwater technical works connected with the production of overboard manned underwater vehicles and other equipment both in Arctic ice conditions, and in many glaciated areas of the middle latitudes when the need arises.
The way to ensure the formulation of underwater vehicles from ship in ice conditions, based on forming�rim of the ice-water surface, characterized in that the take an elastic solid vozduhonosnye capacity, attach them to the garland of the required length between spaced Board rods and connect the air hoses to the bottom part of the tanks are fixed ballast, and then put your design in the water from the vessel and carry out pressurization of the air tanks, draught displacement of inflatable tanks at the expense of the ballast exceeds sediment tasneema ice.
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: explosive charges are placed under the ice and undermined in sequence with the time interval equal to the time of passage of flexural-gravitation wave from the place of undermining the previous to the place of undermining the subsequent charges. Above the ice cover the explosive charges are placed and undermined simultaneously with undermining the charges placed under the ice cover. At that, before the placement of the explosive charges the speed and direction of wind, undercurrents and drifts of ice fields is measured, the thickness of ice is determined. The explosive charges are placed with the formation of the direction of propagation of the blast wave in the opposite directions from the location of marine object of economic activity. The watercraft influencing the ice cover is equipped with a source of gas and a system of its supply with a collector and comprises a cable-rope, the other end of which is connected through the electromagnetic breaker with the ballast. The charges are placed in watertight casings made in the form of a ball. The cable-rope is connected to the balls by the fuse lighter. The charges are made in the form of the volume-detonating mixture.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of protection of marine objects of economic activity.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is implemented by creation ship trim by the stern, and buoyancy force due to drainage of the ballast tanks. At that the ship is provided with additional buoyancy force that is periodically changed with frequency equal to natural frequency of the resonance bending-gravitational waves generated in ice cover by pulse load.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of ice destruction by submarine.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly to ice breaking facilities operated in combination with tug. Propose ice breaking adapter pushed by pusher tug is intended for making of navigable waterways in ices. Adapter hulls are composed of front and two lateral rigidly interconnected frame structure for tight contact with pusher tug. Said hulls feature a broken flat stern in shape approximating to triangle at waterline level. Lateral hulls feature equal width and are shifted downward from the main hull so that the line extending through their stems level with the waterline is spaced from the parallel line extending level with waterline through main hull stem-post at least 0.1 of the main hull width in its midship. Said lateral hulls are located on both sides from the main hull so that their midship planes are spaced from ice breaker midship plane by distance I defined by the formula: m, where Bf and Bl are widths of the front and lateral hulls in midship plane. Device for tight contact of said adapter with pusher tug is arranged at frame structure to extend by magnitude b making at least 3 m beyond the line passing through lateral hull stem-posts.
EFFECT: higher safety of navigation in ice.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vessel comprise hull with fore and aft, power plat to melt the ice aboard the vessel, at least two detachable fuel tanks for said power plant. Vessel fore has the chamber to be filled with collected ice. For this, ice loading opening is made at vessel fore. Opening lower part is arranged kevel to vessel waterline and gas the ramp skewed downward. Vessel is provide with at least one device for ice melting arranged in said compartment equipped with water discharge system.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of ice removal, lower costs.
23 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes actions to damage ice cover of a river and to erect a water barrier. The ice cover of the river is damaged by multiple parallel through slits 8. The water barrier 1 is erected in the form of an ice dam on a potentially flooded coast 5. The dam is built from ice blocks received as a result of sawing works on the river. The height of the dam must exceed the maximum level of the suggested water rise.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to speed up passage of floor waters during spring high water, to reduce economic damage from floods and to increase reliability of public and territories protection.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely to the protection of industrial facilities, lines of transportation, communication, various constructions against the harmful effects of water, and can be used to break the ice cover on rivers and water reservoirs. Method involves drilling of holes in the ice cover and laying of supply pipelines in them with subsequent destruction of the ice cover. Destruction of the ice cover is carried out via hydraulic fracturing by unregelating liquid, supplied under pressure into the previously pressure-sealed areas of these holes. Security for people during destruction of the ice cover is provided due to the possibility of its destruction from a safe distance, as well as safety improving for the engineering constructions and environmental safety.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the method due to the possibility of destruction of the ice cover into pieces of specified sizes in case of stratified break.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrology, in particular to regulation of ice conditions of rivers, namely to technology of works on elimination of ice jams on rivers, and is aimed at the prevention of jam-related floods. The device is a catamaran, in the hold of one of hulls of which a diesel engine is installed, and in another a generator with an accumulator battery is installed. The device has a screw shaft for the ice pre-capturing, a screw shaft with stiffeners for final braking of the ice, a transfer change gear for the rotation of the screw shaft with stiffeners. On the shaft with stiffeners a gear wheel for the rotation of the screw shaft of the ice pre-capturing through a cargo chain is installed. The shaft of the ice pre-capturing rotates and moves up and down along the bracket groove. Rise and lowering of the screw shaft of the ice pre-capturing is performed by a hydraulic piston. The front part of the catamaran is fitted with a tank with holes for passing of water and collecting the ice pieces after preliminary passing of the river ice breaker. The similar tank and the screw shaft are installed aft the catamaran. Propulsion engines are installed in the engine room under the pilot cabin between the catamaran hulls. For the adjustment of the length of the screw shaft the brackets on racks are installed.
