Desalination plant and its thermosoftener

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: desalination multistage adiabatic plant additionally comprises a thermosoftener (52) which serves for the generation of sludge particles in the feed water heated in a steam heater (26) and taken from a pipeline to supply the feed water to the inlet of a multi-stage adiabatic evaporator (4), as well as a two-section feed water receiver (76) to reduce supersaturation in the sea water being evaporated due to the usage of sludge particles as "seed crystals" in the supersaturated solution volume. The thermosoftener (52) comprises a perforated membrane (56) built-in in the casing (53) under the cover, a dome-shaped horizontal partition (61) installed with a gap in respect to the inner casing wall, vertical cylindrical shells, a manifold to withdraw the vapour (62) under the dome-shaped partition, a branch pipe for water withdrawal is united with the sludge particle removal and is mounted in the casing bottom, and the branch pipe for steam supply is built-in in the casing cover.

EFFECT: lower rate of scale formation on working surfaces of the plant elements.

2 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of seawater desalination and can be used in desalination plants stationary and marine performance.

As is known in countries with limited natural fresh water resources (rivers, lakes, groundwater and underground sources), such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, etc., as well as on ships, the main source of replenishment of fresh water used for domestic, technological and technical needs are installation for the desalination of sea water. The most known and widespread installations of desalination are thermal distillation of sea water with successive organization of processes of heating, evaporation and condensation.

Currently as desalination plants large capacity, wide application and popularity are multi-stage adiabatic desalination plant using high-vacuum mode. The essence of this known installation adiabatic multistage desalination is the presence of steps vacuum evaporation produced by the use of heat prior overheating of sea water to the saturation temperature at the corresponding stage of evaporation, which is provided by application of drosseln�x spray the heated liquid in the evaporation chambers with a step reduction in operating pressure evaporation and subsequent condensation of secondary steam with the organization of removal of distillate.

A common drawback of these widely known adiabatic desalination plants is scale formation on heat transfer surfaces of the outer feed water heater and the secondary steam condensers, in the working channels of the secondary steam separator and the bypass channels and spraying throttle evaporated sea water in the stages of evaporation, due to the high content in sea water recipeeasy hardness (CaCO3, Mg(OH)2, CaSO4), which has a negative temperature of the heating fluid solubility, which determines the increase in the degree of supersaturation of the solution of these components with increasing temperature of the heating fluid. The presence of natural crystallization centers (wall roughness, contamination, etc.) on the working surfaces of the elements of the desalination plant, providing heating and moving the heated sea water, combined with overheating parietal layers supersaturated by Nechiporuk salts solutions in terms of regenerative supply and removal of heat (via a heat exchanger wall) determines the inevitability of the deposition of scale on heat transfer surfaces during heating of feed water and condensing the secondary vapor, and also on the surfaces of the working channels of the secondary steam separator and the channels Peipus�and throttle and spray evaporated solution during its move sequentially in the steps of the evaporator.

It is well known that the intensity of scale formation increases with the increase of calorific heat transfer surfaces, increasing the heating temperature and the multiplicity of evaporation of the solution, i.e. is determined by the degree of supersaturation of the solution by Nechiporuk salts. It is these circumstances dictated the necessity of limiting the preheating temperature of the feed water in the outer heater and the use of multi-stage high-vacuum evaporation of seawater in the well-known adiabatic desalination plants to ensure acceptable operating conditions the rate of scale formation on the working surfaces of their elements.

Known complementary versions of the description of the same high-vacuum vessel 5-speed adiabatic vacuum desalination plant type M5 capacity of 240 tonnes per day, taken as a prototype [UDC 621.187.12. Kovalenko V. F., Lukin G. Y. / Shipboard desalination installation. - Leningrad: Sudostroenie, 1970. - 304 p., Fig.89, Fig.90, pp. 239-244, and descriptions of the same author UDC 639.2.061 Lukin G. J., Kolesnik N. N. /Desalination plant of the fishing fleet. - M.: Food industry, 1970. - 368 p., Fig.44, Fig.45, pp. 130-135].

This desalination plant, include:

- outdoor multi-way (for heated water) cover�pipe steam feed water heater, with straight-tube bundle with a dividing partition forming a vapor cavity for the collection and subsequent removal of non-condensed vapor mixture and is equipped with a condensate collector with a level sensor;

- two-stage steam jet ejector;

- condenser two-stage steam jet ejector with separate chambers condensation of air-steam mixture ejectors respectively from the first and second stages, forming, together with a series connected tubes of the cooling water coolers-condensers with their collections of condensate, a communication between the U-shaped pipe, and provided with a separate branch pipes of the exhaust air from these chambers condensation;

- pumps (feed, condensate, brine), piping, disconnecting and switching automatic valves, control and measuring devices (thermometers, manometers, vacuum gauges, flow meters), the means of automatic control and protection (altomare, level controls condensate and distillate, temperature controllers, etc.);

- multi-stage adiabatic evaporator mounted in a sealed enclosure, made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped and comprising a vertical partition forming a separate stage of evaporation, in every� of which in the upper area of the horizontally mounted two-way (for cooling water) shell-and-tube condenser of the secondary pair, with straight-tube bundle with baffle wall forming a cavity for the collection and subsequent removal of non-condensed steam mixture, and include a collection of the distillate, and in the middle area mounted secondary vapor separator louvered type, designed for the separation of droplets of brine that is captured by the rising steam, and separating these stages of evaporation on the upper zone, which is a condenser and bottom, which are evaporative. In the lower zone of each stage of evaporation placed receiver brine in the degree of evaporation, in the form of the dipleg larger diameter, connected to a bypass pipe throttle-spray device for a subsequent stage of evaporation of the evaporator. And each of these bypass pipes contains in its upper free part built this throttle device, above the upper edge of each of which is placed the mushroom bump, performing the function of the reflectors fountain water jets emanating from the holes in the throttle device, which contributes to droplet atomization of superheated brine and creates conditions for effective evaporation.

All these stages of evaporation consistently communicated with each other connecting a bypass pipe cooling�th water capacitors and is provided with a secondary steam pipes serial bypass steam mixture formed from the corresponding cavities of these capacitors secondary steam from the first stage evaporation of the latter, and the two adjacent cameras of the speed of evaporation pairwise sequentially communicated with each other in the lower zone bypass tube from the receivers of the brine in the degree of evaporation to throttle-spray devices subsequent stages of evaporation.

In this case, the receiver of brine in the last stage of evaporation communicated with brine efflux pump, a discharge pipe which has a branch jumper with valve built into the pipeline before the supply pump of the evaporator, a pressure cavity which communicates with the inlet conduit of the cooling pipes of the secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation. And pressure pipe feed pump equipped with a flow meter, and the inlet pipe has a built-in filter seawater.

Multistage adiabatic evaporator system also contains interstage orifice plate installed at the tubes of successive bypass steam-air mixture from the secondary steam condensers. When this vapor cavity secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation communicated with the receiving cavity of the mixing chamber steam jet ejector first-stage, the output of the diffuser portion which is communicated with the vapor discharge chamber to the condensation of the condenser of the first stage Paros�rujnogo of the ejector.

The cavity of the mixing chamber steam jet ejector second stage is connected to the air outlet nozzle from the chamber of condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector, steam jet exhaust diffuser of the second stage ejector is connected to the vapor chamber to the condensation of the condenser of the second stage steam jet ejector, provided with a pipe venting into the atmosphere.

Input a nozzle part of both of these ejectors connected in parallel to the line of flow of the working pair and the cavity of the condensate collector chamber to the condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector communicating with the cavity condensate collector outdoor multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater.*

*Note. In the text of the publication source of the known solutions-prototype on page 241 (Fig.89) apparent typo in the part of connection stages of steam jet ejector to the triple condenser steam jet ejectors, making the system is clearly not working. In this regard, in the text of the description of the prototype made appropriate adjustments based on the technical descriptions multi-stage steam jet ejector, provided in the guidelines for the commissioning and operation of steam jet ejectors condensing RD 34.30.302-87 (Fig.2).

To foster cha�ti cooling pipes camera condensation of the condenser of the second stage steam jet ejector summed up the discharge pipe of the cooling water secondary steam condenser of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and the outlet side of the cooling pipe camera condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector communicated with the receiving part of the water cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, steam chamber which is also connected to the low potential source of heating steam (e.g., steam selection from the auxiliary turbine via the steam line with a built-in temperature controller, who is this heater made with cross direction of their mutually Teploobmennik environments with a rectilinear direction of movement of the heated stream

The outlet side of the water cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, in turn, by means of outlet pipe, provided with a temperature sensor connected via control pulse with a temperature controller, built-in inlet steam heating steam, is connected to the inlet of the feedwater receiver of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator is embedded along the axis of its elliptical bottom, and to the output of the feedwater receiver is connected with a bypass pipe throttle-distribution devices of a first stage of evaporation of the evaporator.

The collected distillate of all the capacitors of the secondary couple pairs last�consistently communicated between pipes interstage bypass distillate, each of which is made in the form of U-shaped tube, wherein the collection of distillate secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation is connected to the inlet piping of the tank distillate notified by the pipeline with an extraction distillate pump.

Wherein said interstage moving air-steam mixture, distillate and evaporated brine is due to the pressure differential in adjacent stages of evaporation of the evaporator.

The air cavity of the distillate tank communicates with the vapor space of the secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation of the evaporator to equalize the pressure in these cavities and reliable flow of distillate. Moreover, the distillate tank is equipped with level sensor and communicated to the control pulse with level control tank built into the pressurized part of the pipeline pumping distillate pump, to maintain its operating level and stable operation of the pump, and on the downstream pressure pipeline pumping distillate pump is equipped with a flow meter and automatic three-way switching solenoid valve, switching the pipeline on the discharge of the distillate with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera mounted on the measuring of�water bridge circuit distillate.

Air-steam air-steam mixture from the cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater designated by a conduit to a vapor cavity secondary steam condenser of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and the condensate of the heating steam from the condensate collector of outdoor multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater designated for the pipeline pumping the condensate pump into the tank the condensate for reuse in the steam and condensate loop. The condensate collector is equipped with a level sensor, reported by the control pulse with level control, installed on the discharge line suction condensate pump, to maintain the operating level in the collection and ensure stable operation of the pump, and on the downstream of its discharge pipe installed automatic three-way switching solenoid valve to switch the pipeline to discharge condensate with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera mounted on the measuring bypass jumper circuit condensate.

A well-known disadvantage of this desalination plant (SA) is scale formation on heat transfer surfaces of the outer mnogohodovok� shell-and-tube steam feed water heater and the secondary steam condensers, on the surfaces of the working channels of the Louvre separator secondary steam and the working elements of the throttle-spray devices multi-stage evaporator, which reduces its life.

The mechanism of scale formation is a rather complex process occurring at the molecular level, with the fundamental conditions of the beginning of scale formation are:

- the presence of a supersaturation of ions of scale-forming salts in the near-wall fluid layers or in the bulk solution, i.e. the limit is reached, the solubility of the salts;

- the presence of nucleation on the wall (roughness, scale crystals, impurities, etc.), or - in the volume of fluid (vapor bubbles, suspended particles of dirt and sludge formed).

The presence of significant quantities of ions of Ca2+, Mg2+,SO42andHCO3causes rigidity of the sea water, which comes to 140 mEq/L. While in the process of heating and evaporation of salt solution hardness CaCO3, Mg(OH)2, CaSO4having a negative temperature of the heating fluid solubility, comes in the form of scale on �aloperidin and working surfaces or sludge in the volume of the solution in achieving the supersaturation of the solution on these components, and the ratio of these two forms of reduction of supersaturation of the solution is determined by the ratio of the total surface of nucleation on surfaces and in the bulk liquid.

X-ray analysis of scale from evaporators sea water shows that in General it is composed of three principal components: calcium carbonate CaCO3, magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2and calcium sulfate CaSO4, and the structure and chemical composition of salt deposits is largely determined by the temperature of the workflow implemented in the OS.

Calcium carbonate is formed as a result of heating of the bicarbonate:

Ca(HCO3)2→CaCO3↓+H2O+CO2

The overwhelming content of CaCO3typical vacuum evaporator, where the evaporation temperature does not exceed 60-80°C. Carbonate scale is characterized by relatively low density, loose structure and low strength. It dissolves easily almost all acids, except for oxalic. All these qualities are a consequence of the same properties of calcium carbonate - the ability to form crystals (sludge) in the water column.

A similar reaction takes place, and bicarbonate of magnesium when heated:

Mg(HCO3)2→MgCO3+H2O+CO2

When heated water causes the hydrolysis of magnesium carbonate with �education of sparingly soluble compounds of magnesium hydroxide:

MgCO3+2H2O→Mg(OH)2↓+H2CO3

Magnesium hydroxide is the main component of scale at temperatures of 70-100°C, i.e., characteristic of evaporators operating at a pressure close to atmospheric. Magnesia limescale carbonate differs from higher density and thermal conductivity (10-15%). Magnesium hydroxide is much less soluble in acids than carbonate scale.

Sulphate scale CaSO4most of trudnorastvorim is indeed the main obstacle in evaporators to temperatures in excess of 100-120°C. the deposition is a direct consequence of the lowering of the solubility of calcium sulfate with increasing temperature of the solution.

The negative side of the scale formation due to the low thermal conductivity of crustose deposits (0.2 to 1.2 W/(m·K)), which is ten times smaller than thermal conductivity of the metal (30-35 W/(m·K). Because even a small thickness of scale deposits on heat transfer surfaces leads to a significant decrease in the performance of the OS, and when it reaches scale thickness 0.8-1.0 mm is already required to stop and a conclusion from operation of the desalination plant for cleaning heat exchangers and the working surfaces of the above-mentioned elements and components of the shelter from the resulting scale widely known methods (for example, acid cleaning), which is a very lengthy and time consuming process

Therefore, the rate of processes of scale formation, which determines the period between cleanings, can serve as an objective criterion for evaluating the reliability of the OS.

In connection with this urgent social need and urgent task to ensure the required reliability of the desalination plant is to reduce the rate of scale formation on the working surfaces of its elements, by finding the temperature regimes and the application of appropriate technological devices.

In known OS the task of providing a maximum speed of scale formation on heat transfer surfaces of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater and shell-and-tube condensers secondary steam operating in the regenerative mode of heat transfer (heat transfer through the wall) without evaporation, is solved by the use of low-grade sources of heating steam (e.g., steam from auxiliary selection turbines) to limit the heating temperature of the sea water and the use of high-vacuum mode of operation of the desalination plant, i.e. by reducing the heat rate of heat transfer surfaces and temperature workflows. However, to ensure the required reliability of the secondary steam separators louvered type and throttle-spray �disorders (OTHER), designed for bypass and spraying evaporated supersaturated brine in conditions of increasing concentrations of hardness salts in solution during the subsequent step of evaporation, it is clearly insufficient, and this determines the need for additional technological devices to reduce the rate of scale formation on the working surfaces of the channels louvered secondary steam separators, throttle openings and passageways of the OTHER, due to the crystallization of salts on natural on the crystallization centers (roughness, unevenness, pollution), always present on these surfaces, which may cause impaired operation mode OS and may even lead to the need for the full stop, that is really essential.

Known attempt to use OU granular prisadkov" consisting in the use of fine powders (e.g., chalk) by introducing into the volume of the feed water in an amount of 8-10 g/l as "seed crystals", [Kovalenko V. F., Lukin G. Y. /Shipboard desalination installation. Leningrad: Sudostroenie, 1970.- p. 110-111]. These particles, the total surface which is significantly more than the total natural surface nucleation on rough walls, showing�ü centers of crystallization in the volume of the supersaturated solution, allow it to distract the process of scale formation from a rough surface channels speed bypass and throttle openings on OTHER suspended in the fluid volume of the particle, i.e., to replace the process of scale formation on surfaces in intensive sliming in the volume of the supersaturated solution. Thus by reducing the supersaturation of the solution at these "seed crystals" in the volume of the brine contained in the near-bottom zone and the receivers brine subsequent stages of evaporation, creating favorable conditions for the reduction of scale formation on the surfaces of the working channels louver separator by reducing the concentration of hardness salts in the droplets of brine remain abreast together with the flow of the separated secondary steam. Marked set of processes proceeds similarly all the way stepwise adiabatic evaporation and sequential bypass throttle and spraying the brine.

However, the implementation of this technical solution associated with the use of "seed" material with a specific gravity of 2.7-2.8 g/cm3(significantly greater than the density of water ρ=1.0 g/cm3in known multi-stage adiabatic desalination plant, paired with the need for effective circulation in the volume of liquid to preclude deposition "stravon�x" material on the bottom of the evaporator in the lower zone of the chambers of stages of evaporation, what determines the need to install special devices for effective mixing volume of fluid in the bottom zone of the stages of evaporation, which is quite difficult and unreliable. Thus the inevitable deposition of "seed" material, without reducing the number of "seed" crystals in the volume of the supersaturated solution during the step of evaporation and sequential bypass and throttling leads to a decrease in the efficiency of suppression of the formation in the marked elements of the evaporator. Moreover, the need for prior preparation and dosage encodestring powders leads to a significant increase in the cost and complexity of service known to the desalination plant. In the end, this technological method does not provide an effective solution of the technical problem to improve the reliability of the desalination plant has not found its applications

The objective of the claimed group of inventions is to eliminate these shortcomings, namely: the rejection of the use of additional "seed" materials; reducing the complexity of the process device; providing an effective speed reduction of scale formation on the surfaces of the working channels of the Louvre secondary steam separators, as well as in hole�the rd and the bypass channels of the OTHER and increase the reliability of the OS through the development and use of innovative technological and design solutions.

