Detector and detection method
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device and a method of detecting the quality of a liquid, which are used in water treatment devices. The detector "renders" the quality of water in the form of visible radiation instead of converting intensity of UV radiation into digital form and comprises a first detection window coated with a first material for converting first received UV radiation emitted by a UV source and transmitted through the liquid into first visible radiation. The device additionally mixes the first visible radiation with second visible radiation to produce third visible radiation. A different colour of the third visible radiation reflects different quality of water.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the device and method owing to absence of UV sensors in water, which detect UV intensity.
14 cl, 6 dwg
AREA of TECHNOLOGY
The present invention relates to an apparatus and methods for detecting the quality of a fluid, in particular to the detection device and cleaning device using ultraviolet radiation.
With regard to existing technologies, ultraviolet radiation is widely used in the detection devices quality/cleaning/sterilization. In these devices, the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing through the water or any other liquid, detects on the wall of the reactor of this unit and compared with the known intensity of the UV radiation generated by the UV lamp. For the detection of UV radiation intensity, usually need electronic sensor UV radiation and corresponding power supply system, in particular an external source of energy. However, the sensors UV radiation and power supply system are costly and inconvenient from the point of view of use and maintenance.
In the patent GB 1105975 disclosed a method and apparatus for determining the concentration of oil in water by first extracting the oil from the water solvent and then determine the concentration of oil in solvent by analyzing the absorption of ultraviolet radiation.
In US 2003/076,028 A1 describes a fluorescent lamp for activating photocatalysis. In viruscreature available phosphorus range of visible radiation and the phosphorus range of photocatalysis, emitting the near ultraviolet. The outlet emits visible radiation and near infrared radiation so as to accelerate the growth of plants as a result of photocatalysis.
In US 2007/053,208 A1 describes structure with fluorescent source of ultraviolet radiation and a coating layer containing phosphorus that is applied directly to the spherical particles of a material based on synthetic resins or embedded in them between the optical light-guide plates.
In the patent US 4201916 discloses an ultraviolet radiation sensor that is designed for use in a fluid treatment system which detects the ultraviolet radiation present in the incident beam including ultraviolet radiation and visible radiation, and which includes a beam splitter that reflects ultraviolet radiation and visible light transmissive.
EP 1857416 A2 is directed to a device for water purification by ultraviolet radiation, which includes ultraviolet lamp located inside the pipe provided with inlet tubing and outlet tubing to the casing, the power supply for this UV lamp is the DC, or in which there is an element emitting ultraviolet radiation inside the tube provided with inlet tubing and outlet of pipeline�Odom on the case.
A BRIEF SUMMARY of the INVENTION
One object of the present invention is to provide a detection device that does not use a UV radiation sensor for detecting the intensity of UV radiation. This unit can be used in any device detection quality/cleaning/sterilizing liquid.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a device and method simple display quality of the target fluid through the colors of the visible radiation.
In accordance with one embodiments of the invention them is provided a device detection fluid quality. The apparatus comprises a first detection window, covered with the first material for converting a received first UV radiation emitted by the source of UV radiation and passing through the fluid in the first visible light; then this device is the first visible radiation is mixed with a second visible radiation to generate a third visible light.
The basic idea of this invention is to use the influence of water quality on the transmission of UV radiation to the fluid and display this influence by means of visible radiation. It is the quality of the liquid, for example, present in water of the compounds, impurities � microorganisms depends on whether absorbed or linger UV radiation, thus, the quality of the liquid affects the intensity of UV radiation reaching the first detection window, thereby also affects the intensity of the generated first visible radiation. The first visible light is mixed with the second visible radiation, the intensity of which usually essentially not dependent on the quality of the fluid, to generate a third visible light. Since the ratio of the first visible light and the second visible radiation varies depending on the quality of the fluid, changes the color of the third visible light, which can be used to display quality of a liquid.
Second visible radiation can optionally be emitted by a source of UV radiation to pass through the liquid, is essentially on the same trajectory as that of the first UV radiation. Second visible radiation can be selected so that its intensity is essentially not dependent on the quality of the liquid. This provides the advantage consisting in the elimination of the need for additional radiation source and associated power supply system.
In another embodiment, the source of UV radiation UV lamp and the coating containing a third material, which converts UV radiation, gene�irwave UV lamp, the second visible radiation. This reduces the selection and generation of a second visible radiation. For more uniform mixing of the first and second visible radiation, and the third display visible radiation, regardless of the direction in which it is perceived by the user, in one of the embodiments of the invention in this unit included the diffuser is designed to disperse the first and second visible light in the same direction or in the same range of directions so that the two radiation better mixed, and users perceive the same color of the third visible light regardless of the angle at which they look at the device.