EFFECT: prevention of destructive floods in jam regions is provided.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preventive jobs aimed at prevention of ice jams formation at river section and can be used for softening of ice cover at areas of underwater communications. Ice cover cleaned of snow is blacked to arranged ice bulky lens. The latter focus sun rays at blacked surface and inside ice cover.
EFFECT: accelerated destruction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ice technology, in particular, to performing icebreaking works with air-cushion ships. During the low tide the air-cushion ship moves with the resonance speed along the shoreline at a distance from the edge of the cadder and excites the resonant flexural-gravity waves in the ice, at that the transverse periodic motion is transmitted to the ship, with an amplitude not exceeding the half of the wavelength of the static deflection of ice, and the frequency equal to the frequency of resonant flexural-gravity waves.
EFFECT: increase of the efficiency of ice cover destruction.
SUBSTANCE: antiicing device for a hydraulic structure located on a shallow continental shelf includes protective elements 2 and fastening elements attaching the protective elements to water area bottom. Protective elements 2 are made in the form of submersible many-sided pontoons with possibility of their being filled with ballast material, one end face is provided with an inclined section and equipped with deflector 3 in its upper part, and the other, at least two end faces are vertical, along which pontoons are attached to each other. Pontoons form closed structure 4 in the form of a polygon in a plan view with two front walls 12 forming an ice-cutting wedge along its central axis, with two side walls 13 and rear wall 14 with possibility of its being disconnected. Each pontoon is installed with its end face with the inclined section and deflector 3 outwards, thus forming closed extended deflector 3 and an inclined surface, which envelop the whole structure along external perimeter. Two front walls 12 are made at least of two pontoons in the form of symmetrical polygons elongated in a longitudinal direction and provided at least with four side faces. Side walls 13 and rear wall 14 are made of pontoons in the form of polygons at least with three side faces. Side wall 13 is tightly attached with its end surfaces to vertical surfaces of front 12 and rear 14 walls. Fastening elements are made in the form of hollow piles and installed throughout the height of pontoons of front 12 and side 13 walls into the corresponding through holes 5.
EFFECT: improving protection efficiency of a hydraulic structure against ice and simplifying the device design.
9 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of coast protection against tsunami. The method to protect the coast against tsunami consists in the fact that sea surface in front of the protected coast is coated with a film having the property of meniscal buoyancy. A hydrophobic anti-wetted coating is applied onto the surface of the film with the edge wetting angle of more than 120°. The device of coast protection against tsunami comprises a film having a property of meniscal buoyancy, which by sections is rolled into a roll on a spool. One short side of the film is fixed to the spool fixed on the fixed axis installed on supports, strongly attached to the bottom of the sea, and the other short side of the film is fixed to a hollow rod having buoyancy.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides for protection of a sea coast against tsunami waves.
13 cl, 7 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly, to vessels with wind-driven rotors. The proposed vessel contains at least one wind-driven rotor, herewith, this vessel has fore part which contains height-adjustable and/or swinging plate by means of which waves reaching vessel fore are broken. Method of such vessel operation is also proposed.
EFFECT: better vessel operational properties, higher navigation safety.
9 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for monitoring vessel insubmersibility consists in measuring in measurement unit (1) following parameters: vessel angular motions (2) and accelerations (3) relative to longitudinal and lateral central axes, linear motions (4) and (5) determining fore and aft drafts, vessel rolling motion period of encounter (6), angle of encounter (7), vessel speed (8), linear motions and accelerations (9) relative to vertical central axis, levels of liquid in flooded compartments (10). Based on measurements, informational vector of measurements is generated, immersion case is determined, "sliding window" is chosen, rolling and pitching modes are set, equilibrium parameters of injured vessel sitting are determined, marginal values of sitting parameters are chosen, injured vessel and damage stability condition is evaluated, measures for vessel aligning and stability recovering are implemented.
EFFECT: higher safety of navigation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means facilitating safety of navigation. Ship rescue system comprises flexible belt of high-strength material with pressure limiting valves and webs dividing said belt into four parts, slings embracing said belt, means of fastening said slings along ship aft with stiffness ribs, unions, hoses and cylinders with compressed air, electrically drive valves and gates to force compressed air into said belt, belt jacket with lock and hinge.