The stated technical problem is achieved in that in the known desalination plant, including:

- outdoor multi-way (for heated water) shell-and-tube steam feed water heater having a straight-tube bundle with a dividing partition forming a vapor cavity for the collection and subsequent removal of non-condensed vapor mixture and is equipped with a condensate collector with a level sensor;

- two-stage steam jet ejector;

- condenser two-stage steam jet ejector with separate chambers condensation of air-steam mixture ejectors respectively from the first and second stages, forming, together with a series connected tubes of the cooling water coolers-condensers with their collections of condensate, a communication between the U-shaped pipe, and provided with a separate branch pipes of the exhaust air from these chambers condensation. The condensate collector is used here, the volume of the lower zone of the condensation chambers;

- pumps (feed, condensate, brine), piping, disconnecting and switching automatic valves, control and measuring devices (thermometers, manometers, vacuum gauges, flow meters), the means of automatic control and protection (altomare, users�ora the level of the condensate and the distillate, temperature controllers, etc.);

- multi-stage adiabatic evaporator mounted in a sealed enclosure, made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, and contains a vertical partition forming a separate stage of evaporation, each of which in the upper area of the horizontally mounted two-way (for cooling water) shell-and-tube condenser secondary steam having a straight-tube bundle with baffle wall forming a cavity for the collection and subsequent removal of non-condensed steam mixture, and include a collection of the distillate, and in the middle area mounted secondary vapor separator louvered type, designed for the separation of droplets of brine, the captured steam rising and separating these stages of evaporation on the upper zone, which is a condenser and bottom, which are evaporative. In the lower zone of each stage of evaporation placed receiver brine in the degree of evaporation, in the form of the dipleg larger diameter, connected to a bypass pipe throttle-spray device for subsequent stages of evaporation. And each of these bypass pipes contains in its upper free part built this throttle device, above the upper cut�, each of which is placed the mushroom bump, performing the function of the reflectors fountain water jets emanating from the holes in the throttle device, which contributes to droplet atomization of superheated brine and creates conditions for effective evaporation.

All these stages of evaporation consistently communicated between bypass tube connecting the cooling water condensers steam and provided with a pipe serial bypass steam mixture formed from the corresponding cavities of these capacitors secondary steam from the first stage of evaporation to the last, and the two adjacent stage chamber evaporation pairwise sequentially communicated with each other in the lower zone bypass tube from the receivers of the brine in the degree of evaporation to throttle-spray devices subsequent stages of evaporation. In this case, the receiver of brine in the last stage of evaporation communicated with brine efflux pump, a discharge pipe which has a branch jumper with valve built into the pipeline before the supply pump of the evaporator, a pressure cavity which communicates with the inlet conduit of the cooling pipes of the secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation. And pressure pipe feed pump equipped with a flow meter and suction pipe �slim filter seawater. Mentioned branch jumper with valve is used to maintain the design temperature of cooling water at the entrance to the capacitor of the last stage of evaporation when swimming in cold waters by partial bypass of the brine in the cooling duct (nutrient) water.

Multistage adiabatic evaporator (hereinafter referred to as "evaporator") also contains a system interstage orifice plate installed at the tubes of successive bypass steam-air mixture from the secondary steam condensers. When this vapor cavity secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation communicated with the receiving cavity of the mixing chamber steam jet ejector first-stage, the output of the diffuser portion which is communicated with the vapor discharge chamber to the condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector. The cavity of the mixing chamber steam jet ejector second stage is connected to the air outlet nozzle from the chamber of condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector, steam jet exhaust diffuser of the second stage ejector is connected to the vapor chamber to the condensation of the condenser of the second stage steam jet ejector, provided with a pipe venting into the atmosphere.

Marked diagram of the exhaust air-steam mixture from the con�of Enstrom secondary steam vaporizer with intermediate condensation of the mixed medium in the chamber with condensing steam jet ejector first-stage can significantly reduce the consumption of the working steam at steam the second stage ejector for reducing the volume of the transported medium flowing into the cavity of the mixing chamber.

Input a nozzle part of both of these ejectors connected in parallel to the line of flow of the working pair and the cavity of the condensate collector chamber to the condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector communicating with the cavity condensate collector outdoor multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater.

While stepwise increasing the working vacuum in the steps of evaporation of the evaporator is provided by condensing steam in the condensers of the respective stages of evaporation and operation of the two stage steam jet ejector, suction air-steam air-steam mixture from the cavity of the secondary steam condenser of the last stage of the evaporator, through the system, interstage orifice plate embedded in the pipe interstage bypass air-steam mixture.

To the receiving part of the cooling pipes of the chamber of condensation of the condenser of the second stage steam jet ejector summed up the discharge pipe of the cooling water secondary steam condenser of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and the outlet side of the cooling pipe camera condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector communicated with the receiving part in�Noi external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, steam chamber which is also connected to the low potential source of heating steam through the steam pipe with a built-in temperature controller. And he this heater is made with a cross-direction mutually Teploobmennik environments with a rectilinear direction of movement of the heated stream.

The outlet side of the water cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, in turn, by means of outlet pipe, provided with a temperature sensor connected via control pulse with a temperature controller, built-in inlet steam heating steam, is connected to the inlet of the feedwater receiver of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator is embedded along the axis of its elliptical bottom, and to the output of the feedwater receiver is connected with a bypass pipe throttle-distribution devices of a first stage of evaporation of the evaporator.

The collected distillate of all the capacitors of the secondary pair in pairs consistently communicated between pipes interstage bypass distillate, each of which is made in the form of U-shaped tube, the height of the liquid column which uniquely identifies the working pressure difference between the stages of evaporation of the evaporator, i.e., the temperature difference of�of ysenia evaporated brine in adjacent stages of evaporation. The collection of distillate secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation is connected to the inlet piping of the tank distillate notified by the pipeline with an extraction distillate pump.

Mentioned interstage moving distillate and steam mixture and evaporated brine is due to the pressure differential in adjacent stages of evaporation of the evaporator.

The air cavity of the distillate tank communicates with the vapor space of the secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation of the evaporator to equalize the pressure in these cavities and reliable flow of distillate. Moreover, the distillate tank is equipped with level sensor and communicated to the control pulse with level control tank built into the pressurized part of the pipeline of the pump, to maintain its operating level and stable operation of pumping distillate pump. Moreover, on the downstream pressure pipeline pumping distillate pump is equipped with a flow meter and automatic three-way switching solenoid valve, switching the pipeline on the discharge of the distillate with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera mounted on the measuring bypass jumper circuit distillate.

Paravastu�tial air-steam mixture from the cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater designated by a conduit to a vapor cavity secondary steam condenser of the first stage evaporation of the evaporator, and the condensate of the heating steam from the condensate collector of outdoor multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater designated for the pipeline pumping the condensate pump into the tank the condensate for reuse in the steam and condensate loop. The condensate collector is equipped with a level sensor, reported by the control pulse with level control, installed on the discharge line suction condensate pump, to maintain the working level in the condensate collector and ensure stable operation of the pump. Moreover, on the downstream of its discharge pipe installed automatic three-way switching solenoid valve to switch the pipeline to discharge condensate with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera mounted on the measuring bypass jumper circuit condensate; in CONTRAST, the claimed apparatus further comprises a two-piece receiver feed water pipes for supplying and discharging water environments, set before the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and thermometrical that contains the pipes for supplying and discharging the working environments. In this case, the nozzle for supplying thereto an aqueous environment communicated with the branch, they�appropriate control valve, the flow meter and level control. Moreover, this branch is built into the discharge pipe water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater. The outlet nozzle of the water environment with suspended sludge turbomachines communicated with the inlet of the two-piece receiver feed water, and the outlet nozzle of the vapor environment in communication with the vapor cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater. A nozzle for supplying a pair of turbomachines communicated with a source of heating steam to reheat it in the water environment.

Himself a two-piece receiver feedwater comprises a cylindrical body with an elliptical lid and bottom, the pipes for supplying and discharging water environments, connections for index column in its upper part and equipped with a level sensor (for example, float type), installed in the upper part of its cylindrical body, and has an additional shell inside the case, built on the axis of its elliptical bottom with the length by its height from the bottom equal to the height of the cylindrical body portion, and forming two vertical open cavity: external and Central. The external cavity of the outlet pipe, placed in its lower zone communicating with Patras�bcom supply of water environment of the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and the Central cavity of the pipe inlet, built-in axis of the bottom is connected to the discharge piping water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, containing control valve and level control, communicated by the control pulse with level gauge two-piece feedwater receiver, installed in the upper part of its cylindrical body. Moreover, its Central cavity in the lower zone also communicates with the pipe for supplying water mixed with sludge from thermomyces for their qualitative mixing with feed water. Axis of the elliptical cap has a built-in air outlet nozzle connected to the piping with air valve.

In the composition of the proposed desalination plant, as a whole, these additional components are designed to implement two technologically interrelated processes. So thermomaster as a part of the whole, which can be used independently, it is a technological device for generating particles of a movable sludge in the volume of supersaturated by Nechiporuk salts solution used in the subsequent in General, namely in the two-piece receiver feedwater as "seed crystals" to reduce the supersaturation of salts of the same�dosti in the volume of the heated feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator due to sludge formation in its entirety (thermal softening).

Termoemcali, as part of a whole, being the determining element in this interconnected technological chain thermal softening of the feed water ow, meets the following basic requirements: the ability to generate the maximum number of mobile slurry particles in the supersaturated solution and to ensure the effective drainage of liquid with the highest content of these sludge particles.

Known taken as a prototype, the device-thermomaster designed for thermal treatment of feed water heating plants that use a source of fresh water with high salinity [A. S. No. 1615459 the USSR from 23.12.1990 G./ Device for water treatment. IPC F22D 1/30, C02F 1/20, C02F 103:02], comprising a vertical cylindrical housing with a lid, a bottom and a steam supply pipe and the outlet pipes flash steam, soft water and sludge, and also contains a reservoir supplying water to the distributing nozzles, which are placed are arranged in the horizontal partition of the reception of the contact-film heaters of the convergent type; two vertical cylindrical shell, concentrically mounted on the bottom of the housing on its axis and forming three vertical open cavity (section thermal softening), of which external cavity formed by the inner surface�rnostly of the housing and a peripheral sidewall, the average is formed by peripheral and Central shell, and the shell forms a housing Central cavity. Moreover, in the known device in the lower Central part of the shell around the perimeter of the cutouts for the flow of fluid from the Central cavity in the middle.

In this known arrangement of heating steam pipe, manifolds for supplying water and discharging softened water, and connections blowdown of sludge and removal of a flash steam is made to ensure the countercurrent movement of heated water and heating steam for the effective implementation of the processes of heating and degassing, as well as the organization of processes of thermal softening solution in the direction from the Central cavity to the outside by sequentially alternating lowering and lifting movement of heated fluid in these cavities softening with a gradual purging of the resulting slurry and feeding softened and degassed water from an external cavity for feeding heat networks. This scheme of organization of processes of thermal water softening to some extent meets the requirements of quality of preparation of make-up water network.

However, the known design-layout technical solution can not be implemented, that is his fault, the basic idea of the invention for generating particle�rolling equipment sludge for reuse as "seed crystals" with the highest content of these sludge particles at the outlet of the device. This is because in the device-the prototype of the withdrawal of thermally softened water is provided from an external cavity section thermal softening, where the concentration of slurry particles is minimal. However, as experience has shown, the attempt to increase their concentration by closing the nozzles of blowdown slurry from the enclosure and increasing the speed of fluid motion up to values exceeding the speed of sedimentation (deposition) slurry in its Central cavity softening, involves the necessity of making significant structural changes. Moreover, the organization of drainage semesteratsea water from an external cavity, which has the largest cross section (perimeter) compared to other cavities, is very difficult, which naturally requires additional structural modifications to prevent the deposition and accumulation of sludge in the bottom area. I.e., the known technical solution has drawbacks as follows: allows for efficient water drainage with the highest levels of suspended sludge particles, for subsequent use as "seed crystals" that is the main task of a single inventive concept.

To eliminate the mentioned disadvantages of the known turbomachines, comprising a vertical cylindrical housing with a bottom, a lid and a supply pipe p�RA, and outlet pipes flash steam, soft water and sludge, and also contains a reservoir supplying water to the distributing nozzles, which are placed are arranged in the horizontal partition of the reception of the contact-film heaters of the convergent type; and contains two vertical cylindrical shell, mounted concentrically on the bottom of the housing on its axis and forming three vertical open cavity (section thermal softening), of which the external cavity formed by the inner surface of the housing and a peripheral sidewall, an average is formed by a peripheral sidewall and a Central shell, and the shell forms a housing Central cavity, in CONTRAST, the inventive thermomaster further comprises a built-in casing beneath its lid perforated diaphragm having openings in its peripheral zone organization for uniform steam in the heating zone of water; a dome-shaped horizontal partition mounted with annular gap relative to the inner wall of the housing on the supporting elements on these walls and below horizontal septum arranged in her foster contact-film heaters of the convergent type, and further comprises a discharge manifold vapour, mounted p�d of the dome-shaped septum. The upper peripheral end of the shell is located above the upper end of the center shell, and the length of both of them in its height from the bottom is more than half the height of the body of turbomachines. In the lower portion peripheral sidewall around the perimeter of the cutouts for the flow of fluid from an external cavity in the middle. The shape of the bottom of the casing and its cover is made elliptical. The outlet nozzle of the water combined with the withdrawal of the sludge particles and is embedded along the axis of the elliptical bottom of the housing at its Central cavity, and a steam supply pipe is mounted in an elliptical housing cover on its axis.

A cylindrical body, in its upper part, equipped with nozzles for connection of the column index, and is equipped with a level sensor (for example, float type). Moreover, the level sensor is connected via control boost with the level control set at the branch outlet pipe water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, which is connected to the supply pipe of the water environment of turbomachines, and collectors of the exhaust steam and water supply to the contact-film heaters, vertical cylindrical shells and domed horizontal bulkhead is made of heat-resistant HYDR�a hydrophobic edible plastics.

The claimed performance of the mentioned structural elements that are in the most corrosion - and makepeople area turbomachines, heat-resistant hydrophobic food plastics is aimed at improving the reliability and durability of this device, it is essential that the sheet is not loaded elements of turbomachines with the use of plastics less than metal specific gravity reduces the weight and cost of the device.

In turn, manufacture horizontal dome-shaped septum, peripheral and Central shells of plastics with hydrophobic properties that worsen the conditions of the deposition on the external surface of the dome-shaped horizontal surface and vertical surfaces of cylindrical shells, prevents the decrease in the supersaturation of the solution due to the formation, before it is delivered into the outer section and in the sections of softening in the direction of motion of a supersaturated solution, which is an additional factor contributing to the increase in the efficiency of generation of sludge particles, which is the main target of the technological products of turbomachines, that is a very significant and crucial for the achievement of set targets for efficient generation of Shlomo�'s particles.

In addition, according to the requirements of sanitary-epidemiological rules and norms SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01 devices associated with the generation of fresh water that can be used as drinking, permitted food plastics, eliminating the release of harmful substances during the heating process, and certified in accordance with the requirements of methodical instructions MU 2.1.4.78-99 "Hygienic assessment of materials, reagents, equipment, technologies used in water supply systems".

The claimed design and layout solutions for Turbomachinery in the totality of its features are aimed at implementing the main requirements for this technological device, namely: the organization of efficient generation in the volume of supersaturated solution of moving sludge particles and providing drainage of water with the highest content of suspended sludge particles, for subsequent use as "seed crystals".

This implements the key technical requirements for Turbomachinery, on the basis of known laws of thermal softening of highly mineralized waters, which are as follows:

- the efficiency of the process of particle generation rolling stock slurry in the volume of the supersaturated solution, based on the use of �negative solubility salts, increases with increasing temperature of the heating fluid and, due to this, the increase of supersaturation of the solution, thus catalyzing factor is the presence of crystallization centers (vapor bubbles, particles sludge) in the fluid volume;

the intensity decrease of supersaturation of the solution kinetics of thermal softening) due to sludge formation in its entirety, and the degree of completion of the process of thermal softening depends on implemented in this hydrodynamic regime of fluid motion (laminar, laminar-turbulent or turbulent) and the residence time of the solution in the zone of thermal softening. So, in the turbulent regime movement, due to the active removal of fluid from a zone with a lower saturation of the solution in the zone with increased supersaturation, there is a General decrease in the supersaturation umjagchenija solution in the course of its movement, which, ultimately, determines the intensity is reduced sludge formation. Therefore, the greatest efficiency of sludge formation can be achieved only when the laminarization of fluid motion, debilitating such mixing in the entire volume and the resulting decrease in supersaturation umjagchenija solution. When this is achieved the greatest concentration potential for effective sludge formation during thermal softening solution.