To facilitate the Association of the third visible light with the liquid, in one embodiment of the invention, there is provided a color picker that shows the correspondence between the different colors of the third visible light and the quality of the liquid. Seeing the third visible light, the user can thus easily determine the quality of the liquid.
In one of the embodiments of the invention, in addition to the first screen of the detecting device further comprises a second detection window, covered with a second material that converts accept The second� second radiation visible radiation; in this second UV radiation is emitted by a source of UV radiation and passes through the liquid along a trajectory different from the trajectory of the first UV radiation. In this embodiment, both the first and second visible radiation generated at or near the reactor wall. Due to the difference in trajectories, especially the differences of length of the trajectories, the two intensity UV radiation can be different, which further creates the difference in the intensity of the first and second visible radiation. Therefore, the color of the third visible light can be changed.
To avoid harm to the user from UV radiation passing through the window(a) detection and not absorbed by the material(s), in one embodiment of the invention, there is provided a blocker of UV radiation (in the present description also referred to as a filter of ultraviolet radiation), blocking of UV radiation passing through the device.
In some embodiments of the invention, there is provided the device for detecting the quality, cleaning and sterilization, comprising the device described above.
These and other aspects of the invention will become clear upon consideration of the references described later in conjunction with the drawings embodiment of the invention.
BRIEF description of the DRAWINGS
The invention is further explained description:�education preferred embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig.1A depicts the device detection together with a source of UV radiation in accordance with one embodiments of the invention;
Fig.1b and 1C depict the mixing of the first and second visible radiation to generate a third visible light in accordance with one embodiments of the invention;
Fig.2 depicts the source of UV radiation, generating UV radiation and visible radiation in accordance with one embodiments of the invention;
Fig.3 depicts the detection device in accordance with one embodiments of the invention;
Fig.4A depicts a cleaning device without water spread function in accordance with one embodiments of the invention;
Fig.4b depicts a device for distilling water using nanoparticles of phosphorus in the quality of a lens in accordance with one embodiments of the invention;
Fig.5 depicts the detection device together with a source of UV radiation in accordance with embodiments of the invention;
Fig.6 depicts a method of detecting the quality of water in accordance with one embodiments of the invention;
Throughout the drawings the same or similar symbols are used to designate same or identical parts.
�SCRIPTURE of PREFERRED embodiments of the INVENTION
As explained earlier, in existing devices for water treatment, including device detection quality, cleaning and sterilization, UV radiation is used and a comparison of the intensity of UV radiation received by the sensor of UV radiation, with the intensity of the UV radiation generated by the UV lamp, for the purpose of water quality analysis. Usually sensors UV radiation of the road and are susceptible to change in properties due to aging, exposure to dust and pollutants, so they need to be replaced. For supplying power to the sensors UV radiation and other necessary components required an additional source of energy, and the maintenance and replacement of the power system, including power supply, is expensive and inconvenient.
To reduce some of the aforementioned shortcomings, the present invention does not use a UV radiation sensor for determining the intensity of UV radiation. Instead, the present invention uses the effect of water quality on the absorption of UV radiation and reflect this influence so that it can be perceived visually. In accordance with a variant implementation of the invention in Fig.1 shows the device 110 of the detector 130 and the source of UV radiation. The device 110 contains detection window 112 detection and a layer 114 of the coating. The layer 114 of the coating has the ability GHE�erachi visible radiation when excited by UV radiation. For example, a layer 114 of the coating can be made of phosphorus or contain a phosphor to generate yellow light when struck by UV radiation. Specialists in this field it is clear that the same purpose can be used other types of phosphorus or other materials. The layer 114 of the coating can be deposited on the surface of the window 112 detection. Specialists in this field it is clear that the layout of the window 112 of the detection layer and coating 114 may vary depending on implementation. For example, one possibility is the introduction of layer 114 in the window 112 of the detecting either the first material layer 114 may be dispersed within the window 112 detection. Most importantly, when UV radiation hits the window and the first material may generate a first visible light and the intensity of the first visible light depends on the intensity of UV radiation. The source 130 of UV radiation configured to generate UV radiation that traverses the liquid and into the device 110 detecting as a first UV radiation 140. The intensity of the first UV radiation 140 can vary depending on water quality due to, for example, the presence of the compounds, pollutants and microorganisms. In other words, the absorption of UV radiation fluids are�d affects the intensity of the first UV radiation 140. In the detecting device of the first UV radiation 140 excites the first material layer 114 covering, which consequently generates a first visible light 150. Second visible radiation 160 may be mixed device 110 detecting with the first visible light 150 to generate a third visible light 170. The ratio between the first visible light 150 and the second visible radiation 160 determines the color of the third visible light 170. In other words, the different intensity of the first and second visible light leads to the fact that the third visible light has a different color. The quality of the liquid can be sensed by the color of the third visible light 170.