EFFECT: simplified design, higher operating properties.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to structural material to be used in aircraft engineering and ship building, industrial and civil engineering, etc. Said structural material comprises multiple composites secured at sheet base with free space there between. Said components are formed separately by free poring, compaction, molding or extrusion from syntactic foam polymer based on thermoset binder selected from the group including polyether resin, polyimide resin, vinyl ether resin and epoxy resin. Proposed method comprises making separate composites from syntactic foam plastic and securing them at sheet base with free space there between.
EFFECT: material for vacuum or injection molding that features advantages of syntactic polymer and better manufacturability.
19 cl, 2 tbl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship-type self-floating structure 5 comprising, at least, one tank 1 with polluting fluid and, at least, one emergency coupling communicated with said tank 1. Said coupling (11a, 11b) communicates with said tank via means (25, 27; 31). Invention covers two versions of extracting polluting fluid spilled from at least one tank 1 of structure 5 that suffered shipwreck. In compliance with first version, said fluid is pumped via, at least, one channel (7a, 7b; 21; 23; 31; 33; 39; 41; 45) designed to fulfill at least one function used in normal conditions. In compliance with second version, displacement sea water is forced into said tank via said channel (7a, 7b; 21; 23; 31; 33; 39; 41; 45), to collect said polluting fluid via, at least, one second channel (7a, 7b; 21; 23; 31; 33; 39; 41; 45). Note here that, at least, one of said channels is intended, at least, partially, for fulfilling one function used in normal conditions.
EFFECT: avoidance of ship design meshing.
19 cl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly to marine escape systems. Proposed vessel comprises the device that incorporates folded elastic inflatable bags arranged inside wing spaces. Said bags comprise check valves and are furnished with inflatable stiffeners communicated with compressed gas source. Given the threat of deluging, compressed gas is forced into said stiffeners for them to take up the shape of wing space. Note here that aforesaid bags are filled with air of wing spaces. Check valves do not allow air to escape from the bags when water flows into wing spaces.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of compressed air, higher efficiency of rescue equipment.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to onboard emergency equipment for water transport. Proposed device comprises box with guides for gate and gate proper. If break leak originates, trap will be secured above hull breach to shut off water flow by said gate.To liquidate break leak at points where equipment mounted nearby ship side, said trap can comprise a hose. Said hose has its one end secured to the bottom frame to be arranged above the hull breach. Water flow is diverted by said hose and shut off the gate on top frame whereto second end of the hose is secured.
EFFECT: expanded performances in flood control.
2 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of unloading polystyrene from the ship bulk holds prior to repair or utilisation works. The said method includes cutting out openings in the ship upper and lower bulk heads, placing a pan in the lower cut-out opening to pour loose polystyrene in, crushing the sintered polystyrene and removing it through the lower provisional opening. The sintered polystyrene is crushed by mechanical means. For this, a rotary long lance is moved through the upper provisional opening inside the bulk head and a nozzle of vacuum unit hose is fitted in the lower provisional opening. Polystyrene is sacked into one of the vacuum unit sacks to be changed over on filling, the filled up sack being replaced with a new one. Note that humidified air is forced through the upper provisional opening to prevent polystyrene granule electrisation and to blow the granules off the bulk head surfaces. Polystyrene stuck to the ship inner surfaces and that poured into the aforesaid pan is gathered by the said vacuum unit.
EFFECT: dry high-efficiency continuous unloading of polystyrene from the submarine ballast tanks ruling out its scattering on over the slip.
FIELD: shipbuilding; building of ships used for enhancing ship's unsinkability.
SUBSTANCE: proposed watercraft has hull formed by longitudinal and transverse bulkheads with side, fore and aft buoyancy compartments which are hollow in form. These compartments form central open compartment (compartments). Hull is also provided with scuppers. Fore, side and aft buoyancy compartments are made in such way that their lower parts may be brought in communication with atmosphere. These compartments may be flooded with water to level of air cushion formed at this. Maximum buoyancy of watercraft is ensured at reduction of pressure in compartments due to dewatering of central open compartment which is not closed over perimeter through at least one scupper located at level of existing waterline corresponding to position of ship at flooding of central open compartment to level of said scupper.
EFFECT: enhanced safety of operation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ice destruction for making passages in ice fields. Proposed process is based on two effects to be brought on ice fields: irradiation with high-power laser radiation and straining of ice by ice breaker hull. Laser units are installed at ice breaker with their focusing devices are directed downward, onto ice cover. To make the cutouts in ice field it is irradiated starting from the field edge and proceeded in lines parallel with ice breaker heading. The destruction of ice cover is performed in said lines of cutouts at strain developed by ice breaker hull in motion.
EFFECT: accelerated process, lower strain at ice breaker hull.
2 cl, 8 dwg