All listed� positive factors providing optimal conditions for efficient generation of particles rolling sludge implemented in termoemcali by use of an additional contact heating umjagchenie water heating steam, use the partitioning of the water volume of turbomachines precluding mixing of the fluid in its entirety. The level of laminarization of a moving fluid in the sections of thermal softening is determined by the velocity of the flow, i.e. the cross-sectional area of these sections.

In the inventive termoemcali, as part of a whole, the process of generating the moving sludge particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution is as follows.

Feed water through the branch containing the control valve, flow meter, level control and built-in duct discharging the heated feed water from the water output of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater of the feed water supplied to the water supply manifold and then through its distributing nozzles to the contact-film heaters of the convergent type, embedded in a horizontal partition which flows into film mode on their inner converging surface. Heating steam through the pipe placed along the axis of the elliptical cap is fed into the heating zone through PE�tarirovannogo aperture having openings in its peripheral area and placed horizontally under elliptical cover uniformly supplied to the contact-film heaters of the convergent type, where, due to the condensation of the heating steam at the free surface gravity of the falling liquid film, it is effective additional heating. Such contact heating with the use of the diffuser, made of maloteploprovodnoj material, provides the minimum temperature in the boundary layer of fluid that is essential for creating conditions bencivengo of the work of the contact heater. Further contact heating is performed in the mode of an annular jet-film flow of the liquid at the outlet of the heater in spotno-transverse motion of the heating steam. When this heated water is supplied to the outer surface of the horizontal dome-shaped septum, placed below mentioned horizontal septum arranged in her pin-film heaters of the convergent type, and flows down in the form of jets into the outer section of thermal softening, formed by the inner surface of the housing and a peripheral sidewall. On this site reheating water is provided by condensation of the heating steam to the outer surfaces consistently around�of upgrading them with jets of water. On all way of its spotno-lateral movement provides heating steam "ventilation" of the free surfaces of the heated liquid, facilitating the removal of evolved gases through the manifold vapour, placed under a dome-shaped septum. By placing the collector exhaust air-steam mixture under a dome-shaped partition having the maximum area in the lower cross section, and given that the flow rate of flash steam that is removed with the change of the vector direction of movement by 90°, does not exceed 3-5% of the consumption of heating steam, eliminating the removal of the salt-containing droplets of moisture together with the flash steam that allows you to direct the flash steam in the corresponding condenser (outdoor multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater) for subsequent return of the condensate in the steam and condensate loop.

The inventive circuit for heating the liquid in the mode spotno-transverse movement of the heating steam in combination with active "ventilation" of the free surfaces of heated water determines the increase in the partial pressure of vapor at the interface, thereby achieving the minimum subcooling of the liquid to the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure in the body of turbomachines, which contributes to the achievement of the maximum supersaturation of the solution on raciper�realizes the salts at the entrance of the outer section of the softening, what is a factor intensifying the processes of generation of primary sludge particles in this section, thermal softening.

The particles of vapor captured by the liquid jets flowing from the dome-shaped partitions, create in the upper zone of the outer section of thermal softening of saturated steam bubbles zone, moving with the fluid down. And steam bubbles of different sizes perform different functions during the movement of the solution in the outer section of thermal softening. So steam bubbles larger sizes contribute to the degassing of heated fluid through the diffusion of released gases in their volume, and the growth of these steam bubbles float up vented to the interface, facilitating the removal of gases together with steam. At the same time tiny steam bubbles, performing the function of crystallization centers are a catalytic factor in the nucleation of primary particles of the slurry in the volume of the supersaturated solution in the outer section of the softening, which could be significant.

Along with the said processes in the heated volume of the supersaturated solution in the outer section of thermal softening is also a natural formation of crystallization centers (nuclei of primary sludge particles) occurring by reducing the supersaturation of the liquid in �Onet, which had the biggest concentration potential of a supersaturated solution.

The volume of the solution subsequent sections of thermal softening: medium, formed by a Central body and a peripheral sidewall having at its lower portion around the perimeter of the cutouts for the flow of fluid from an external section into the middle and center section formed by the Central sidewall, and the growth of primary nucleation (sliming) generated in the solution volume of the outer section of thermal softening. Moreover, due to the production of horizontal dome-shaped septum, peripheral and Central shells of plastics with hydrophobic properties, worsening conditions of deposition on the external surface of the dome-shaped horizontal surface and vertical surfaces of cylindrical shells, preventing the decrease of supersaturation of the solution due to the formation on these surfaces, before it is delivered into the outer section and in the sections of softening in the direction of motion of a supersaturated solution and that is an additional factor contributing to increase the efficiency of generation of sludge particles.

In addition, due to laminarization of a moving fluid provides the greatest potential for concentration effectively� generation and growth of slurry particles during the movement umjagchenija solution which is the main target of the technological products of turbomachines.

While the functional purpose of these sections, thermal softening is different, therefore, for effective generation of sludge particles made rational distribution of the total water volume of turbomachines between sections of thermal softening, namely:

in the outer sections, in conditions of maximum supersaturation of the solution, due to its additional heat, and the presence of tiny steam bubbles that perform the function of nucleation, there is an intensive formation of primary germ of crystallization centers and begin their growth (sliming). The overall efficiency of turbomachines is largely determined by the efficiency of organization processes in this section, and that is achieved by increasing the residence time and reduce the speed of the lowering movement of the solution. Therefore, the water volume of the outer section installed most (at least half the total water volume of turbomachines);

- the middle section in the mode of a lifting motion occurs further growth and consolidation of sludge particles coming from the outer section, thus increasing their total surface. The use of a single water environment, determining identification�of the chemical composition of primary nuclei of crystallization centers, generated in the volume of the external sections, chemical composition umjagchenija solution, and therefore a lower work of crystallization in these "seed" slurry particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution. Thanks marked catalyzing factor provides effective growth of slurry particles in a given volume of solution and subsequent sections of thermal softening.

In the volume of the middle section for efficient growth of slurry particles in the supersaturated solution also requires laminarinase fluid flow in the mode of its lifting movement, which is achieved by ensuring the appropriate speed of movement and residence time in her umjagchenija solution. In the end, the volume of the middle section is at least one third of the total water volume of turbomachines;

- in the Central section in the mode of lowering movement of the fluid continues to increase sludge particles and ends at a stage sufficient for their further use as "seed crystals" in the two-piece receiver feed water distiller. The intensity of growth of the sludge particles in the volume of this section occurring in the area with the lowest supersaturation of the solution will be lower than the middle section, so the main additional Central purpose of the section is to ensure water drainage with the highest content�of suspended sludge particles from the bottom of the zone to the input of the two-piece receiver feed water.

Thus the main criterion for evaluating the effectiveness of turbomachines is the number and size of sludge particles on the output device.

There is the possibility of reducing the degree of supersaturation of the solution at the outlet of turbomachines (due to the further growth of the sludge particles) by increasing the number of sections of softening. However, it should be noted that in additional sections of the softening processes of growth of the sludge particles will occur in the zone with lower supersaturation of scale-forming salts, which determines the low growth rate of slurry particles. Therefore, the additional effect achieved from attempts to increase the number of sections softening associated with a significant complication of construction and the deterioration of the mass-dimensional characteristics of turbomachines, will be negligible.

In this regard, it is essential that the claimed three-piece performance turbomachines the size of slurry particles at the outlet of the device required for their effective use as "seed crystals", provided you change the height of the water volume of the device (increasing time of generation of sludge particles) without changing its transverse dimensions, which is extremely important.

To ensure stable operation of turbomachines it supports the constancy optimalnogogo liquid level. That limit the range of control of the liquid level is limited to the maximum upper and lower limits of the fluid, defined respectively by the height placement of the upper edge of the intermediate shell and the overflow edge of the Central sidewall. For these purposes, thermomaster equipped with a level sensor (for example, float type), installed in the upper part of the cylindrical housing and communicated to the control pulse with level control, built-in to the branch, communicating with the outlet of the heated feed water from the water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater and the sensor of the limit level, the reported control pulses with the system equipment, light and sound alarms. Thermomaster also provided with an index column for visual level monitoring.

Thus, the claimed part of the whole (op-amp) as a technical solution in all of its distinguishing features, namely: the inclusion of known turbomachines additional design elements: horizontal perforated diaphragms, horizontal dome-shaped septum is installed underneath the manifold vapour; the application of the partitioning of the water volume � organization of processes of thermal softening in the direction from the outer section of the softening of the Central sequential alternating lowering and lifting laminarizing fluid movement in the sections of softening; the organization of drainage water environment with the highest content of generated particles movable slurry from the lower zone of the Central section of thermal softening; the effective use of additional contact heating umjagchenija solution mode spotno-lateral movement of heating steam for maximum saturation of the solution by salts of hardness at the entrance of the outer section of thermal softening, improving the efficiency of generation of primary sludge particles in the volume of this section in the presence of tiny steam bubbles that perform a catalytic function as centers of crystallization in the formation of primary sludge particles; production of horizontal dome-shaped septum, peripheral and Central shells of plastics with hydrophobic properties, worsen the conditions of deposition on the outer surface of these parts turbomachines and preventing the decrease of supersaturation of the solution due to the formation on these surfaces, before it reaches the external section of thermal softening, as well as in the sections of softening in the direction of motion of a supersaturated solution and is an additional factor contributing to increase the efficiency of generation of sludge particles; and the use of a single water among�s, determining the identity of the chemical composition of primary nuclei of crystallization centers generated in the volume of the outer section, chemical composition umjagchenija solution, causing less work the crystallization of these "seed" slurry particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution, as well as the rational allocation of water volume between sections of thermal softening, allow sufficient entrusted to implement thermomaster technological challenges for efficient generation and recirculation of the sludge particles for further use as "seed crystals" for the purpose of reducing the supersaturation of the solution in the amount of two-piece receiver feed water.

In the inventive two-piece receiver feed water, in the composition of the claimed OU the process of thermal softening due to its distinctive features, as follows.

Heated feed water is supplied to the supply pipe of the water environment, placed along the axis of the bottom center section of this two-piece receiver feed water through tubing attached to the water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater. Water with suspended sludge from turbomachines, through the pipe placed in the bottom of the hull, under�also situated in the cavity of the Central section of this two-piece receiver. This scheme supply two water environments provides quality mixing, i.e., the averaged concentration "seed" sludge particles in the volume of liquid in the Central cavity in the mode of its lifting movement, which is a precondition for the effective implementation of the processes of thermal softening in the outer section of the two-piece receiver feedwater in the mode of lowering movement of the fluid entering the cavity of this section by overflow over the upper edge of the additional shell center section. However, the main factors determining the efficiency of the process of thermal softening (sludge formation) in the water volume of the outer section, a similar intensifying effect of the factors noted in reviewing the work of turbomachines.

In particular, due to separation of the Central section for mixing water mixing is excluded in the amount umjagchenija solution in the outer section, which allows an effective thermal softening of feed water with the use of "seed" sludge particles in laminarization the flux in the lowering movement. The use for the generation of sludge particles in termoemcali water environment taken from the line of feed water determines the identity of the chemical composition of these slurry h�STIC chemical composition umjagchenija solution what, causing less work the crystallization of the mentioned "seed" slurry particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution in the outer section, is an additional factor stimulating the efficient reduction of supersaturation due to the growth of sizes of primary sludge particles in the volume of the solution in the course of his laminarizing lowering movement. Achieved the depth of thermal softening (concentration of salts at the output) is determined by the residence time of the solution in the outer sections of softening, i.e. its volume. Therefore, to maximize the utilization of the volume of the outer section of thermal softening of the additional shell is made with stretching at its height from the bottom equal to the height of the cylindrical body portion, wherein the vent when filling the device through nozzle disposed on the axis of the elliptical base cover two-piece receiver feed water and connected to the tubing with an air valve. In order to maintain optimum operating level it is equipped with a level sensor (for example, float type) reported by the control pulse with level control built into the supply pipe of the heated feed water.

Softened feed water with suspended sludge derived from lower W�HN cavity of the outer section of the housing through the pipe, built-in elliptical bottom, and is fed to the input of the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and its volume is used as additional sections of the softening two-piece receiver feed water, thereby achieving greater depth of softening of the feed water, and that is extremely essential for the implementation of a single inventive concept to reduce the rate of scale formation in the elements of the desalination plant.

The need for more inclusion in the composition of the claimed Oh two-piece receiver feed water in the proposed design-layout performance due to the following reasons.

The receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator is known to the OS, containing a cylindrical housing with a lid and elliptical bottom and provided with branch pipes for supplying and discharging water environments, does not meet the requirements for effective softening of feed water to "seed" slurry particles generated in termoemcali, in light of its limited water volume, and hence the time of occurrence of the process of thermal softening. In this section the performance of the feedwater receiver provides simultaneous high-quality solutions two complementary tasks: effective solivan�e "seed" slurry particles in the supersaturated solution and implementation of an effective softening of the supersaturated solution. I.e. in single-section design the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator of the known solutions, fulfilling the main function of the mixer "seed" slurry particles in the supersaturated solution, not realize sufficiently the main objective of the inventive concept of the claimed group of inventions is to reduce the supersaturation of the water supply to the evaporator inlet.

Thus, the inventive two-piece receiver feed water in all of its distinguishing features, namely: the increased partitioning of the water volume by installing additional shells with the length of its height from the bottom equal to the height of the cylindrical body portion, which optimally address the twin technological challenge for the effective mixing flow of water with suspended sludge from turbomachines and umjagchenie feed water (in the Central section) and the subsequent effective thermal softening this mixed water environment (external section) laminarizing lowering movement umjagchenie feed water; and also in conjunction with the use of the total available receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator as an additional section, softening, provides of�e targets for the effective reduction of the supersaturation of the feed water at the inlet of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, placed on this significant additional element of the proposed desalination plant.

This restrictive and distinctive features of the proposed shelter together yield the following results.

Outboard (nutrient) water supply nutrient circulation pump through the filter and the flow meter in a receiving water cavity of the cooling tubes of a shell and tube condenser secondary steam of the last stage of the multistage evaporation adiabatic evaporator (hereinafter referred to as "evaporator"). Further, passing successively in cooling pipes of the secondary steam condensers evaporator in the direction from the last stage of evaporation to the first, sea water increases its temperature due to the heat of condensation of secondary steam. This scheme of movement of cooling water sufficient to regenerate the heat of condensation of secondary steam in the stages of evaporation.

From the secondary steam condenser of the first stage evaporator cooling water through the cooling tubes of the condenser two-stage steam-jet ejector, made with separate chambers of condensation of steam jet ejectors of the first and second stages, where it is heated by the heat of condensation of the mixed environment (working steam and air-steam mixture from the condenser base�s secondary steam) steam jet ejectors, connected to input parts of a water external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater, where the cooling (feed water) then further in the heating mode without evaporation of the liquid by the heat of condensation of the heating steam supplied to its steam chamber from the low-grade steam source (e.g., steam from auxiliary selection turbines).

The rate of scale formation in the above-mentioned elements of the OS in the direction of motion of the heated feed water, is uniquely determined by the heat release rate and the temperature of the heat transfer pipes, the largest in the external multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater, which, ultimately, determines the need to limit the heating temperature of the feed water to the level required to ensure a valid operating conditions the rate of scale formation, through the use of low-grade source of heating steam. Moreover, to exclude excessive heating of the feed water pipeline and is communicated with the output part of the water cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater, temperature sensor, controlling the operation of temperature controller, built-in inlet steam line low-grade source of heating steam and ensuring the maintenance of the ass�Noah temperature by changing the flow rate of the heating steam.

From the water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater heated sea water supplied to the lower zone of the Central cavity two-piece receiver feed water, and some of this water through the branch with a regulating valve, flow meter and level control connected to the manifold for supplying aqueous medium turbomachines.

In termoemcali by supplying heating steam is additional heating of sea water taken from the supply line to the feed water, which contributes to the increase of supersaturation on Nechiporuk salts and creates conditions for efficient generation of mobile slurry particles in the supersaturated solution, which was then used as "seed crystals" to reduce the supersaturation in the volume of heated sea water in the two-piece receiver feed water due to sludge formation (thermal softening) on these "seed crystals". The flash steam from thermomyces allotted vapor in the cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater.

To maintain a constant working level in termoemcali it is equipped in the upper part of the cylindrical housing of the level sensor (for example, float type) connected via control pulse with linsn controller, etc� level embedded in said branch containing also, as stated, the control valve and the flow meter and reported as set forth, with the outlet conduit of the heated feed water from the water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater.

From thermomyces water with suspended sludge through the pipe drain water environment, built on the axis of its elliptical bottoms, and communicated with him summed up the pipeline in the Central cavity of the two-piece receiver feed water, where the mixing with the main flow is achieved by averaging the concentration of slurry particles in the feed water, which is a prerequisite for effective reducing the concentration of hardness (softening) in the feed water due to the volume of sludge formation in the external cavity two-section feedwater receiver in the mode of lowering movement of the liquid.