In one of the embodiments of the invention the second visible radiation 160 may be generated by the source 130 of UV radiation, its intensity is known in advance. Usually the intensity of a second visible radiation 160 is smaller than due to the presence of liquid compounds, pollutants and/or microorganisms, especially compared to the intensity of the first UV radiation 140, passing through the same trajectory. Fig.1b and 1C shows a variant implementation of the mixing of the first and second visible radiation to generate a third visible light. Four points A, b, C and D represent four different C�ETA third of the visible radiation, which can then be used to display water quality. (U', V') denotes the coordinates, UV254 represents the absorption by passing through the liquid UV radiation with a wavelength of 254 nm, Iuvmean normalized intensity of UV radiation entering the device detection, G means the intensity of the first visible light (green light) generated by the first material, the second visible light contains red light (R) and blue light (B). When the first visible light and the second visible light with different intensities are mixed, and the third visible light may have a certain color, for example, as shown in the column "color bar". Specialists in this field it is clear that the second visible light may be a light with a single color or wavelength, and can also be a mixture of two or more radiations. Specialists in this field it is also clear that in addition to generate a second visible light, some UV lamps can also generate a first visible light with a predefined intensity. For example, some UV lamps can generate green light that passes through water and is mixed with green light generated by the first material. In other words, the intensity of the green light shown in Fig.1C, conforms to the� mixture of green light, generated by a source of UV light, and green light generated by the first material. However, the intensity of the green light generated, in fact, a UV lamp, after passing through the water, not under significant influence of different water quality. Therefore, the main contribution to the change of the third visible light is entered a green light generated by the first material, and not on the merits of permanent green light generated by a UV lamp.
In an embodiment of the invention shown in Fig.2, the illustrated source 230 UV radiation UV lamp 232, suitable for the generation of UV radiation, UV lamp 232 or a portion covered by the third material 234 having the ability to generate a second visible light 160. Some of the UV radiation can pass through the third material 234 and penetrate into the liquid. This embodiment of the invention is peculiar advantage in the great breadth of choice second color of the visible radiation and determine the intensity of the second visible radiation by proper selection of the third material. For example, the third material can be selected so that it generates blue light or red light. Specialists in this field it is clear that the area covered by the third material 234 may be different depending on the various requirements of�of Avani, for example, can be covered the whole UV lamp 232 or the side of the UV lamp 232 facing the detecting device, or even a small area to reduce the quantity of the third material. The third material may be made of phosphorus to protect water from phosphorus can optionally be provided with a water-resistant layout.
To make it easier to understand the meaning of different color of the third visible light, in one embodiment of the invention, there is provided a color pointer 316, as shown in Fig.3. Color pointer 316, which may be in the form of a colored bar code, color ring, color matrix, shows the correspondence between various flowers and water quality. Thus, the user can easily determine the water quality by the display color of the third visible light on the color index.
The first visible light 150 generated by the first material on the detection window may have a different direction of transmission than the second visible light 160 is incident on the window of detection from several directions, resulting in two visible radiation can be mixed unevenly, so when observed at different angles from the window of detection of the color of the third visible light 170 may be perceived differently. For decisions� this problem in the embodiment of the invention, shown in Fig.3, behind the window 312 detection and coating layer 314 made of a first material, the lens 318 is configured with the possibility of dispersion of the first and second visible light more evenly, essentially in the same direction of transmission. Thanks to this two visible radiation is better mixed, and the difference in color observed at different angles of view, negligible. In another embodiment, the first material is made of nanoparticles of phosphorus and may perform the second function is to dissipate the second visible radiation. In this case there is no need for a separate layer of the lens, as the lens 318 is actually embedded in the coating layer. To better protect people in the case, when a part of the UV radiation passes through the detection window and/or lens, provided the blocker 320 UV radiation, blocking UV radiation, so it is not harmful to the user's eyes. The blocker 320 UV radiation can be placed between the window 312 of detection and a lens 318 or behind the window 312 detection and lens 318.
Fig.4A shows a variant embodiment of the invention, in which the second visible light is not dissipated with the first visible light 150 generated by the first material, for example phosphorus 414, har�cherished a wide range of transmission directions, while the second visible light 160 has a much more narrow range of directions of transmission. As a result, two of visible radiation are not mixed evenly, thus, the third visible light has a different color from different angles of view.
Fig.4b shows a variant embodiment of the invention in which the dispersion of the second visible light are used nanoparticles of phosphorus. Nanoparticles of phosphorus 416 not only generate a first visible light, but also second scatter radiation, so two visible radiation are mixed more evenly. The result is an additional advantage, namely that it is possible to do without additional scattering layer. In the above-described embodiments, the first UV light and the second visible radiation are essentially the same trajectory passing. This is not an essential feature of the present invention.
Fig.5 shows another embodiment of the invention in which the device detection 510 is generated not only the first visible light of 550, but also the second visible light 560. In the device 500 for detection of quality/cleaning/sterilizing water source 530 UV radiation generated by the UV radiation that penetrates into the liquid. The device 510, the detection of sod�RIT not only the first window 512 of the detecting covered with the first material 513, but also a second window 514 detection, is covered with a second material 515. Specialists in this field it is clear that the placement of the first/second material and the first/second detection window can be changed depending on a particular implementation. Two different window 512 and 514 of detection are under two different angles, to accept a variety of UV radiation that passes through the various trajectories. In particular, these two different trajectories have different lengths, therefore, the UV radiation 542 and 544 for admission into the device 510 detection have different intensity. Two materials are also different, so the excitation of the incoming UV radiation generated in different visible radiation; for example, the first material has the ability to generate yellow light, while the second material has the ability to generate blue light. Yellow light and blue light are mixed in the device 510 detection, generating a third, green light. The color of the third, green light is determined by the intensity of yellow and blue light, which, in turn, is determined by the intensity of UV radiation, which affects the quality of the liquid. Due to the different trajectories of the two transmission of UV radiation, the water quality has different effects on the intensity of these two UV radiation. The color of the pointer 516 C�ETA, lens 518 and blocker 520 UV radiation is arbitrary.
Fig.6 depicts a method 600 of detecting fluid quality. Method 600 includes a step 610 of receiving the first UV radiation, which is emitted by a source of UV radiation and which passes through the liquid, and the step 620 of the first generation of visible radiation by means of an initial material excited by the first UV radiation, and the stage 630 of mixing of the first and second visible radiation to generate a third visible light. Different color of the third visible light corresponds to a different fluid. Method 600 optionally includes a step 622 of the second generation of visible radiation by means of a third material is excited by UV radiation, and optionally step 632 mixing of the first and second visible light through the lens, ensuring their transmission along the main directions. Method 600 further comprises the step 640 compare the color of the third visible light with the color of the color index to determine water quality. Specialists in this field it is clear that the present invention represents not only each individual described above variant implementation, the technical characteristics of these embodiments can be combined to generate alternative options for implementation�management.
It should be noted that the above-mentioned embodiments of the invention rather illustrate and not limit the present invention, and that the experts in this field will be able to create alternative versions of the invention, not beyond the scope of the attached claims. In the claims the symbols are placed in parentheses shall not be construed as limiting the invention. The word "comprising" does not exclude the presence of elements or steps not listed in the claims or the description. The singular does not exclude the presence of many elements. The use of the words first, second, third, etc. not indicated any location in order. These words should be interpreted as names.
1. The device (110, 310, 510) for detecting the quality of a liquid containing:
the first window (112) detection, covered with the first material (114, 314) for converting a received first ultraviolet radiation (140) to the first visible light (150), wherein the first ultraviolet radiation (140) is emitted by a source (130, 230) ultraviolet radiation and passes through the liquid;
the device (110) optionally accepts a second visible radiation (160) and mixes the first visible light (150) with a second visible radiation (160) for generic�and third visible radiation (170);
the color of the third visible light (170) is determined by the intensity of the first visible light (150) and a second visible intensity of radiation (160) and is used to specify the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by a liquid.
2. The device (110, 310, 510) according to claim 1, wherein the second visible light (160) is emitted by a source (130, 530) ultraviolet radiation and passes through the liquid along the same trajectory as that of the first ultraviolet radiation (140).
3. The device (110, 310 510) according to claim 2, in which the source (230) of the ultraviolet radiation includes an ultraviolet lamp (232), and coating (234) ultraviolet lamp (232) includes a third material for converting part of the ultraviolet radiation generated by the ultraviolet lamp, the second visible radiation.