The withdrawal of softened water with suspended sludge from the housing two-piece receiver implemented through a feed water pipe built into an elliptical bottom and communicates with the external cavity, and then through connected to the inlet pipeline, treated water supplied to the feedwater receiver of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, the volume of which used�Xia as additional sections of thermal softening. Moreover, the two-piece receiver feed water in the upper part of the cylindrical housing is provided with index column, for visual control of the working level. To maintain a constant operating level in this two-piece receiver is also equipped with a level sensor (for example, float type), installed in the upper part of its cylindrical body and notified by the control pulse with level control built into the supply line of the feed water. In this issue of air during filling through nozzle built-in axis of the elliptical cap and communicates with the conduit containing the air valve.

From the receiver to the feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, connected to it through the by-pass pipe throttle-spray devices (OTHER), softened feed water with suspended sludge is fed into the vacuum chamber of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator.

Thanks to the inclusion of the proposed desalination plant, as a whole, more technologically interconnected parts: turbomachines which enables efficient generation of mobile sludge particles and their subsequent use in the two-piece receiver feedwater as "seed crystals" for the decline in �eat nutrient supersaturation of water hardness salts, and also due to the use of the volume of the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator as additional sections of thermal softening, is achieved reducing the concentration nikiportsa salts in the feed water containing suspended therein the slurry at the inlet of the evaporator, which is vital for the implementation of the General inventive concept by a decrease in the rate of scale formation in the elements of the desalination plant.

In particular, when the bypass throttle sputtering and evaporation of such softened feed water in the first stage of the evaporator evaporation conditions are favorable for reducing the rate of scale formation in the bypass channels and the working surfaces of the throttle-spray devices (OTHER) by reducing the concentration of scale-forming salts in the feed water at the inlet into the first stage of evaporation, as well as on the surfaces of the working channels of the Louvre secondary steam separator by reducing salinity droplets of moisture that are made in the secondary steam in the degree of evaporation. Thus in the amount of non-evaporated brine contained in the near-bottom zone of the evaporation chamber of the first stage evaporator and the collection of the brine in the second stage of evaporation, the processes of thermal softening brine, due to the increase in sludge particles present in the volume�IU brine.

When you bypass this softened brine, spraying and subsequent evaporation in the second stage of evaporation of the evaporator, reduces the rate of scale formation on the working surfaces of the overflow pipes and OTHER holes by reducing the concentration of hardness salts in the brine, and also due to the replacement of surface scale formation on bulk sliming on "seed" slurry particles contained in the volume of brine. Moreover, the predominant nature of the bulk sludge formation on the surface of the formation here due to lack of wall superheat liquid layers (no heat) and a large total surface of slurry particles, greatly exceeding the total surface of natural crystallization centers on the working surfaces of the said elements the degrees of evaporation. Similar processes take place in subsequent stages of evaporation evaporator sequential bypass, throttle sputtering and evaporation. Kropyvschyna particles of sludge are removed together with the brine from the receiver of brine in the last stage of evaporation of the evaporator brine efflux pump overboard.

A distinctive feature and achieve that effect in the claimed group of inventions as part of a whole and its additional parts, is IP�olshanii single thermodynamic process of "heating", which is fundamental in thermal distillation desalination of sea water, and applying a single aqueous environment to generate a "seed" sludge particles used in the future for thermal softening of the feed water at the inlet to the evaporator and the brine in its levels of evaporation, which, defining the identity of the chemical composition of these sludge particles chemical composition umjagchenija solution, and therefore a lower work of crystallization in these "seed" slurry particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution, i.e. is a catalyzing factor for effective sludge formation (growth in size of slurry particles) in the solution volume with a corresponding decrease of supersaturation on the hardness salts in the course of its displacement in the elements of the OS.

In this case, the partial recirculation mode of the blown brine through the branch jumper with valve, integrated in the inlet pipe feed pump used in the well-known ow to maintain the design temperature of the cooling water at the inlet to the evaporator in the conditions of navigation of a marine vessel in cold waters, here can be recommended as a permanent partial recirculation mode of the blown brine containing particles of suspended sludge, to reduce the rate of scale formation on internal heat dissipation and protection.�ment surfaces of pipes, all the way successive passage of the heated sea water in cooling pipes of the secondary steam condensers, condenser two-stage steam-jet ejector and a multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, at the expense of the processes of crystallization of salts from their working surfaces rolling on the particles of the slurry made by the recirculating brine in the amount of floating sea water, i.e. due to the replacement of surface scale formation on bulk sliming, which is an additional very significant effect.

This restrictive condition of use of such permanent partial recirculation is acceptable exceeding the design temperature of cooling water at the inlet of the secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation, providing acceptable reduction in operating performance of the proposed desalination plant.

Thus, the proposed technical solutions for the structural layout of turbomachines and two-piece receiver circuit feed water and of the decision on their inclusion in the composition of desalination plant allow sufficiently implement the technical task of the inventive concept to improve the reliability of multistage adiabatic desalt�the diesel installation, namely, the decrease in the rate of scale formation on the working surfaces interstage bypass pipes and throttle-spray devices as well as on the surfaces of the channels louvered secondary steam separators, which are achieved through efficient generation in termoemcali suspended in an aqueous medium primary "seed" sludge particles and their subsequent use as crystallization centers to reduce the supersaturation of the feed water in volumes two-piece receiver feedwater and feedwater receiver of the first stage of evaporation and brine, contained in near-bottom zone of evaporation chambers, cavities sink brine and connected to the bypass pipe throttle-spray devices for sequential passage of the evaporated solution in the stages of evaporation.

It also creates the opportunity to reduce the rate of scale formation on heat transfer surfaces of the secondary steam condensers, condenser two-stage steam jet ejector and outer multi-way steam feed water heater when operating the shelter in the partial recirculation mode of brine containing suspended solids of the sludge, at the expense of the processes of crystallization of scale-forming salts from the heat transfer surfaces on the particles of the sludge, i.e. W�exchange surface of scaling on volume sliming all the way successive heating of the feed water.

Thus through the use of a single thermal process (heating) and a single water environment in the implementation processes of distillation seawater desalination and generation of rolling sludge, eliminates the use of additional technological materials and technical conditions are created for full automation of the proposed desalination plant by the application of a uniform automation.

Also, it is essential that the cuttings removed together with the brine composition (CaCO3, Mg(OH)2, CaSO4) inert and harmless to the environment, i.e. the technological processes used for the solution of the technical problem, are environmentally friendly, which is extremely important in the conditions of toughening of requirements to ecological safety of the technologies.

The claimed group of inventions - desalination plant and its thermomaster - is illustrated by the following illustrations.

Fig.1 shows a heat flow five-stage high-vacuum adiabatic desalination plant.

Fig.2 is a schematic wiring diagram two stage steam jet ejector to the condenser.

Fig.3 - design-layout scheme of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam Bodog�of avatele feed water.

Fig.4 - design-layout scheme of turbomachines.

Fig.5 - the host of the convergent-film contact water heater.

Fig.6 - design-layout scheme of two-piece receiver feed water.

Fig.7 is a graph of the physical processes occurring in termoemcali.

Fig.8 is a graph of physical processes on the input of the five-stage adiabatic evaporator.

Fig.9 - graph of the physical processes occurring in a five-stage adiabatic evaporator.

The essence of the claimed group of inventions as a part of the whole and its parts, is illustrated by the example of their specific technical performance and use in five-stage adiabatic desalination plant with a capacity of 240 tons/day, similar to the known adiabatic high-vacuum desalination plant type M5.

This five-stage adiabatic distillation plant thermal diagram of which is shown in Fig.1, contains the following elements:

circulating feed pump 1, the filter 2 and the flow meter 3;

- five-stage adiabatic evaporator 4 is mounted in a sealed enclosure, made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, and contains a vertical partition forming five stages of evaporation. At the top of stepanianarmenia evaporator horizontally mounted two-way (for cooling water) shell-and-tube condensers secondary steam 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, each of which contains a straight-tube bundle of cooling pipes with baffle wall (not shown) forming the cavity for the collection and subsequent removal of non-condensed steam mixture (not shown), and includes a collection of the distillate 10.

In the middle zone of the degrees of evaporation evaporator mounted secondary steam separators louvered type 11, a separating step of evaporation of the evaporator into two zones: the upper condenser and the bottom of the evaporator, while in the lower zone of each stage of evaporation placed receiver brine 12 the degree of evaporation, in the form of the dipleg larger diameter, connected to a bypass pipe 13 subsequent stages of evaporation. These by-pass pipes contain in its upper free part of the integrated throttle device (not shown) above the upper edge of each of which is placed the mushroom bumpers 14, performing the function of the reflectors fountain water jets emanating from the holes in the throttle device, that provides the subsequent droplet spraying superheated brine and creates conditions for effective evaporation.

All stages of evaporation of a five-stage adiabatic evaporator 4 (the "evaporator") consistently communicated between the connecting bypass �rubani cooling water condensers and is provided with a secondary steam pipes sequential interstage bypass steam mixture formed from the corresponding cavities of these capacitors in the direction from the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator to the last, and in these pipes interstage bypass integrated orifice plate 15, and the collected distillate 10 all secondary steam condensers pairwise sequentially communicated between pipes interstage bypass distillate 16 in the direction from the secondary steam condenser of the first stage 9 of the evaporation of the evaporator 5 fifth, made in the form of U-shaped tube. In the lower zone of the speed of evaporation of the evaporator 4 two adjacent stage chamber evaporation pairwise sequentially communicated between a bypass tube 13 of receivers brine 12 the degree of evaporation to throttle-spray devices (OTHER) subsequent stages of evaporation. Thus interstage moving air-steam mixture, distillate and evaporated brine is due to the pressure differential in adjacent stages of evaporation of the evaporator 4.

Adiabatic multi-stage desalination plant (SA) also contains:

- condenser 17 two-stage steam jet ejector with separate chambers condensation of air-steam mixture from the steam jet ejectors of the first 18 and second 19 steps, and the capacitor 17 (Fig.2) two-stage steam jet ejector consists of these separate chambers 20 and 21 of condensation of steam-air mixture, respectively from paro�trainig ejectors of the first 18 and second 19 steps, forming jointly connected in series with the cooling water pipe 22 in them coolers-condensers with their collections of condensate, and the condensate collector is used here the lower part of the cavity of data condensation chambers, communicated with each other by a U-shaped pipe 23. Chambers 20 and 21 is also provided with a separate drain pipes vapour respectively 24 and 25 air from these chambers condensation.

With an air-steam mixture from the cavity of the secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation of the evaporator 4 (Fig.1) assigned to the receiving cavity of the mixing chamber steam jet ejector first-stage 18, the output of the diffuser portion which is communicated with the vapor discharge chamber condensing 20 to the condenser steam-jet ejector of the first stage. The steam-jet mixing chamber of the ejector of the second stage 19 is connected to the discharging nozzle 24 is not condensed steam mixture (vapour) from the camera condensation 20 steam jet ejector first-stage 18, and the outlet diffuser of the second stage ejector 19 is connected to the vapor chamber condensation 21 of the condenser steam jet ejector 19 of the second stage, from which the air is led to the atmosphere through the pipe 25. Input a nozzle part of these ejectors connected in parallel to the line of flow of the working pair.

Using intermediate condensation mixed environment (heating steam and air-steam environment) in the condensation chamber 20 steam jet ejector first-stage 18 can significantly reduce the consumption of the working steam at steam the second stage ejector 19 by reducing the size of the deployment environment (vapour) coming into the cavity of the mixing chamber;

- external two-way (for heated water) shell-and-tube steam feed water heater 26 with its condensate collector 27, equipped with a level sensor (not shown).

This feed water heater (Fig.3) has a straight-tube bundle of cooling tubes 28 with a dividing partition 29 forming the cavity 30 for collection and subsequent removal of non-condensed vapor mixture (vapour) which communicates with the pipe to its outlet 31. The cavity of the shell side of the steam heater 32 is communicated with the heating steam inlet pipe 33 and the discharge pipe the condensate 34 of his collection 27. The receiving part of the water cavity 35 heater is equipped with a nozzle 36 for supplying sea water which communicates with the cooling water piping 22 camera condensation 21 parstring ejector second stage 19 (Fig.2). The outlet side of the water cavity 37 is provided with a pipe 38 discharging the heated sea water.

And he this heater is made with a cross-direction mutually Teploobmennik environments.

The outer two-way (for heated water) shell-and-tube steam heater 26 (Fig.1) is designed to heat the feed water (in the heating mode without mpariwa�ia liquids) to the desired temperature due to condensation of the heating steam, supplied to the nozzle 33 (Fig.3), from the low-potential source (not shown). To maintain the temperature of such heating in the permissible deviations from the nominal value in the inlet steam line heating steam has a built-in temperature controller "T", notified by the control pulse with a temperature sensor 39 (Fig.1) installed on the outlet pipeline is connected through the pipe 38 to the water outlet portion of the cavity 37 of the outer two-way (for heated water) shell-and-tube steam heater 26, and the temperature is controlled by changing the flow rate of the heating steam.

Vapor cavity 30 (Fig.3) of the feed water heater through line 40 (Fig.1) communicates with the vapor space of the condenser 9 of the secondary pair of first-stage evaporation of the evaporator 4 and the condensate collector 27, also having a message with a condensate collection chamber condensing 20 steam jet ejector first-stage 18 (Fig.2) connected to the suction cavity of the condensate pump 41, intended for pumping condensate in the condensate tank (not shown) for reuse in the steam and condensate loop. Thus in a discharge pipe of the pump has a built-in level control "is notified to the control pulse from the sensor ur�VNA (not shown), built-in condensate collector 27 of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater 26, to maintain the operating level in the condensate collector and ensure stable operation of the condensate pump 41. Moreover, on the downstream of its discharge pipe is also an automatic three-way switching solenoid valve 42 to switch the pipeline to discharge condensate with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera 43 mounted on the measuring bypass jumper circuit condensate. In the case of exceeding the permissible salinity condensate discharged overboard or into a special ship tank technology of fresh water (not shown) for further use in the process consumers are placing increased requirements to the quality of freshwater for salinity. To ensure that the current laboratory quality control of condensation pressure on the output plot of the condensate pump has a built-in tap sampling (not shown);

- distillate tank 44, which their adoptive tubing connected to the collector of the distillate 10 secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation of the evaporator 4, as also reported by pipeline with pumping distillate pump 45, when �the air cavity of the tank distillate communicated by conduit 46 with the vapor cavity of the secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation of the evaporator to equalize the pressure in these cavities and reliable flow of distillate, and the distillate tank 44 is equipped with a level sensor (not shown) communicated by the control pulse with level control "" built into the pressurized part of the pipeline pumping distillate pump 45, to maintain the operating level in the tank distillate 44 and sustainable operation of the pump, a suction in marine distillate distillate tank (not shown). On the downstream pressure pipeline pumping distillate pump 45 is installed a flow meter 47 and the automatic three-way switching solenoid valve 48, switching the pipeline on the discharge of the distillate with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera 49 mounted on the measuring bypass jumper circuit distillate. Thus, in case of exceeding the permissible salinity of the distillate discharged overboard or into a special ship tank technology of fresh water (not shown) for further use in the process consumers are placing increased requirements to the quality of freshwater for salinity. To ensure that the current laboratory quality control of condensation pressure on the output plot of the condensate pump has a built-in tap sampling (not shown);

- brine pump 50 that is designed DL� pumping overboard not evaporated brine from the receiver brine 12 of the last stage of evaporation of the evaporator 4.

When this brine discharge pipe of the pump branch has a jumper with a valve 51 that is built into the receiving duct before the filter feed pump 2 1, in this case, the jumper valve 51 is designed to maintain the design temperature of cooling water at the entrance to the secondary steam condenser 5 of the last stage of evaporation of the evaporator when swimming in cold waters by partial bypass of the brine in the pipe receiving cooling water.

With the aim of reducing the rate of scale formation on the working surfaces of the channels louvered secondary steam separators 11, throttle openings and passageways 13 OTHER due to the crystallization of salts on the natural crystallization centers (roughness, unevenness, pollution), always present on these surfaces, which may cause impaired operation mode OS and may even lead to the need for the full stop, which could be significant in the composition of the proposed desalination plant, as a whole, is additionally introduced, as its integral parts:

- thermomaster 52 (Fig.4), comprising a vertical cylindrical body 53 with elliptical cover 54 with built-in axis of the nozzle 55 for supplying heating steam; a perforated diaphragm 56 having openings (not shown) in its n�riverine area organization for uniform steam in the heating zone of the water and mounted under elliptical cover 54; reservoir water supply line 57 of the distributing nozzles 58, which are placed are arranged in the horizontal partition 59 foster contact-film heaters 60 converging type (Fig.5); a dome-shaped horizontal wall 61, mounted with annular gap relative to the inner wall of the housing 53 on the supporting elements in these walls (not shown) and placed below the horizontal septum 59; discharge manifold vapour 62, mounted under the dome horizontally by a partition 61; two vertical cylindrical shells 63 and 64, mounted concentrically on the elliptical bottom of the housing 65 on its axis and forming three vertical open cavity (section softening), of which the outer cavity 66 formed by the inner surface of the housing 53 and the outer peripheral surface of the shell 63, the average cavity 67 formed on the inner peripheral surface of the shell 63 and the outer surface of the Central shell 64, and the Central sidewall 64 forms in the housing Central cavity 68, the upper end of the peripheral sidewall 63 is located above the upper end of the center shell 64, and the length of both of them in its height from the bottom is more than half the height of the body of turbomachines. Meanwhile, in the lower part of the PE�everynow shell 63 along its perimeter cutouts 69 for the flow of fluid from an external cavity in the middle; pipe removal of water 70 is combined with the withdrawal of the sludge particles and is embedded along the axis of the elliptical bottom 65. Cylindrical body in its upper part is equipped with nozzles 71 to connect the column index for the visual control of operating level and is equipped with a level sensor (for example, float type, not shown).

To improve the reliability and durability of this device, the water supply manifold 57 with distributing nozzles 58 to the contact-film heaters 60, dome-shaped horizontal partition wall 61, the manifold vapour 62 and a vertical sidewall 63 and 64, located in the most corrosion - and makepeople area turbomachines made of heat-resistant hydrophobic edible plastics. Thus, fabricating the supporting elements of turbomachines the use of plastics less than metal weight provides weight reduction of the device as a whole.

Thermomaster 52 is built into the structure of the shelter (Fig.1) in the following order: reservoir water supply 57 (Fig.4) through the pipe on the housing 53 (not shown) communicated with a branch 72, is provided with a control valve 73, the flow meter 74, and level control and built-in outlet conduit heated feed water from the water outlet portion of the cavity 37 (Fig.3) of the outer multi-way kojouharova� steam feed water heater 26 (Fig.1), and the heating steam inlet pipe 55 is connected to the steam source heating steam (not shown); the collector of the exhaust steam through the pipe 62 on the housing 53 (not shown) communicated with the vapor cavity 30 of the outer two-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater (Fig.3); the pipe drain water 70 with suspended sludge communicated with the inlet pipe 75 two-piece receiver feedwater 76 (Fig.1, 6).

- two-piece receiver feedwater 76 (Fig.6) mounted in front of the receiver feed water of 77 first-stage evaporation of the evaporator 4 (Fig.1) and comprising: a cylindrical body 78 with elliptical cover 79 and plate 80, the sidewall 81, disposed on the axis of the elliptical bottom with 80 length by its height from the bottom equal to the height of the cylindrical body portion, and forming two vertical open cavity (section softening), of which the external cavity 82 formed on the inner surface of the cylindrical body 78 and the outer surface of the shell 81 and the sidewall 81 forms in the housing Central cavity 83. The pipe 84 for supplying feed water disposed on the axis of the elliptical bottom 80 and communicates with the Central cavity 83 and the pipe 75 for supplying water mixed with sludge from thermomyces installed in the bottom area of the cylindrical body portion 78 and communicated through trubku with the Central cavity section 83, and the nozzle 86 water drainage built into an elliptical bottom and communicated with the receiving cavity of the receiver feed water of 77 first-stage evaporation of the evaporator 4 (Fig.1). Axis of the elliptical cap 79 she has a pipe 87 to exhaust air. A cylindrical body 78 in its upper part is equipped with nozzles 88 to attach the column index for the visual control of the working level (not shown) and is equipped with a level sensor (not shown).

Two-piece feedwater receiver is built into the OS composition in the following order: external cavity 82 of the outlet nozzle 86 is placed in its lower zone communicating with the inlet pipe of the water environment of the receiver feed water of 77 (Fig.1) the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and the Central cavity 83 pipe inlet 84 of the feed water in the lower zone is connected to the discharge piping water outlet portion of the cavity 37 of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater (Fig.3) and communicates with the pipe water drainage 70 with suspended sludge turbomachines (Fig.4) for flawless mixing, i.e. averaging the concentration of the "seed" sludge particles in the volume of liquid in the Central cavity, which is a precondition for the implementation of an effective softening of the feed water in the outer section of the two-piece receiver. To support�for a constant operating level of the two-piece receiver equipped with a feed water level sensor (for example, float type, not shown) connected via control pulse with level control "" built into the supply to him of the heated feed water pipe which communicates with the outlet nozzle 38 of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater (Fig.3).

In the composition of the proposed desalination plant (Fig.1), as a whole, these additional components are designed to implement two technologically interrelated processes. So thermomaster 52 is a technological device for generating particles of a movable sludge in the volume of supersaturated by Nechiporuk salts solution used in the subsequent in the two-piece receiver feedwater 76 as "seed crystals" to reduce the supersaturation of hardness salts in the feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator 4 through the sludge formation in the volume of supersaturated salts on the stiffness of the heated feed water (thermal softening).

The inventive multi-stage adiabatic desalination plant (SA) is used as follows (Fig.1).

Outboard (nutrient) water (at a temperature to=28°C with a concentration of scale-forming salts Withabout, mEq/l) is fed nutrient circulation pump 1 through the filter 2 and the flow meter 3 in a receiving water cavity (not shown) cooled�constitutes evidence of shell-and-tube pipes secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of a five-stage evaporation adiabatic evaporator 4 (hereinafter referred to as "evaporator"). Then passing successively in cooling pipes of the secondary steam condensers 5-6-7-8-9 evaporator in the direction from the fifth stage of evaporation to the first, sea water increases its temperature due to the heat of condensation of secondary steam. This scheme of movement of cooling water sufficient to regenerate the heat of condensation of secondary steam in the stages of evaporation.

From secondary steam condenser 9 of the first stage of the evaporator, the cooling water passes through the cooling pipes 22 (Fig.2) capacitor 17 two-stage steam jet ejector with separate condensation chambers 20 and 21, steam jet ejectors, the first 18 and second 19 places where it is heated by heat of condensation of the mixed vapor environment (working steam and air-steam mixture from the secondary steam condensers) steam jet ejectors, and is supplied to the receiving part of the water cavity 35 (Fig.3) outdoor multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater 26, where feed water is then further in the heating mode without evaporation of the liquid (to a temperature not exceeding t1=77°C) due to the heat of condensation of the heating steam supplied to its steam chamber 32 from the low-grade steam source (not shown), (e.g., pairs of selection from the auxiliary turbine at an operating pressure of 0.8 ATA).

With�orost scale formation in the above-mentioned elements of the OS in the direction of motion of the heated feed water, uniquely determined by the heat release rate and the temperature of the heat transfer pipes, the largest in the external multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater 26 (Fig.1) that, ultimately, determines the need to limit the heating temperature of the feed water, to ensure acceptable operating conditions the rate of scale formation, through the use of low-grade source of heating steam (not shown). Therefore, to exclude excessive heating of the feed water piping communicating with the water output cavity 37 (Fig.3) of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater 26, a temperature sensor 39 that controls the operation of the temperature regulator "T" embedded in the inlet steam line low-grade source of heating steam (not shown) and providing maintenance of the set temperature of the heating feed water by modifying the consumption of heating steam.

Of water output cavity 37 of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater 26 is heated sea water flows into the lower zone of the Central section 83 (Fig.6) two-piece feedwater receiver 76, and a portion of this water through the branch 72 with a regulating valve 73, the flow meter 74 and level control "U" is supplied to the manifold for supplying water environment 57 (Fig.4) t�of roumeloitis.

In termoemcali 52 by supplying heating steam is additional heating of sea water taken on the branch line 72 of the feed water, which contributes to the increase of supersaturation on Nechiporuk salts and creates conditions for efficient generation of mobile slurry particles in the supersaturated solution, which was then used as "seed crystals" to reduce the supersaturation in the volume of heated sea water in the two-piece receiver feedwater 76 due to sludge formation (thermal softening) on these "seed crystals".

To maintain a constant working level in termoemcali 52 it is equipped with a level sensor (not shown) connected via control pulse with level control "" built in the fork 72, which contains the control valve 73 and the flow meter 74. Thermomaster 52 is also provided with index column (not shown) to the nozzles 71 for visual control of the working level.

From thermomyces 52 water with suspended sludge through the pipe drain water environment 70, built-in axis of the elliptical bottom plate 65 (Fig.4), and communicated with him the pipe, through the pipe 75 and the tube 85 is received in the Central cavity 83 two-piece receiver feed water (Fig.6), where the mixing with onuninstall is achieved by averaging the concentration of slurry particles in the feed water, which is a prerequisite for effective reducing the concentration of hardness salts (thermal softening) in the feed water due to the volume of sludge formation in the external cavity 82 two-piece receiver feedwater in the mode of lowering movement of the liquid.

The withdrawal of softened water with suspended sludge from the case of two-piece feedwater receiver 76 through nozzle 86 which communicates with its external cavity 82, and then through connected by conduit 86 to the conduit, enters the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator 77 (Fig.1), the volume of which is also used as additional sections of thermal softening. This two-piece feedwater receiver 76 in the upper portion of the cylindrical housing 78 (Fig.6) equipped with a column index (not shown) to nozzles 88, for visual control of the working level. To maintain a constant operating level in this two-piece receiver is also equipped with a level sensor (not shown) communicated by the control pulse with level control "" built into the supply line of the feed water.

From the receiver feed water of 77 first-stage evaporation of the evaporator 4, which is connected to it with a bypass pipe 13 throttle-spray Ustra�STV (OTHER), softened feed water with suspended sludge is fed into the vacuum chamber of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator 4. Bypass not evaporated in the first stage evaporator brine for spraying throttle and partial evaporation in the second stage evaporation is carried out from the receiver brine 12 of the first stage of evaporation communicated with him through the by-pass pipe 13 connected to the throttle-spray device of the second stage of evaporation. Bypass and spraying of brine in the subsequent stages of evaporation the evaporator is carried out from the receiver brine 12 of the previous stage through evaporation communicated with them by-pass pipe 13 connected to the throttle-spray devices subsequent stages of evaporation. These processes occur due to the pressure difference between the stages of evaporation. These by-pass pipes, contain in their upper free part of the integrated throttle device (not shown) above the upper cutoff of which is placed the mushroom bumpers 14, performing the function of the reflectors fountain water jets emanating from the holes in the throttle device, which ensures drip free spraying of the superheated brine and creates conditions for effective evaporation.

The resulting secondary vapour rises in the degrees of evaporation of the evaporator 4 and PR�walking through the separator 11 of the secondary pair of louvered type the degree of evaporation, where the separation of droplets of brine that is captured by the rising steam condenses in the condenser the same degree of evaporation that occurs due to dissipation of heat to the cooling water. Not the condensed vapor mixture from the corresponding cavities of the secondary steam condensers consistently bypassed in the direction from the secondary steam condenser 9 of the first stage of evaporation to the secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation through the system interstage orifice plate 15, built-in pipe data serial bypass, and sucked a two-stage steam ejector 18 and 19 embedded in the capacitor 17 (Fig.2) two-stage steam jet ejector with separate condensation chambers 20 and 21 respectively of the air-steam mixture ejectors of the first 18 and second 19 steps, forming jointly connected in series with the cooling water pipe 22 in them coolers-condensers with their collections of condensate, a communication between the U-shaped pipe 23, which is intended to create between them a hydraulic valve. While roaming environment vapor from the cavity of the secondary steam condenser 5 (Fig.1) fifth stage of evaporation of the evaporator is fed to the receiving cavity of the mixing chamber steam jet ejector first-stage 18, the output d�fusina part of which is communicated with the vapor discharge chamber condensing 20 condenser steam jet ejector first-stage 18, where not part of the condensed mixed environment (flash steam) is fed into the cavity of the mixing chamber steam jet ejector second stage 19, and the outlet diffuser of the second stage ejector 19 is communicated with the vapor discharge chamber condensation 21 of the condenser steam jet ejector second stage 19 from where the flash steam (air) through the pipe 25 is removed in the atmosphere, and the input a nozzle part for both these ejectors connected in parallel to the pipeline feeding the working steam. Such a scheme discharging the steam-air mixture from the secondary steam condensers with an intermediate condensation mixed environment in the chamber with condensing steam jet ejector first-stage can significantly reduce the consumption of steam for the steam jet ejector second stage by reducing the size of the deployment environment, entering the cavity of the mixing chamber.

Stepwise increasing the working vacuum in the steps of evaporation of the evaporator 4 is provided by condensing steam in the condensers of the respective stages of the evaporation of the evaporator and the operation of the two stage steam jet ejector 18 and 19, suction air-steam air-steam mixture from the cavity of the secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation of the evaporator 4 through the interstage orifice plate 15 is embedded in the pipe� sequential bypass.

In this five-stage adiabatic desalination plant (SA) the absolute pressure in the stages of evaporation speed is reduced from 0,318 ATA (in first stage) to 0,084 ATA (fifth stage), which corresponds to the saturation temperatures of 70 and 42°C, and maintained the same temperature difference between the saturation evaporated brine 7°C in all relevant stages of evaporation, which provides the same performance levels of the evaporator (2 tonnes/h).

The resulting distillate is moved in the body of the distiller from the secondary steam condenser 9 of the first stage of evaporation the evaporator 5 fifth by gravity due to the pressure difference between the stages of evaporation by means of a sequential bypass from the collections of the distillate of these capacitors through telling U-shaped pipe 16. An estimated operating pressure differential between the stages of evaporation of the evaporator is maintained by the height of the liquid column in the data U-shaped tubes, which uniquely determines the temperature difference between the saturation evaporated brine in these adjacent levels of evaporation of the evaporator.

The allotment received in the desalter distillate is from the collection of the distillate 10 secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation through the tubing connected to the distillate tank 44, a steam chamber which is communicated tubing�46 switching to vapor cavity of the secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation to equalize pressure in the cavities and ensure a reliable flow of distillate. From the tank 44 distillate distillate is pumped by pump 45 in a General distillate tank (not shown) for subsequent use in technical, technological and domestic consumers.

The distillate tank 44 is equipped with a level sensor (not shown) communicated by the control pulse with level control "" built into the discharge pipe pumping distillate pump 45, to maintain a constant operating level in this tank and ensure stable operation of the pump itself. When installed on the outlet pipe of the discharge pipe pumping distillate pump 45, the flow meter 47 and the automatic three-way switching solenoid valve 48 switches the pipeline on the discharge of the distillate with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera 49 mounted on the measuring bypass jumper circuit distillate. In the case of exceeding the permissible salinity of the distillate discharged overboard or into a special ship tank technology of fresh water (not shown) for further use in the process consumers are placing increased requirements to the quality of freshwater for salinity.

To ensure that the current laboratory quality control distillate� pressure on the output plot of distillate pump 45 has a built-in tap sampling (not shown).

The resulting condensate from the condenser 17 two-stage steam jet ejector 18 and 19 is supplied from the camera condensation 20 (Fig.2) steam jet ejector first-stage 18 in communication with the condensate collector 27 multipass shell-and-tube steam heater 26, where together with the formed in its cavity steam volume 32 condensate heating steam condensate is pumped by pump 41 to the condensate tank (not shown) for subsequent use in steam cycle power plant.

The condensate collector 27 of shell and tube steam heater 26 is equipped with a level sensor (not shown) communicated by the control pulse with level control", integrated in discharge line suction condensate pump 41 that supports the constancy of the working level in this collection and provides stable operation of the pump. When mounted on the outlet pipe of the discharge pipe suction condensate pump automatic three-way solenoid valve 42 switches the pipeline on the discharge of the distillate with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera 43 mounted on the measuring bypass jumper circuit condensate. In the case of exceeding the permissible salinity condensing techniques�t discharged overboard or into a special ship tank technology of fresh water (not shown) for further use in the process consumers do not show increased requirements to the quality of freshwater for salinity.

To ensure that the current laboratory quality control of condensation pressure on the output plot of the condensate pump 41 has a built-in tap sampling (not shown).

Non-evaporated brine with krupnovskie particles of sludge (at a temperature t3=42°C) is removed overboard from the receiver brine 12 of the last stage of evaporation of the evaporator brine pump 50, a discharge pipe which has a jumper with valve 51 is embedded in the pipe upstream supply pump 1. This recirculation jumper is used to maintain the work design temperature of cooling water at the entrance to the secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation when swimming in cold waters by partial bypass of the brine in the cooling duct (nutrient) water.

In termoemcali (Fig.4), as part of a whole OS, the process of generating the moving particles of the slurry volume of the supersaturated solution is as follows.

Sea water, partly taken from the pipeline supply of pre-heated feed water through the branch 72, containing control valve 73, the flow meter 74 and regulator level "Y" (Fig.1), is fed to the water supply manifold 57 with distributing nozzles 58 to contact� water heaters converging type 60, a built in horizontal partition 59 which flows in the film mode by the internal converging surfaces (Fig.5). Heating steam through the pipe 55, disposed on the axis of the elliptical cap 54, is fed into the heating zone through the perforated diaphragm 56 having openings (not shown) in its peripheral area and placed horizontally under elliptical cover 54, flows evenly to the contact water heaters converging type 60, where the condensation of the heating steam at the free surface gravity-falling liquid film provides efficient heating. Such contact heating with the use of the diffuser 60, made of maloteploprovodnoj material, provides the minimum temperature in the boundary layers of the fluid, which is extremely important to create conditions bencivengo of the work of the contact heater.