4. Device (310) according to claim 1, further comprising a diffuser (318) configured with the possibility of dispersion of the first and second visible radiation, missed in the same direction.
5. Device (310) according to claim 1, wherein the first material is made of nanoparticles of phosphorus for dissipating a second visible radiation.
6. Device (510) of claim 1, further comprising:
the second window (514) detection, is covered with a second material (515) for converting a received second ultraviolet radiation into a second visible �zlecenie (560), in this second ultraviolet radiation emitted by the source (530) ultraviolet radiation and passes through the liquid along a different trajectory than the first ultraviolet radiation.
7. The device (110, 310, 510) according to claim 1, wherein the first and second visible radiation of a different color.
8. Device (310, 510) according to claim 1, further comprising:
the pointer (316, 516) color containing many colored stripes or color blocks, each color bar or color block indicate different quality of liquid.
9. Device (310, 510) according to claim 1, further comprising:
filter (320, 520) ultraviolet radiation, configured with the ability to filter ultraviolet radiation passing through any window of detection.
10. Cleaning device for ultraviolet radiation, containing the device (110, 310, 510) according to any one of claims.1-9.
11. The method (600) for detecting the quality of a fluid, comprising stages on which:
accept (610) a first ultraviolet radiation (140), a light source (130) ultraviolet radiation and passing through the liquid;
generate (620) the first visible light (150) through the first material excited by the first ultraviolet radiation (140);
take a second visible radiation (160);
mixed (630), the first visible light (150) and second� visible radiation (160) to generate a third visible light (170);
the color of the third visible light (170) is determined by the intensity of the first visible light (150) and a second visible intensity of radiation (160) and it is used to specify the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by a liquid.
12. The method (600) according to claim 11, in which the source (230) of the ultraviolet radiation includes an ultraviolet lamp (232), and coating (234) ultraviolet lamp (232) includes a third material, and method (600) further comprises a stage on which:
generate (622) a second visible radiation (160) the third material is excited by ultraviolet radiation generated by the UV lamp (232).
13. The method (600) according to claim 11 or 12, additionally containing a stage, on which:
scatter (632) the first visible light and the second visible light through the lens, which transmits this radiation in the same direction.
14. The method (600) according to claim 11 or 12, additionally containing a stage, on which:
comparing (640) the color of the third visible light (170) with the color color of the pointer (316, 516) to determine fluid quality.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separation with further identification of acetone and methanol on capillary chromatographic column in carrier gas flow, representing nitrogen; formation and registration of analysed ions, formed in flame by flame-ionisation detector, prepared is basic solution, which is well-preserved for 2 months, at temperature from -2°C to -5°C, intermediate solution with concentration 6.32 mg/dm3 is prepared by dilution of basic solution with purified water, calibration solutions are prepared for ranges of concentrations: acetone 0.025-6.32 mg/dm3, methanol 0.025-6.32 mg/dm3 by dilution of intermediate solution with water, chromatograph is calibrated by introduction of preliminarily sampled vapour phase of calibration solutions into it, calibration graph is built, after thermostatting of analysed solution vapour phase is sampled by vapour-phase syringe and introduced into chromatograph evaporator, data are processed by computer software ChemStation, which chromatographic complex MAESTRO 7820A is provided with.
EFFECT: increase of accuracy and reliability, and acceleration of analysis.
2 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of determining the level of toxicants in water, food products or body fluids by the test system of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay held in the column, consists in that in the column of the test system a carrier is placed, which is used as an activated solid phase of physisorption - activated porous substrate with grafted covalently bonded molecules of toxicant, the carrier is treated with the blocking solution for closing on the carrier of free places of nonspecific binding, the test samples are added, which contain a certain amount of previously added antibodies specific to toxicants, at that the carrier is treated with conjugate-containing solution, which is used as the conjugate solution of antispecies antibodies chemically bound to luminescent quantum dots or with liposomes containing luminescent quantum dots, and the level of the toxicants is determined by lighting of the treated carrier by excitation radiation on the intensity of luminescence excited in the quantum dots. Test system for the method comprises a column in which a carrier in the form of an activated solid phase of physisorption is mounted - activated porous substrate with grafted covalently bound toxicant molecules, at that the column is provided with a device for measuring the level of luminescence, comprising a source of excitation radiation and a photodetector, at that in front of the photodetector a focusing optical system is additionally mounted, and the output of the photodetector is electrically connected through the signal amplifier and the analogue-digital converter to the control unit - a controller, which output is connected to the display unit and through the stabilisation unit to the excitation radiation source. The side walls of the column are made of material transparent for exciting and luminescent radiation.