Further contact heating is performed in the mode of an annular jet-film flow of the liquid at the outlet of the heater of the convergent type 60 (Fig.5) in spotno-transverse motion of the heating steam. The heated water is supplied to the outer surface of the horizontal dome-shaped septum 61 and flows in the form of jets into the outer section 66 of thermal softening, formed by the inner surface of the housing 53 and the peripheral obachan�th 63. On this site reheating water is provided by condensation of the heating steam to the outer surfaces consistently streamlined its jets of water. On all way of its spotno-lateral movement provides heating steam "ventilation" of the free surfaces of the heated liquid, facilitating the removal of evolved gases through the manifold vapour 62 placed at a horizontal dome-shaped partition wall 61. The placing of the collector exhaust air-steam mixture at a horizontal dome-shaped partition wall 61 having the maximum area in the lower cross section, and given that the flow rate of flash steam that is removed with the change of the vector direction of movement by 90°, does not exceed 3-5% of the consumption of heating steam, eliminates the removal of the salt-containing droplets of moisture together with the steam and allows you to direct the flash steam to the corresponding capacitor (namely, 26) for subsequent return of the condensate in the steam and condensate loop.

This scheme is more fluid heating mode spotno-transverse movement of the heating steam in combination with active "ventilation" of the free surfaces of heated water determines the increase in the partial pressure of vapor at the interface, thereby achieving the minimum subcooling of the liquid to the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure � housing turbomachines, which contributes to the achievement of the maximum supersaturation of the solution by Nechiporuk salts at the entrance to the outer section 66.

The pair of particles captured by the liquid jets flowing from the dome-shaped septum 61, create in the upper zone of the outer section 66 of thermal softening of saturated steam bubbles zone, moving with the fluid down. When steam bubbles of different sizes perform different functions during the movement of the solution in this outer section of thermal softening. So steam bubbles larger sizes contribute to the degassing of heated fluid through the diffusion of released gases in their volume, and the growth of these steam bubbles float up vented to the interface, facilitating the removal of gases together with steam. At the same time tiny steam bubbles, performing the function of nucleation in the volume of the supersaturated solution, serve as a catalyzing factor for the nucleation of primary particles of the slurry in the volume of the supersaturated solution in the outer section of the softening. Along with the said processes in the heated volume of the supersaturated solution in the outer section 66 of thermal softening is also a natural formation of crystallization centers (nuclei of primary particles sludge) by reducing the supersaturation of the liquid.

In volume Rast�ora subsequent sections of thermal softening: medium 67 and the Central section 68, is the growth of the primary particles of the sludge (sludge formation) generated in the solution volume of the outer section 66 of thermal softening, and the main criterion for evaluating the effectiveness of turbomachines are the number and size of sludge particles on the output device.

Due to the production of horizontal dome-shaped septum 61, 63 peripheral and Central 64 shells of plastics with hydrophobic properties, worsening conditions of deposition on the external surface of the dome-shaped horizontal surface and vertical surfaces of cylindrical shells, which prevents the decrease of supersaturation of the solution due to the formation on these surfaces, before it is delivered into the outer section 66 and in the sections of softening in the direction of motion of a supersaturated solution, which is an additional factor contributing to the increased efficiency of generation of sludge particles, which is the main target of the technological products of turbomachines.

Describes the process of generating the moving slurry particles in the supersaturated solution of turbomachines are illustrated graphically in Fig.7.

The intensity of generation of sludge particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution, based on the use of negative solubility salts, grows�melts with increasing temperature of the heating fluid, with the increase of supersaturation. So, termoemcali additional heating fluid supplied to its input from the pipeline heated in the heater 26 of the feed water with a salt concentration of rigidity C1, mEq/l, there is a factor that enhanced the process of formation of sludge particles. The nature of decrease of supersaturation of the solution kinetics of thermal softening) due to sludge formation in its entirety, and the degree of completion of the process of thermal softening (the number and size of slurry particles) depend on the hydrodynamic regime of fluid motion (laminar, laminar-turbulent, turbulent) and the residence time of the solution in termoemcali.

In the turbulent regime of motion solution (ideal mixing), in which, due to the active removal of fluid from a zone with a lower saturation of the solution in the zone with increased supersaturation, there is a General decrease in the supersaturation umjagchenija solution in the course of its movement in termoemcali that, ultimately, determines the decrease in the intensity of formation and growth of particles of sludge (line CRS=f(τ)) in General, and does not meet the requirements for effective generation of particles sludge.

The ideal mode of generation of particles of suspended sludge in termoemcali is laminar mode d�izheniya umjagchenija solution (a plug), wherein, due to the lack of mixing of the liquid, is most effective formation and growth of particles of the sludge in terms of highest concentration potential for effective sludge formation during thermal softening solution in termoemcali. The decrease of supersaturation of the solution is determined only by the processes of sludge formation and residence time of the solution in termoemcali (line CRV=f(τ)). However, practical realization of this ideal option is quite complex and involves the necessity of using turbomachines with a significantly large size.

Therefore, the application of the partitioning of the water volume, excluding the liquid mixing in the entire water volume of turbomachines, ensuring that the laminarization of a moving fluid in sections softening by reducing the speed of its movement, creates favorable conditions for efficient generation of sludge particles with a smooth (sliming) the decrease in the degree of supersaturation of the solution in the direction from the outer section of the softening of the Central (line 0-1-2-3), where τ1, τ2, τ3- the residence time of the supersaturated solution in the relevant sections of the softening mode sequential interleave lowering and lifting movements, allowing approx�isit the intensity of these processes to the ideal (laminar) version (line C RV=f(τ)). The greatest intensity decrease of supersaturation of the solution is characterized by the outer section 66 of thermal softening, where flow is intense processes of nucleation slurry of particles in conditions of maximum supersaturation of the solution and the presence of tiny bubbles sludge as a catalyst of these processes as crystallization centers. In subsequent sections of softening (middle and center), the intensity decrease of supersaturation of the solution is weakened due to the decrease in concentration of the growth potential of slurry particles generated in the outer section of thermal softening.

It is known that with increasing the number of sections achieved the depth of thermal softening will increase. However, it should be noted that in additional sections of the softening processes of growth of the sludge particles will occur in the zone with lower supersaturation of scale-forming salts, which determines the low growth rate of slurry particles. Therefore, the additional effect achieved from increasing the number of sections of softening involving significant complexity to the design and worsening weight and size characteristics of turbomachines, will be negligible.

In this regard, it is essential that the claimed three-section embodiment of turbomachines, the amount of sludge�x particles at the outlet of the device, required for their effective use as "seed crystals", provided you change the height of the water volume of the device (increasing time of generation of sludge particles) without changing its transverse dimensions, which is extremely essential.

The functional purpose of these sections, thermal softening is different, therefore, for effective generation of sludge particles made rational distribution of the total water volume of turbomachines between sections of thermal softening, namely:

in the outer section 66, in conditions of maximum supersaturation of the solution, due to its additional heat, and the presence of tiny steam bubbles that perform the function of nucleation, there is an intensive formation of primary germ of crystallization centers and begin their growth (sliming). The overall efficiency of turbomachines is determined by the effectiveness of the organization's processes in this section, what has been achieved by increasing the residence time and reduce the speed of the lowering movement of the solution. Therefore, the water volume of the outer section is made most (at least half the total water volume of turbomachines);

- the middle section 67 in the mode of a lifting motion occurs further growth and consolidation of the sludge�o particles coming from the outer section 66, thus increasing their total surface. The use of a single water environment, in determining the identity of the chemical composition of primary nuclei of crystallization centers generated in the volume of the outer section 66, chemical composition umjagchenija solution, and therefore a lower work of crystallization in these "seed" slurry particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution. Thanks marked catalyzing factor provides effective growth of slurry particles in the solution volume of this section of thermal softening.

In the volume of the middle section for efficient growth of slurry particles in the supersaturated solution also requires laminarinase fluid flow in the mode of its lifting movement, which is achieved by ensuring the appropriate speed of movement and residence time in her umjagchenija solution. In the end, the middle section 67 is made with a volume occupying at least one third of the total water volume of turbomachines;

- in the Central section 68 in the mode of lowering movement of the liquid, continued growth of the sludge particles and ends at a stage sufficient for their further use as "seed crystals" in the two-piece receiver 76 of the feed water evaporator. The intensity of growth of islamofacists in the scope of this section, what is happening in the area with the lowest saturation of the solution will be lower than in the mid section 67, so the main additional Central purpose of this section is to ensure water drainage with the highest levels of suspended sludge particles from the bottom of the zone to the input of the two-piece receiver feedwater 76.

To ensure stable operation of turbomachines necessary to maintain the optimal operating level of the liquid, thus limiting the range of control of the liquid level is limited to the maximum upper and lower limits of the fluid, defined respectively by the height placement of the upper edge of the intermediate shell 63 and the overflow edge of the Central sidewall 64. For these purposes, thermomaster equipped column index (not shown) to the nozzles 71 for visual control of the level and also provided with a level sensor (not shown).

Thus, the proposed part of the whole (OS) in all of its distinguishing features, namely:

- the inclusion of turbomachines additional design elements: horizontal perforated diaphragm 56, the horizontal dome-shaped septum 61 is installed underneath the manifold vapour 62;

- application partitioning of the water volume and organization processes termicheskoj� softening in the direction from the outer section 66 of softening to the Central 68 sequential alternating lowering and lifting laminarizing fluid motion in sections softening, providing drainage of the water environment with the highest content of generated particles movable slurry from the lower zone of the Central section of thermal softening through the pipe 70;

- the effective use of additional contact heating umjagchenija solution mode spotno-lateral movement of heating steam for maximum saturation of the solution by salts of hardness at the entrance of the outer section 66 of thermal softening that enhances the efficiency of generation of a primary sludge particles in the volume of this section in the presence of tiny steam bubbles that perform a catalytic function as centers of crystallization in the formation of primary sludge particles;

- production of horizontal dome-shaped septum 61, 63 peripheral and Central 64 shells of plastics with hydrophobic properties that worsen the conditions of deposition on the outer surface of these parts turbomachines and preventing the decrease of supersaturation of the solution due to the formation on these surfaces, before it is delivered into the outer section 66 of thermal softening, as well as in the sections of softening in the direction of motion of a supersaturated solution, which is an additional factor contributing to increase the efficiency of generation of sludge particles;

- the use of a common aquatic environment, in determining the identity of the chemical composition of primary nuclei of crystallization centers generated in the volume of the outer section 66, chemical composition umjagchenija solution, causing less work the crystallization of these "seed" slurry particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution.

Noted positive factors combined to allow adequately implement assigned to thermomaster technological challenges for efficient generation and recirculation of the sludge particles for further use as "seed crystals" for the purpose of reducing the supersaturation of the solution in the amount of two-piece receiver feed water.

Two-piece receiver 76 in the feed water composition claimed the OS works as follows (Fig.6).

Heated feed water is supplied to the pipe 84 for supplying water environment, placed in the lower zone of the Central section 83 of this two-piece receiver feed water through the discharge pipe attached to the water outlet portion of the cavity 37 (Fig.3) outdoor multi-pass shell-and-tube steam heater 26 (Fig.1). Water with suspended sludge from thermomyces 52 is connected also to the Central cavity section 83 of this two-piece receiver through the pipe 75 and the pipe�ku 85, placed in the lower part of its body (Fig.6). This scheme supply two water environments provides quality mixing, i.e., the averaged concentration "seed" sludge particles in the liquid volume in its Central section 83 in the mode of its lifting movement, which is a precondition for the effective implementation of the processes of thermal softening in the outer section 82 of the two-piece receiver feedwater in the mode of lowering movement of the fluid entering the cavity of this section by overflow over the upper edge of the additional sidewall 81 of the Central section 83. However, the main factors determining the efficiency of the process of thermal softening (sludge formation) in the water volume of the outer section 82, a similar intensifying effect on the factors set forth in the description of work of turbomachines.

In particular, through the use of the Central section 83 for mixing water environments in the two-piece receiver 76 is excluded stirring in volume umjagchenija solution in the outer sections 82, allowing you to implement effective thermal softening of feed water with the use of "seed" sludge particles in laminarization the flux in the lowering movement. Moreover, the use for the generation of sludge particles in termoemcali 52 of the water environment taken from line� feedwater, determines the identity of the chemical composition of these sludge particles chemical composition umjagchenija in the two-piece receiver 76 of the solution, resulting in less work for the crystallization of the mentioned "seed" slurry particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution, so this is an additional factor stimulating effective sliming (growth of sizes of primary sludge particles) in the solution volume of its outer section 82 by reducing its supersaturation during lowering movement. Achieved the depth of thermal softening (concentration of hardness salts on the output device 76) is determined by the residence time of the solution in the outer sections of softening, i.e. its volume. Therefore, to maximize the utilization of the volume of the outer section 82 of thermal softening two-piece receiver 76 additional sidewall 81, forming the center section 83, made with the length of its height from its bottom equal to the height of cylindrical part of the housing 78. In this issue of air when filling the device through nozzle 87, disposed on the axis of the elliptical cap 79 of the housing of this two-piece receiver feed water and connected to the tubing with an air valve (not shown). In order to maintain optimum operating level it's about�Namen level sensor (not shown), communicated by the control pulse with level control U built-in outlet from the heater 26, the heated feed water pipe communicated with the nozzle 84.

Thus, the proposed two-piece receiver feed water in all of its distinguishing features, namely the partitioning of the water volume two-piece receiver feed water, helps to address the twin technological task of organizing effective mixing it in water flows with suspended sludge from thermomyces 52 (Fig.1) and umjagchenie feed water (in the Central section 83), and subsequent thermal softening this mixed aqueous environment (in the outer section 82).

Softened feed water with suspended sludge derived from the lower zone of the cavity of the outer section 82 of the housing through the pipe 86, a built-in elliptical bottom plate 80, and is supplied to the input of the receiver feed water of 77 (Fig.1) the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator 4 (Fig.1). Thus its volume is used as additional sections of the softening two-piece receiver feed water, thereby achieving greater depth of softening of the feed water, which is very essential for the implementation of the General inventive concept by a decrease in the rate of scale formation in the elements of the desalination plant.

<> The efficiency from the additional inclusion of two-piece receiver 76 in the feed water composition of the shelter (Fig.1) due to the following.

The receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator is known to the OS, containing a cylindrical housing with a lid and elliptical bottom and provided with branch pipes for supplying and discharging water environments, does not meet the requirements for effective softening of a supersaturated solution on "seed" slurry particles generated in termoemcali (in case of direct connection to Turbomachinery), in light of its limited water volume, and hence the time course of processes of thermal softening. In this section the performance of the feedwater receiver provides simultaneous qualitative solution two complementary objectives: efficient mixing "seed" slurry particles in the supersaturated solution and implementation of an effective softening of the supersaturated solution, i.e. in single-section design the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, performing the main function of the mixer "seed" slurry particles in the supersaturated solution does not allow sufficiently realize the main goal of the inventive concept of the claimed invention to reduce peressini� feed water at the inlet to the evaporator.

Thus, the proposed two-piece receiver (Fig.6) feed water in all of its distinguishing features, namely: partitioning the increased water volume by installing additional sidewall 81 with the length of its height from the bottom equal to the height of the cylindrical body portion, which optimally address the twin technological challenge for the effective mixing flow of water with suspended sludge from turbomachines and umjagchenie feed water (in the Central section 83), as well as the subsequent implementation of effective thermal softening this mixed aqueous environment (in the outer section 82) laminarizing lowering movement umjagchenie feed water, which in combination with the use of the volume of the receiver 77 (Fig.1) feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator as additional sections of softening, ensures the achievement of the technical problem to ensure the efficient reduction of nutrient supersaturation of water, in particular at the inlet of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator is placed on this additional element of the proposed desalination plant.

By including in the composition of the proposed desalination plant, as a whole, more technologically interconnected parts: termomaxi�'el 52, enables efficient generation of mobile sludge particles and their subsequent use in the two-piece receiver feedwater 76 as "seed crystals" for the decrease in the supersaturation of the feed water on salts of rigidity, as well as through the use of the volume of the receiver feed water of 77 first-stage evaporation of the evaporator as additional sections of thermal softening, is achieved reducing the concentration nikiportsa salts in the feed water containing suspended therein the slurry at the inlet of the evaporator, which is vital for the implementation of the General inventive concept by a decrease in the rate of scale formation in the elements of the desalination plant.

In particular, when the bypass pipe 13, the throttle sputtering and evaporation of such softened feed water in the first stage of the evaporator evaporation conditions are favorable for reducing the rate of scale formation in the bypass channels and the working surfaces of the throttle-spray devices (OTHER) by reducing the concentration of scale-forming salts in the feed water at the inlet into the first stage of evaporation, as well as on the surfaces of the working channels louver separator 11 secondary steam by reducing salinity droplets of moisture that are made in the secondary steam in the degree of evaporation in the amount of non-evaporated liquid (brine) contained in near-bottom zone of the evaporation chamber of the first stage evaporator and the collection of brine 12 second-stage evaporation processes are thermal softening brine, due to the increase in sludge particles present in the volume of the brine.