EFFECT: invention improves the efficiency and accuracy of determining.
4 cl, 3 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for determining the toxic effect of waste water on aqueous saline media refers to aquatic toxicology and aims at assessing the toxic effect of an aqueous medium containing waste water. The method consists in determining the unicellular algal culture growth rates in the tested water and involves growing the unicellular algal culture, performing a biotesting procedure consisting in water sampling, introducing a grown algal sub-culture into a reference and a test medium, and counting the algal cells. The test objects are presented by the unicellular microalgae Platymonas viridis Rouch. and Dunaliella salina Teod, on which a long-term (15-day) experiment is carried out. Microalgae Platymonas viridis Rouch are used to determine the toxic effect of waste water on the saline medium.
EFFECT: improving the method.
SUBSTANCE: method for biological assessment of the toxicity level of the marine environment refers to biological methods for assessing an environmental risk and analysing the marine environmental pollution, and can be used in marine culture, aquatic toxicology, and fish farming. As biological test objects, the method uses larval Black Sea silversides (Atherina hepsetus, Atherina mochon pontica), which are placed into the test environment and sterile seawater. The reference is the test environment and sterile seawater free from any toxic agents. That is followed by microcalorimetric measurements of larval head production, and the derived specific heat production, as well as its decrease in the test objects exposed to the action of toxic agent as related to the values of intact larvae, the toxicity level of the marine environment is stated. The method differs by high sensitivity and enables the reliable assessment of the marine environment at the low concentration of the toxic agents.
EFFECT: that enables performing the early diagnosis of the toxicity level of the water environment.
SUBSTANCE: carrier is arranged in a column of a test system in the form of a layer of immunoaffinity gel, which is fixed between two porous membranes and provided with grafted - covalently bound - molecules of a toxic agent; the carrier - the gel layer is treated with a blocking solution for closure on the carrier of the rest free places of nonspecific binding; test specimens containing a certain amount of pre-introduced antibodies specific to a toxicant are added; the carrier is treated with a conjugate-containing solution, and namely a conjugate solution of anti-species antibodies chemically bound to luminescent quantum dots or to liposomes containing luminescent quantum dots, and a level of toxicants is determined by illumination of the treated carrier with excitation radiation as to intensity of luminescence excited at quantum dots.
EFFECT: group of inventions allows effective and reliable determination of a level of toxicants in water, food products or physiological liquids.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology, environment protection and methods and means of monitoring the environment and can be used to monitor pollution of water reservoirs with polychlorinated biphenyls. The method comprises sampling of water, bottom sediments and phytomass of macrophytes, their processing and evaluation, and the phytomass of macrophytes is used as vegetative organs of plants Carex riparia Curt. (coastal sedge) and Typha angustifolia L. (narrow-leaved cattail), sampling is carried out at the beginning and end of the growing season of plants, biological absorption coefficients of contaminant are evaluated as the ratio of content of PCBs in dry mass of macrophytes to their total content in the bottom sediments and in the water, and at the coefficient greater than 2.5±0.43 for coastal sedge and 10.2±1.03 for narrow-leafed cattail, the river pollution is estimated. Developing a simple and objective method of detection of areas of technogenic pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls of water reservoirs of industrialised urban areas enables to take into account the processes of migration and secondary distribution of PCBs in the aquatic environment.
EFFECT: method is intended for use in open water reservoirs, with hydrological studies of the river and its tributaries on storage reservoirs, in the work of environmental organisations, sewage treatment plants and can be implemented in the environmental monitoring of the river system pollution and river water quality.
3 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied for bioindication and biotesting of polluted waters and separate pollutants and can be applied as an additional method to biotests of obligatory application in determination of water quality, in which (representative) dominant species is sponge (Spongia). A method includes placement of a sponge cell suspension into a tested solution, standing for a day with the following calculation of bubble-shaped cells under a microscope, a conclusion about toxicity is made by reliable increase of the bubble-shaped cells in the tested solution in comparison with the control one.
EFFECT: considerable increase of sensitivity of the method with the minimal terms of the experiment performance.
2 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filler used is chromogenic ion-exchange dispersed silica with covalently grafted hydrazones or formazans.
EFFECT: high sensitivity and selectivity of detecting metals.
3 tbl, 4 dwg, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises placing the fluorescent test-objects in the control and analyzed samples, irradiation with the excitation light, definition of fluorescence characteristics, by which change the toxicity of the controlled environment is assessed. Microalgae of species Scenedesmus apiculatus are used as test-objects, which are previously isolated from environmentally safe areas of the test water reservoirs.
EFFECT: use of the claimed method enables to assess quickly and accurately the toxicity of water and bottom sediments of the Azov and Black Seas.
6 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology. The method of assessment of environmental safety of coastal marine benthic ecosystems is to study morphological and functional characteristics of the mass mussels, while as a parameter of safety the morphofunctional characteristics of Hamels are used: the ATP content in hemocytes is measured, as well as the hemocyte concentration in the hemolymph, the level of histopathology defined as the percentage of animals with histopathology, and the level of pollution is judged by the change in these parameters in comparison with the same parameters in Hamels living in optimal living environment, at that, the smaller the concentration of ATP and hemocytes and the greater the level of histopathology is, the less favourable situation is observed in the marine benthic ecosystem.
EFFECT: invention provides an extension of range of technical means for assessment of the environmental safety of coastal benthic ecosystems, using morphological and functional characteristics of Hamels.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of quantitative determination of methane- fullerene of various level of replacement in reaction mix using UV-spectroscopy method consisting in reading of UV-spectra, plotting of calibration curves using the values of the second derivative of the spectrum, finding from them of the linear regression equations. Meanwhile for preparation of models of the studied compounds with various levels of replacement the organic solvents are used, UV-spectra are recorded in a wide interval of concentration, the linear regression equations for determination of the content of mono-replaced methane- fullerenes h=1.23×10-4c+0.01×10-5, di-replaced h=1.54×10-4c+0.20×10-5, three-replaced h=2.31×10-4c+0.30×10-5 tetra-replaced h=4.00×10-4c+0.32×10-5 then when determining methane-fullerenes with various levels of replacement in a reaction mix the analysed samples are selected from the reaction mix, UV-spectra are read, the curves are plotted on the basis of values of the second derivative of the spectrum, the respective value h is substituted in the respective linear regression equation and the concentration of methane-fullerenes in the analysed mix is calculated.
EFFECT: present invention allows to determine quantitatively the composition of complex reaction mixes of isomeric compounds consisting of two and more components in a wide range of concentration without their separation from a reaction mix with a possibility of the subsequent performing of the process before pre-planned ratio of ingredients.
2 cl, 5 tbl, 8 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to monitoring of the environment and biological objects aimed at identification of the content of metal ions in liquid media with the application of photochromic compounds. In the method of spectrophotometric identification of metal ions in liquid media with an application of photochromic compounds of class of chromenes due to formation of complexes between the photoinduced merocyanine form of the said compounds and metal ions as chromenes used are such bischromenes as: 2,2,11,11-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenylphenyl)dioxa(1,12)triphenylene, 2,2,8,8-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)dioxa(1,7)chrysene, 3,3,11,11-tetra-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,11-dihydro-4,10-dioxadibenzo[a,h]anthracene, 3,3,10,10-tetra-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,10-dihydro-411-dioxadibenzo[a,h]anthracene.
EFFECT: increased selectivity of identification is achieved.
24 ex, 1 tbl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: solutions of an analyte (bendazole) and a comparison sample are prepared. The solvent used to prepare the test solutions is 0.1M hydrochloric acid solution. The comparison sample used is benzoic acid or phenolphthalein. Optical density of the analyte (bendazole) solution and the comparison sample is measured on a spectrophotometer with analytical wavelength of 270 nm. The results are calculated using a formula by entering a calculation factor of 0.181 into said formula when determining using benzoic acid and 0.293 when determining using phenolphthalein.
EFFECT: method increases reproducibility of measurement results, reduces cost, labour input, analytical error and enables unification of the analysis method.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology and a method of producing continuous lines of living cells and use thereof. The disclosed method involves irradiating said living cells with a UV light dose of about 20 mJ/cm2 to about 300 mJ/cm2, at a wavelength between about 100 nm and about 400 nm, for about 30 s to 5 min and collecting cells that are capable of proliferation after at least 20 passages. The obtained cell lines are deposited in ECACC under numbers 08020602, 08020603 and 08020604 and can be used to produce viruses or gene products.
EFFECT: invention facilitates recombinant expression of biomolecules.