When you bypass this softened brine for spraying and subsequent evaporation in the second stage of evaporation of the evaporator decreases the rate of scale formation on the working surfaces of the overflow pipe 13 and the OTHER holes by reducing the concentration of hardness salts in the brine, and also due to the replacement of surface scale formation on bulk sliming on "seed" slurry particles contained in the volume of brine. This predominant nature of the bulk sludge formation on the surface of the formation here due to lack of wall superheat liquid layers (no heat) and a large total surface of slurry particles, greatly exceeding the total surface of natural crystallization centers on the working surfaces of the said elements the degrees of evaporation. Similar processes take place in subsequent stages of evaporation evaporator sequential bypass, throttle sputtering and evaporation.

Occur when the OS of the physical processes illustrated graphically n� Fig.8.

Outboard water with an initial concentration of dissolved scale-forming salts Withabout, mEq/l at temperature to, °C is input to the secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation of the evaporator 4.

Consecutive passage in the cooling pipes of the secondary steam condensers 5-9 all levels of evaporation of the evaporator 4, the capacitor 17 two-stage steam jet ejector and outdoor multi-pass shell and tube feedwater heater 26 it is successively heated to a temperature t1, °C due to the heat of condensation in the secondary steam condensers in the stages of evaporation, the heat of condensation of steam-air mixture and a pair of working stages of steam jet ejectors, and the heat of condensation of the heating steam of the outer feed water heater. Due to the increasing supersaturation of scale-forming salts in it (Cabout-Cp), mEq/l, due to a decrease in the solubility of salts of hardness with increasing temperature Cp=f(t), where Cp=f(1) functional dependence of the equilibrium concentrations of hardness salts on the temperature of the liquid, the deposition of scale on heat transfer surfaces of the named elements of the OS, which leads to a decrease in the concentration of scale-forming salts at the output of the external multi-pass shell-and-tube under�of rebates feed water to C 1, mEq/l (line 0-1). The rate of scale formation, uniquely determined by the heat release rate and the temperature of the heat transfer pipes, the largest in the outer shell-and-tube steam feed water heater.

Feed water from the outer shell-and-tube steam feed water heater at temperature t1and with the concentration of dissolved salts c1, mEq/l passes successively through the two-piece receiver 76 and the receiver feed water of 77 first-stage evaporation of the evaporator, where at a constant temperature the concentration of dissolved salts in it is reduced to the concentration (C2, mEq/l (line 1-3) due to the volume of sludge formation on "seed" slurry particles generated in termoemcali. Softened feed water with suspended sludge via connected to the receiver feed water of 77 by-pass pipe 13 throttle-spray devices of the first stage of evaporation enters the first stage vacuum evaporation saturation temperature in the evaporation chamber t2and the concentration (C2, mEq/l (line 3-4). In the sequential interstage bypass throttle sputtering and adiabatic evaporation of the brine contained therein suspended sludge is used as "seed crystals" d�I reduce the supersaturation of the brine (contained in the bottom zone of the speed of evaporation of the evaporator and to the extent of their receivers brine second and subsequent stages of evaporation) due to the volume of sludge formation in the brine during his speed bypass (line 4-6), and these processes occur under conditions of sequential stepwise reduction of the saturation temperature in the stages of evaporation and is completed at temperature t3corresponding to the saturation pressure in the fifth stage of evaporation of the evaporator when the concentration of salts in the brine, with some reduction in the concentration of salts below the C2, mEq/L.

For comparison, Fig.8 at the same time shows the character of change of supersaturation of the solution in known desalination plant (line 1-2-5), where line 1-2 - throttling process and vacuum evaporation in the first stage evaporator; line 2-5, throttling process and vacuum evaporation in subsequent stages of evaporation. The decrease of supersaturation of the brine (at higher concentrations) in the levels of evaporation due to the formation on the working surfaces of the OTHER channels and louvered secondary steam separators stages of evaporation of the evaporator, which reduces their working life.

Fig.9 shows a graphical display of the physical nature of the processes occurring in the five-stage adiabatic evaporator.

In known desalination plant feed water enters the evaporation chamber of the first stage of the evaporator from the receiver feed water with a concentration of RA�dis solved salts C 1, mEq/l (which is significantly higher C2, mEq/l) connected to it through the by-pass pipe throttle-spray device for this stage of evaporation, where it evaporates due to the heat of overheating in vacuum mode at the same saturation temperature t2,°C (Fig.8).

Thus, due to the stepwise reduction of the saturation temperature in steps of evaporation of the evaporator, they stepped increases the solubility of salts in brine Withp=f(τ), where Cp=f(τ) is the functional dependence of the equilibrium concentrations of hardness salts on the temperature of the fluid at the input stages of evaporation, which leads to a corresponding reduction in the supersaturation ΔCn, mEq/l (here, the index "n" corresponds to the number of degrees of evaporation) in the stages of evaporation (Fig.9). However, this positive factor, due to the speed reduction pressure (saturation temperature) in steps of evaporation, not provide a significant decrease in the rate of scale formation on the working surfaces interstage bypass throttle tubes-spray devices as well as on the surfaces of the channels louvered secondary steam separators in the context of a large supersaturation of the brine ΔCn, mEq/l during its stepwise evaporation. In particular, in the process of evaporation the concentration of dissolved �Olya hardness in the feed water of the first stage of evaporation increases (line a-b). Thus due to scale formation in the bypass channels and the holes of the OTHER (line b-C), the brine flows into the evaporation chamber of the second stage of evaporation with concentration of dissolved salts, the corresponding point "C". Similar processes occur in subsequent stages of evaporation operating under conditions of stepwise pressure reduction (step-broken line 1). Non-evaporated brine is discharged from the housing of the distiller when the concentration of hardness salts C3, mEq/l from the receiver brine fifth stage of the evaporation of brine efflux pump.

In contrast to known to offer shelter to the entrance of the evaporation chamber of the first stage of the evaporator enters softened feed water with suspended sludge from the receiver feed water of 77 with a low concentration of dissolved salts C2, mEq/l connected to it through the by-pass pipe 13 throttle-spray device for this stage of evaporation, where it evaporates due to the heat of overheating in vacuum mode at a saturation temperature T2, °C (Fig.8). Non-evaporated brine sludge particles from the receiver brine 12 of the first stage of evaporation, connected to it through the by-pass pipe 13 throttle-spray devices of the second stage of evaporation, is fed into the vacuum chamber of the second stage of evaporation. Bypass the unused�of revserse brine with suspended sludge in the subsequent stage of evaporation is the same from the receiver brine 12 previous stage evaporation connected via a bypass pipe 13 throttle-spray devices corresponding to the degrees of evaporation.

In this case, due to the presence of suspended sludge particles in the volume of supersaturated brine contained in the cavities of the bilge area and sink brine stages of evaporation distiller, each of them achieves a significant reduction of the supersaturation of the liquid (line 2) by the amount ΔCFri, mEq/l (here, the index "n" corresponds to the number of degrees of evaporation) due to the volume of shemaletube in brine, which determines a decrease in the rate of scale formation on the surfaces of the working channels of the Louvre secondary steam separators, by reducing the concentration of hardness salts in the droplets of brine remain abreast together with the flow of the separated secondary steam that is essential to solve the technical problem to improve the reliability of the OS.

In addition, due to the considerable excess of the total surface of the sludge particles contained in the feed water of the first stage of evaporation and brine further stages of evaporation, relative to the total surface of natural crystallization centers on the working surfaces of passageways and openings of the throttle-spray unit (DRU) is an abstraction of the process of scale formation from their rough surfaces suspended in the volume of roaming solution particles was�and, i.e. replacement of surface scale formation on intensive sliming in the volume of transferred fluid. The additional factor reducing the rate of scale formation in the above-mentioned elements of the distiller itself serves as the decrease in the concentration of scale-forming salts in the feed water at the entrance is a five-stage adiabatic evaporator, the volume of brine in the stages of evaporation.

Kropyvschyna particles of sludge are removed together with the brine from the receiver brine 12 fifth stage of the evaporation of brine efflux pump 50 overboard at temperature t3=42°C with a concentration of C4, mEq/L.

From the comparison of the physical processes occurring in the known and proposed OS, the obvious positive effect achieved by pre-softening of the feed water in the two-piece receiver feed water, using the volume of the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation as additional sections of thermal softening at the input of a multistage adiabatic evaporator. In particular, physical processes in the steps of the five-stage evaporation adiabatic evaporator offer shelter to proceed at a lower concentration of scale-forming salts in the brine, resulting in a reduction in the rate of scale formation in perepolkin�x OTHER channels and on the working surfaces of the channels louvered secondary steam separators stages of evaporation, what is the effect achieved in the implementation of the target General inventive concept.

A distinctive feature and achieve that effect of the claimed group of inventions as part of a whole and its additional parts, is to use a single thermal process heat, which is fundamental in thermal distillation desalination of sea water, and applying a single aqueous environment to generate a "seed" sludge particles used in the future for thermal softening of the feed water at the inlet to the evaporator and the brine in its levels of evaporation, which, causing the identity of the chemical composition of these sludge particles chemical composition umjagchenija solution determines a lower crystallization work on these "seed" slurry particles in the volume of the supersaturated solution, i.e. is a catalyzing factor effective sludge formation (growth in size of slurry particles) in the solution volume, accompanied by a decrease of supersaturation on the hardness salts in the course of its displacement in the elements of the OS.

It is also important that the partial recirculation mode of the blown brine through the saddle with valve 51, a built-in suction pipe feed pump used in the well-known ow to maintain raschet�th temperature of the cooling water at the inlet of the secondary steam condenser 5 of the fifth stage of evaporation of the evaporator in the conditions of the sailing ship in the cold waters, here can be recommended for use in the operation of the shelter as a permanent partial recirculation mode of the blown brine containing particles of suspended sludge, to reduce the rate of scale formation on the internal heat-transfer surfaces of pipes, all the way successive passage of the heated sea water in cooling pipes of the secondary steam condensers, condenser two-stage steam-jet ejector and a multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, achieved at the expense of the processes of crystallization of salts from their working surfaces rolling on the particles of the slurry made by the recirculating brine in the amount of floating sea water, i.e. due to the replacement of surface scale formation on bulk sliming. This will bring additional positive effect.

This restrictive condition of use of such partial recirculation is permissible to exceed the design temperature of cooling water at the inlet of the secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation of the evaporator, providing acceptable reduction in the operational performance of the proposed desalination plant.

Thus, the proposed technical solutions for the structural layout of termobahia�I and two sections of the receiver circuit feed water and of the decision on their inclusion in the composition of desalination plant allow sufficiently to accomplish the task in the implementation of the inventive idea to improve the reliability of multistage adiabatic desalination plant, namely: reduction in the rate of scale formation on the working surfaces interstage bypass pipes and throttle-spray devices as well as on the surfaces of the channels louvered secondary steam separators, which are achieved through efficient generation in termoemcali suspended in an aqueous medium primary "seed" sludge particles and their subsequent use as crystallization centers to reduce the supersaturation of the feed water in volumes two-piece receiver feedwater and feedwater receiver of the first stage of evaporation and brine, contained in near-bottom zone of evaporation chambers, cavities sink brine and connected to the bypass pipe throttle-spray devices for sequential passage of the evaporated solution in the stages of evaporation.

It also creates the opportunity to reduce the rate of scale formation on heat transfer surfaces of the secondary steam condensers, condenser two-stage steam jet ejector and outer multi-way steam feed water heater when operating the shelter in the partial recirculation mode of brine containing suspended solids of the sludge, at the expense of the processes of crystallis�tion of scale-forming salts from the heat transfer surfaces on the particles of the slurry, i.e. replacement of surface scale formation on bulk sliming all the way successive heating of the feed water.

Thus through the use of a single thermal process (heating) and a single water environment in the implementation processes of distillation seawater desalination and generation of rolling sludge, eliminates the use of additional technological materials and technical conditions are created for full automation of the proposed desalination plant using uniform automation.

It should be noted that the cuttings removed together with the brine composition (CaCO3, Mg(OH)2, CaSO4), inert and harmless to the environment, i.e. the technological processes used for the solution of the technical problem, are environmentally friendly, which is extremely important in the conditions of toughening of requirements to ecological safety of the technologies.

1. Desalination plant, including external multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater having a straight-tube bundle with a dividing partition forming a vapor cavity for the collection and subsequent removal of non-condensed steam mixture, and features sbornik� condensate with a level sensor; two-stage steam jet ejector; a condenser two-stage steam jet ejector with separate chambers condensation of air-steam mixture ejectors respectively from the first and second stages, forming, together with a series connected tubes of the cooling water coolers-condensers with their collections of condensate, a communication between the U-shaped pipe, and provided with a separate branch pipes of the exhaust air from these chambers of condensation; and contains the pumps, piping, disconnecting and switching automatic valves, instrumentation, automatic control and protection; multi-stage adiabatic evaporator mounted in a sealed enclosure, made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, and comprising a vertical partition forming a separate stage of evaporation, each of which in the upper area of the horizontally mounted two-pass shell-and-tube condenser secondary steam having a straight-tube bundle with baffle wall forming a cavity for the collection and subsequent removal of non-condensed steam mixture, and include a collection of the distillate, and in the middle area mounted secondary vapor separator louvered type, separating these stages and�of soaring to the upper area, which is the condenser, and the lower, which is the evaporator, while in the lower zone of each stage of evaporation placed receiver brine in the degree of evaporation, in the form of the dipleg of enlarged diameter connected directly to the throttle bypass tube spraying device of a subsequent stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and each of these bypass pipes contains in its upper free part built this throttle device, above the upper edge of each of which is placed the mushroom bump, performing the function of the reflectors fountain water jets emanating from the holes in the throttle device; all these stages of evaporation consistently communicated between bypass tube connecting the cooling water condensers steam and provided with a pipe serial bypass steam mixture formed from the corresponding cavities of these capacitors secondary steam from the first stage of evaporation to the last, and the two adjacent stage chamber evaporation pairwise sequentially communicated with each other in the lower zone bypass tube from the receivers of the brine in the degree of evaporation to throttle-spray devices subsequent stage of evaporation, the receiver of the last stage brine evaporated�I communicated with brine efflux pump, discharge pipe which has a branch jumper with valve built into the pipeline before the supply pump of the evaporator, a pressure cavity which communicates with the inlet conduit of the cooling pipes of the secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation, and pressure pipe feed pump equipped with a flow meter, and the inlet pipe has a built-in filter seawater; multistage adiabatic evaporator system also contains interstage orifice plate installed at the tubes of successive bypass steam-air mixture from the secondary steam condensers, vapor cavity secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation communicated with the receiving cavity of the mixing chamber steam jet ejector first-stage the output of the diffuser portion which is communicated with the vapor discharge chamber to the condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam-jet ejector, the cavity of the mixing chamber steam jet ejector second stage is connected to the air outlet nozzle from the chamber of condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector, steam jet exhaust diffuser of the second stage ejector is connected to the vapor chamber to the condensation of the condenser of the second stage steam jet ejector equipped with p�trubka venting to the atmosphere; input a nozzle part of both of these ejectors connected in parallel to the line of flow of the working pair and the cavity of the condensate collector chamber to the condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector communicating with the cavity condensate collector outdoor multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater; by receiving part of the cooling pipes of the chamber of condensation of the condenser of the second stage steam jet ejector summed up the discharge pipe of the cooling water secondary steam condenser of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and the outlet side of the cooling pipe camera condensation of the condenser of the first stage steam jet ejector communicated with the receiving part of the water cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, steam chamber which is also connected to the low potential source of heating steam through the steam pipe with a built-in temperature controller, the heater is made with a cross-direction mutually Teploobmennik environments with a rectilinear direction of movement of the heated stream, the output portion of the aqueous cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, in turn, through the outlet conduit provided with a temperature sensor�ry, bound to a control pulse with a temperature controller, built-in inlet steam heating steam, is connected to the inlet of the feedwater receiver of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator is embedded along the axis of its elliptical bottom, and to the output of the feedwater receiver is connected with a bypass pipe throttle-distribution devices of a first stage of evaporation the evaporator; collections distillate of all the capacitors of the secondary pair in pairs consistently communicated between pipes interstage bypass distillate, each of which is made in the form of U-shaped tube, wherein the collection of distillate secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation is connected to the inlet piping of the tank distillate, reported by pipeline with pumping distillate pump; an air cavity distillate tank communicates with the vapor space of the secondary steam condenser of the last stage of evaporation of the evaporator to equalize the pressure in these cavities and reliable flow of distillate, and the distillate tank is equipped with level sensor and communicated to the control pulse with level control tank built into the discharge portion of the pump tubing to maintain its operating level and stable operation of a suction distil�side of the pump, moreover, on the downstream pressure pipeline pumping distillate pump is equipped with a flow meter and automatic three-way switching solenoid valve, switching the pipeline on the discharge of the distillate with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera mounted on the measuring bypass jumper circuit distillate; air-steam air-steam mixture from the cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater designated by a conduit to a vapor cavity secondary steam condenser of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and heating steam condensate from the condensate collector of outdoor multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater designated for the pipeline pumping the condensate pump into the tank the condensate for reuse in the steam and condensate loop, wherein the condensate collector is equipped with a level sensor, reported by the control pulse with level control, installed on the discharge line suction condensate pump to maintain the operating level in the condensate collector and ensure stable operation of the pump, and on the downstream of its discharge pipe installed automatic three-way ne�cluchey solenoid valve, switching the pipeline for condensate discharge with low quality through its connection by the control pulse with solenocera mounted on the measuring bypass jumper circuit condensate, characterized in that it further comprises a two-piece receiver feed water pipes for supplying and discharging water environments, set before the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and thermometrical that contains the pipes for supplying and discharging the working environments, with the intake of the water environment is communicated with the branch that has the control valve, flow meter and level control, but this branch is built into the discharge pipe water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater; pipe removal of water environment with suspended sludge turbomachines communicated with the inlet of the two-piece receiver feed water, and the outlet nozzle of the vapor environment in communication with the vapor cavity of the outer multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater; a nozzle for supplying a pair of turbomachines communicated with a source of heating steam to reheat it in the water environment, and two-piece receiver feedwater comprises a cylindrical housing with e�Opticheskie lid and a bottom, the pipes for supplying and discharging water environments, connections for index column in its upper part and equipped with a level sensor installed in the upper part of the cylindrical housing, and has an additional shell inside the case, built on the axis of its elliptical bottom with the length of the height from the bottom equal to the height of the cylindrical body portion of the,and forming two vertical open cavity: external and Central; outer cavity of the outlet pipe, placed in its lower zone communicating with the inlet pipe of the water environment of the receiver feed water of the first stage of evaporation of the evaporator, and the Central cavity of the inlet pipe and disposed on the axis of the bottom is connected to the discharge piping water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, containing control valve and level control, communicated by the control pulse with level gauge two-piece receiver feed water, moreover, its Central cavity in the lower zone also communicates with the pipe for supplying water mixed with sludge from thermomyces for their qualitative mixing with feed water; along the axis of the elliptical cap has a built-in air outlet nozzle connected to the piping with air valve.