23 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method for measuring in situ an oral agent applied from a dental care product on a substrate containing: (a) contacting the substrate and the oral agent for applying some oral agent on the substrate with the substrate being coated with saliva, and (b) analysing the substrate with the use of a probe being a part of a toothbrush and applied for infrared spectroscopy (IRS) or ultraviolet spectroscopy (UVS); a wave length used at the stage b) is specific for the above oral agent; a reference signal of the dental care product without the oral agent is deducted from an analysis result to calculate the amount of the oral agent.
EFFECT: method can be applied for the purpose of the monitoring of the patient's dental health or the fast and effective screening or analysis of compositions to be used for applying the oral active substances onto the dental surface.
16 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: to extract caffeine from an aqueous solution, a water-salt solution of caffeine with pH 11.0±1.0 is prepared using saturated potassium carbonate solution as a salting-out agent; caffeine is extracted until establishment of phase equilibrium for 7-10 minutes with a solution of a solvotropic reagent in ethyl alcohol with concentration of 0.85-0.90 mol/dm3 with volume ratio of the water-salt solution of caffeine to the extractant of 5:1; the water-salt phase is separated from the organic phase and analysed by UV spectrophotometry at wavelength of 272 nm. Concentration of caffeine in the aqueous solution is determined from a calibrated curve.
EFFECT: method enables to achieve high coefficient of distribution of caffeine with one-fold extraction with a solution of a solvotropic reagent in ethyl alcohol, and virtually complete extraction of caffeine from the water-salt solution.
SUBSTANCE: three samples of a letter are obtained and analysed, one of which is extracted with a solvent and subjected to UV spectrophotometry right away; the second is analysed 30 days layer; the third is analysed 60 days after analysing the first sample; the second and third samples are extracted and subjected to UV spectrophotometry in the same conditions as the first sample; quantitative comparison of the results of UV spectrophotometry of the three samples is carried out based on the ratio of optical densities in the region of peaks (330-1100 nm) of dyes per unit length of the line of each sample in intervals of 1 and 2 months to obtain the behaviour of ageing of the manuscript, wherein ageing takes place in "natural" conditions with optimally permissible temperature, relative humidity and air speed in accordance with GOST 30494-96.
EFFECT: simplicity, high accuracy, guaranteed reproducibility and high reliability of determining ageing.
SUBSTANCE: described is method of quantitative determination of metronidazole by spectrophotometry of determined substance and standard sample of comparison, and as solvent for preparing determined solution applied is 0.1M solution of hydrochloric acid, spectrophotometry is carried out at wave length 276 nm, as sample for comparison applied is benzoic acid or phenolphthalein and calculation is carried out by formula.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase repeatability of determination results, reduce cost, labour consumption, analysis error, standardise analysis methods.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining overall unsaturation of organic compounds has an oxygen or air dosing unit, an electrodischarge ozoniser, a bubbling reactor, a spectrophotometric ozone analyser. The spectrophotometric analyser has two photosensors fitted with operational amplifiers. One of the photosensors is designed to detect concentration of ozone at the output of the ozoniser, and the second is designed to detect ozone concentration at the output of the bubbling reactor. In the absence of ozone, voltage signals from both photosensors are equal and after operational amplifiers, said voltage has a value V0. The device also has a unit for stabilising ozone concentration consisting of said photosensor fitted at the output of the ozoniser, a comparator which compares the voltage signal at the output of the operational amplifier connected to said photosensor with a given value Vc, and a latching transistor controlled by the comparator and connected in the power supply circuit of the ozoniser.
EFFECT: stability of ozone concentration, high measurement accuracy and wider measurement range during analysis using an ozone-air and an ozone-oxygen mixture.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method of analysing oligosaccharides being components of low molecular weight heparins and very low molecular weight heparins in blood plasma. A method of analysing β-unsaturated oligosaccharides in blood plasma. Application of the method for quantitative analysis of enoxaparin, octaparin, bemiparin or tinsaparin. Application of the method for quantitative analysis of octasaccharides (versions).
EFFECT: more adequate oligosaccharide analysis.
15 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined magnetic processing of fluids. Proposed device comprises housing 1 connected via fluid feed and discharge pipes and magnetic unit 6 fitted therein and composed of the set of permanent magnets. Fluid flow channel is arranged between said magnetic unit 6 and housing 1 and composed of spiral with pitch ratio equal to six. The length of magnetic unit 6 is comparable with its diameter. Ferromagnetic washers 7 are fitted between three circular magnets of magnetic unit 6. Electromagnets 4 built around Helmholtz coils 5 with reactive power compensators are arranged at fluid feed and discharge pipes 2 and 3.
EFFECT: efficient magnetisation of fluid flow, ruled out permanent magnet effects.