2. Termoemcali, �terjadi vertical cylindrical housing with a bottom, cover and steam supply pipe and the outlet pipes flash steam, soft water and sludge, and also contains a reservoir supplying water to the distributing nozzles, which are placed are arranged in the horizontal partition of the reception of the contact-film heaters of the convergent type; and contains two vertical cylindrical shell, mounted concentrically on the bottom of the housing on its axis and forming three vertical open cavity, of which the external cavity formed by the inner surface of the housing and a peripheral sidewall, the average cavity formed by a peripheral sidewall and a Central shell, and the shell forms a housing Central cavity, wherein that it additionally contains a built-in casing beneath its lid perforated diaphragm having openings in its periphery for the organization, uniform supply of steam to the zone heating the water; a dome-shaped horizontal partition mounted with annular gap relative to the inner wall of the housing on the supporting elements on these walls and below horizontal septum arranged in her foster contact-film heaters of the convergent type; and further comprises a discharge manifold vapour installed under the dome p�regardly; the upper peripheral end of the shell is located above the upper end of the center shell, and the length of both of them in its height from the bottom is more than half the height of the body of turbomachines; in the lower portion peripheral sidewall around the perimeter of the cutouts for the flow of fluid from an external cavity in the middle; the form of dnish of the housing and its cover is made elliptical, the outlet nozzle of the water combined with the withdrawal of the sludge particles and is embedded along the axis of the elliptical bottom of the housing at its Central cavity, and a steam supply pipe is mounted in an elliptical housing cover on its axis; wherein the cylindrical body, in its upper part, equipped with nozzles for connection of the column index, and is equipped with a level sensor and a level sensor installed in the upper part of the cylindrical housing and is connected via control boost with the level control set to the branch outlet pipe water outlet portion of the external cavity multi-pass shell-and-tube steam feed water heater, which is connected to the water supply pipe turbomachines, and collectors of the exhaust steam and water supply is connected to the contact-film heaters, vertical cylindrical shells and domed horizontal partition vypolneniia heat-resistant hydrophobic edible plastics.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: system for conversion of hardness salts contains the housing 1 which contains the generator of non-sinusoidal electromagnetic oscillations of shaking frequency, to outphase outputs 2 of which the radiating wires 3, 4 are connected with a possibility of their winding in mutually opposite directions on the pipeline 10. In the housing 1 the unit of smart alerting mode 5 connected with the generator of non-sinusoidal electromagnetic oscillations of the shaking frequency and the independent power supply 6 are located. Indicator 7 is located on the housing 1. The alarm sensor 8 is connected with the housing 1. Couplers 9 are made of non-conducting material with a possibility of fixing of radiating wires 3, 4 and located on the pipeline 10.

EFFECT: invention allows to improve reliability of the system operation and to ensure its safety.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to arrangement and method for controlling multiple sized water softening tanks. A water softening system including a first treatment tank (24), filled with an ion exchange resin (32) and having a first water capacity, a second treatment tank (26) in parallel with the first treatment tank, filled with an ion exchange resin (32) and having a second water capacity that is less than the first water capacity, a flow meter connected to the first and second treatment tanks, the flow meter is connected to the piping leading to the first and second treatment tanks and measures the number of gallons per unit time that flow through the water softening system and a controller (70) in communication with the above flow meter, the controller configured to direct the water into the first treatment tank when the demand flow rate is greater than a designated flow rate, and to direct the water into the second treatment tank when the demand flow rate is equal to or less than the designated flow rate.

EFFECT: no untreated water passing through the system.

13 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electrostatic treatment of fluids and change of fluid properties, formation of coagulation and crystallisation centres. The fluid treatment method consists in electrostatic action through the central electrode 8 of a double capacitor having contact with fluid and not connected to a power supply source directly. Cyclic charging and discharging of the central electrode 8 is made through plates of external electrodes 6 separated from fluid and central electrode by insulators 7, under action of electric pulses.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency of fluid treatment at reduced power consumption.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water softening plant. Proposed plant comprises automatically controlled device for mixing the mixed water flow V(t)verschnitt from first softened partial flow V(t)teil1weich and second flow V(t)teil2roh containing initial water. Is includes electronic control device to be tuned by one or several instantaneous measurement magnitudes, defined experimentally, to regular said mixing device so that water hardness of mixed flow V(t)verschnitt is set to predefined rated vale SW. Note here that said control device in some preset working situations ignores at least one or several instantaneous measurement magnitudes to regular said mixing device. Apart, it proceeds from the last significant appropriate measurement magnitude before origination of preset working situation or standard magnitude for appropriate measurement magnitude stored in memory of electric control device.

EFFECT: decreased wear of automatically controlled mixer.

23 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment for reduction the content of salts and suspended substances. Proposed method comprises filling the tank with water to effect acoustic cavitation to level of 0.15-0.5 in evacuating the tank to 0.3-0.9 kgf/cm2 accompanied by filtration. Cavitation is caused by simultaneous action of ultrasound different-frequency opposed oscillators. Low-frequency oscillator excites broad spectrum of frequencies while high-frequency oscillator excites one oscillation frequency ten times higher than that of low-frequency oscillator main frequency. In compliance with preferable version, main oscillation frequency excited by low-frequency oscillator makes 1.8 kHz while that caused by high-frequency source makes 18 kHz.

EFFECT: intensified treatment, deep cleaning.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of effluents treatment and can be used for production of water suitable for agriculture, communal services, etc. In compliance with this invention, water preliminary cleaned of mechanical impurities is forced through electrolyser made up of cylindrical electrolyser chamber representing an insert into main pipeline with its axis aligned with that of the chamber. Then water is forced through sand. Here, gas liberated from water is withdrawn and sediment is washed off sand particle surface, said sediment comprising stuck sediment of metal compounds and other impurities. Note also that electrolytic chamber consists of sections accommodating cylindrical electrodes, one arranged along the axis of cylindrical chamber and another one mounted on chamber inner surface. Besides, said chamber is divided by common cylindrical ion-permeable web into anode and cathode spaces. Note that initial water flow is, first, forced through one section and, then through another sections with electrode charge signs opposite those of the first chamber.

EFFECT: high quality of water treatment, higher process efficiency.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water softening apparatus designed for working in soft water mode, flowing water mode, reclamation mode and control mode and can be used to treat tap water in houses, offices etc. The apparatus has a block of reservoirs comprising first and second reservoirs for obtaining soft water filled with an ion-exchange resin, and a reclamation reservoir filled with reclamation material. The main housing serves as a support for the block of reservoirs and enables control of switching between modes. The feeding unit is directly connected to the cold/hot water pipe and has first and second angle valves into which cold/hot crude water is fed, first and second elbow pipes attached to the main housing, and first and second L-shaped connecting pipes which join the first and second angle valves to the first and second elbow pipes, respectively. The outlet unit enables outlet of cold/hot soft water, cold/hot flowing water and waste water from the main housing after reclamation.

EFFECT: simple apparatus, high efficiency of controlling temperature of water and easy use.

43 cl, 44 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: water is cleaned from scale deposits in two cone-shaped vessels joined in series. A portion of water heated in boilers is passed through the vessels under pressure of up to 1 MPa with flow rate at which water stays in each cone-shaped vessel for 60±10 minutes. In the first cone-shaped vessel, water is treated with a constant electric field with strength E=2.0±0.5 V/cm and polarity of E changes at a period of almost one hour. Scale deposits accumulating at the bottom of the cone-shaped vessels are periodically discharged through bottom valves. The water is continuously treated from the beginning of the heating season for 1.5-3 months until water in the boilers and heating system is completely clean.

EFFECT: efficient cleaning of water from scale deposits during the entire heating season and cutting heat consumption on heating water.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method is meant for non-reagent softening natural water and can be used in public facilities in centralised and decentralised water supply systems, and industrial water supply systems. Natural water is softened through effect of magnetic and electric field, where water is successively filtered in ferromagnetic material, magnetised with an external magnetic field, and then filtered in granular material which is in an electric field created by an electrochemical current source. Strength of the external magnetic field ranges from 500 to 1000 A/m. Water is filtered in a granular ferrite with particle size ranging from 5 to 10 mm at a rate of 20 to 40 m/h. The electric field is created through spatial separation of electronegative and electropositive electrodes, between which granular filtering material is placed. Filtering is done in an electric field at a rate of 0.6 to 1.0 m/h.

EFFECT: method allows for softening very hard water through effect of magnetic and electric field and extraction of formed hardness salts by filtering in a granular filter bed.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method may be used in the field of municipal engineering in centralised systems and decentralised systems of water supply, and may also be used in water preparation for purposes of industrial enterprises. Method includes water filtration in mineral grain materials available in electric field created by electrochemical source of current, which consists of short-circuited electrodes. Electrochemical source of current is made of perforated disk from aluminium, having negative potential, and perforated disk from graphite, having positive potential, connected by conductor, between which a mineral grain material is located, at the same time water is passed in direction opposite to direction of electric field power lines, created by electrochemical source of current. Number of electrochemical sources of current is selected from 1 to 16. Filtering material used is silicicated calcite. Speed of water filtration makes 0.6-2.6 m/hr.

EFFECT: simplified process of water softening by filtration, increased share of standard mineral filtering materials, reduction of costs for method realisation.

4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device and a method of detecting the quality of a liquid, which are used in water treatment devices. The detector "renders" the quality of water in the form of visible radiation instead of converting intensity of UV radiation into digital form and comprises a first detection window coated with a first material for converting first received UV radiation emitted by a UV source and transmitted through the liquid into first visible radiation. The device additionally mixes the first visible radiation with second visible radiation to produce third visible radiation. A different colour of the third visible radiation reflects different quality of water.

EFFECT: invention simplifies the device and method owing to absence of UV sensors in water, which detect UV intensity.

14 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined magnetic processing of fluids. Proposed device comprises housing 1 connected via fluid feed and discharge pipes and magnetic unit 6 fitted therein and composed of the set of permanent magnets. Fluid flow channel is arranged between said magnetic unit 6 and housing 1 and composed of spiral with pitch ratio equal to six. The length of magnetic unit 6 is comparable with its diameter. Ferromagnetic washers 7 are fitted between three circular magnets of magnetic unit 6. Electromagnets 4 built around Helmholtz coils 5 with reactive power compensators are arranged at fluid feed and discharge pipes 2 and 3.

EFFECT: efficient magnetisation of fluid flow, ruled out permanent magnet effects.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water crystal cleaning of harmful admixtures including heavy isotopes of deuterium. Proposed device comprises case 11 to house riser 8 with two chambers 4, 1. The latter make inlets for portable water and heat carrier. Portable water chamber 4 is connected with inside of case 11 that has outlet at its bottom. Heat carrier chamber 1 is connected with inside of ribs 7 arranged in case 11 and combined by outlet. Outer surface of ribs 7 is wavy.

EFFECT: continuous formation of deuterium ice in portable water.

2 dwg

Steam separator // 2554132

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to steam fractions separators. Steam separator comprises vessel for boiling fluid with top section provided with circular horizontal ring with inner groove and hole for condensate. Several identical elements consist of vertical tubes with horizontal rings arranged at their lower part and like rings at upper part provided with grooves with holed for condensate draining. Note here that said elements are fitted one on the other while the last one at upper part is plugged.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to technology of processing water with ozone and can be used in systems of water supply of towns and settlements for decontamination of drinking water from surface water sources, in particular, with large seasonal fluctuations of water contamination, requiring up to sixfold change of ozone dose. Ozone-air mixture is supplied by steps with constant consumption at each step and change of ozone concentration in ozone-air mixture. Ratio of maximal consumption of ozone-air mixture at the last step to minimal at the first step is taken equal to not more than 2. Dimensions of ozone-air mixture bubbles is from 0.8 to 1.2 mm. Device for processing water with ozone contains system of preparation of dried and cooled air, providing its supply into ozone and ozone-air mixture generator onto disperser in steps, as well as three separate lines of similar dispersers.

EFFECT: group of inventions provides reduction of loss of ozone produced by generator, efficiency of produced ozone application not lower than 95%, increased accuracy of ozone dosing, increased reliability of installation functioning and its safety.

12 cl, 14 dwg, 6 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of purifying waste water includes adding a natural zeolite to the water to be treated, mixing, settling and filtering. The natural zeolite used is a natural zeolite containing 50-60% clinoptilolite with particle size of 1.0-1.5 mm. Uniform mixing is carried out at a rate of 1-2 rps for 10-15 s and settling is carried out for 12-48 hours.

EFFECT: low content of heavy metal and ammonium ions when treating waste water below the maximum allowable concentration while enabling use of the treated water for crop irrigation.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, particularly to sea water desalination and can be used for purification of sweet water. Sweet water can be produced by evaporation and condensation of water vapours in costal areas and at sea platforms. Sea water desalination includes its evaporation and condensation of water vapour. Sea water is taken separately from top warm and cold bottom layers. Note here that warm water is forced to evaporation while cold water is used for condensation of water vapour resulted from heated sea water and atmospheric air.

EFFECT: lower power and metal input, higher efficiency of desalination.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiological industry and can be used in biological purification of water and soil from oil and oil products. Claimed is consortium of strains of microorganisms Acinetobacter sp. VKM B-2753D and Ochrobacterium sp. VKM B-2754D, possessing nitrogenase activity.

EFFECT: consortium is capable of atmospheric nitrogen fixation and possesses high utilising ability with respect to oil and oil products with their high content in substrate.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: what is provided is heterogenic catalytic decomposition of process media containing oxalate ions having the concentration of 16-18 g/l (complexing agents (up to 2 g/l), surfactant (up to 50 mg/l)) and nitric acid (up to 60 g/l) on a platinum catalyst applied on anion exchange resin VP-1AP (0.05-2 wt % of platinum). The effect is achieving a degree of decomposition of oxalate ions, complexing agents, surfactants up to 99.9%, in the residual concentrations - less than 10 mg/l in oxalate ions and less than 1 mg/l in complexing agent (EDTA, Trilon B) and surfactant (sulphonol).

EFFECT: improving the characteristics.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gravity-magnetic separator for flocculation of plankton and bacteria contained in ballast water and to separation of flakes collected by magnetic force. This separator comprises first tank with mixer connected with outboard water feed pipe to mix said water with added flocculating agent and magnetic powder. The latter is fed from appropriate device to make magnetic micro flakes including magnetic powder. Second tank comprises mixer for slower mixing of water whereto polymer flocculating agent is added. This allows the increase in sizes of magnetic micro flakes for processed water discharged from first tank with mixer. Magnetic separator serves to collect increased magnetic flakes by magnetic force. Said processed water is discharged from second tank with mixer and includes increased magnetic flakes. Return and addition device returns collected flakes from magnetic separator by scrapers into outboard water feed pipe to position ahead the first tank with mixer and ahead of position where flocculating agent is added to add collected flakes to outboard water.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of flocculation with no use of chemicals.

5 cl, 7 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed unit comprises tank, oil pump, hydraulic control valve operated by limit switches to direct oil flows into right or left chambers of larger-diameter cylinder accommodating plunger with rod rigidly jointed with those of smaller-diameter hydraulic cylinder. Precleaners are fitted in smaller-diameter hydraulic cylinder suction and delivery lines. Smaller-diameter hydraulic cylinder is connected with disk tubular filter. Additional parallel arrangement of precleaners and disk tubular filters allows detachment of filters, without stopping the operation, their repair and washing. Water treatment unit may operate as high-pressure water pump and high-pressure dispensing pump.

EFFECT: higher quality of water treatment, reduced vibration and noise.

7 cl, 6 dwg

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