Method for building ice crossing

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to build the ice crossing on natural ice. Method for building the ice crossing includes arrangement of vessels with variable buoyancy before the formation of natural ice on water basin. Each vessel is fixed at the bottom by wrapping cable with hose around the shaft fixed in the supports and filled with gas under pressure. Then, the ice covering is reinforced by disposal of the reinforcing material on its surface and subsequent freezing of ice layer on its surface. After formation of frozen layer, the vessels are lifted, and the value of buoyant force, which counteracts the load, generated by transport vehicles and moved by cargo, is determined by formula: , where: Vk - displacement of one vessel, m3; B - width of ice crossing, m; a”к” - width of one vessel to the width of ice crossing, m; b“к” - length of one vessel in the direction of ice crossing, m; ρw - water density, kg/m3; ρair - air density, kg/m3; h“пл” - thickness of ice above the water surface, m; ρi - ice density, kg/m3; P“к” - weight of vessel in the air, n; l - length of hoses to one vessel, m; S“тш” - cross-section area of the hose, m2; ρ“мк” - density of the vessel material, kg/m3; g - acceleration of gravity, m/s2. During summer vessels are used as pontoon ferry.

EFFECT: improving the efficiency.

6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the creation of floating bridges and can be used to create ice crossing on natural ice.

A method of amplification ice crossings (patent RF №2382136), is to establish through the through slot in the stripped the snow from the ice across the direction of ice flow stripes fixed on ice waterproof material. On the edge of the slit is fixed to the cord of a material having a specific gravity below the specific gravity of water (the float) and at a distance from a cord made of material with a specific gravity higher specific weight of water (cargo). At a distance greater than the thickness of the ice from the fixed edge of the strip is fixed to the second cord material with a specific gravity heavier than the first load.

However, the known method has the following drawbacks:

- method can be used only when there is sufficient flow velocity, which provides the correct orientation of the material under the ice;

- the need for annual Assembly and disassembly of the structure, and also the inability to create stationary systems and restoration of structures in the event of the passage of water transport.

A method of amplification ice crossings (patent RF №2149945), namely, to sweep the ice surface of snow and the preparation of the slits in the ice cover along the planned put� ice crossing, through which the ice is placed a layer of insulation material and then pressed against the lower surface of the ice cover.

The disadvantages of this method are: the method has the following disadvantages: the need for annual installation and dismantling of constructions and restoration of structures in the event of the passage of water transport; this design also provides a temporary increase in the strength of the ice cover, because in the process of growth of the thickness of the ice gets frozen material with the lower surface of the ice and ceases to have effect on the speed of the current.

Known technical solutions closest to the essential features of the claimed object is a method of enhancing ice crossings (patent RF №2122060) where under ice cover is placed compensating device, self-propelled or not self-propelled. Thus reduce its buoyancy, to prevent the cracking of the ice from below. On ice over compensating device placed transported cargo and simultaneously increase the buoyancy compensating device to the value that the buoyancy force on him, was approximately equal to the weight of the transported cargo and complex vehicles. After this, the goods and the compensating device are moved parallel to the place of destination�deposits.

Compensating device is exposed to ice flow, which displaces it from the target ice crossing. During the motion of the compensating device in the forward direction the ease of sliding on the bottom surface of the ice cover is provided by "ski", and in its return during this device is not provided (Fig. 1, patent RF №2122060), causing difficulty in the process of moving, the lag compensating device from transported cargo and increases the chance of the ice breaking under load.

In the intensive process of increasing the thickness of the natural ice cover in winter in the event of a prolonged interruption in the operation of this design is freezing the compensating device with the lower surface of the ice thickness, which leads to the impossibility of its further use.

The failure of one element of the design of the compensating device (or malfunction of the mechanism for moving the compensating device) leads to failure of the whole structure. Given the fact that the design is under the ice, the process of its repair or replacement requires its extraction from under the ice, which leads to additional costs for self compensating device, and for repair of roadway ice cover�. Repair roadway includes not only termination, cut down the lane, but the recovery period of this position, i.e., the repair station must gain the required strength, and movement on the crossing at this time will have to stop, which is economically disadvantageous.

The object of the invention is to provide a method of creating a terminal high-load, providing the increase of the bearing capacity of crossings and traffic safety.

Said technical result is achieved in that a method of creating a terminal, including the installation prior to the formation of a natural ice cover on the reservoir tanks with variable buoyancy, wherein each container is fixed at the bottom by wrapping the rope around with the hose secured in the bearings of the shaft and is filled with gas under pressure, and then strengthen the ice cover by the location on the surface of reinforcing material and subsequent freezing on the surface of the ice layer, after the formation of the frozen layer were provided lift capacity, and the magnitude of the buoyancy force, which counteracts the load generated by vehicles and transported goods is determined by the formula:

where:

Vk- the displacement of one tank, m3;

In - the width of the ice feathers�right, m;

andK- the width of one container to the width of the crossing, m;

bK- the length of one container in a direction crossing, m;

ρin- the density of water, kg/m3;

ρthe who- air density, kg/m3;

hLV- the thickness of ice above the water surface, m;

ρl- the density of ice, kg/m3;

PK- the weight of the container in air, n;

l - length of hose to a receptacle, m;

STSH- cross-sectional area of the hose, m2;

ρMK- density of material capacity, kg/m3;

g - free fall acceleration, m/s2,

and in the summer time the container is used as a pontoon crossing.

The inventive method is explained in the following description and the attached drawings, wherein: Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the method during the work of the ice crossing, Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of the ice crossing and Fig. 3 is a cross section of the ice crossing; Fig. 4 shows a diagram of the method as a pontoon crossing; Fig. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of the pontoon crossing; Fig. 6 shows the layout of the flooring of timber.

The main design elements: 1 - the bottom of the reservoir; 2 - water (river); 3 - natural ice cover; 4 - support; 5 - shaft; 6 - a hose with a rope; 7 - limiters; 8 - capacity of paligmaterialu filled with air (gas) under d�the pressure; 9 - corner (cardan) transfer; 10 - loops attached to the container body (8); 11 - delay device; 12 - gear motor; 13 - pneumatic system; 14 - post service ice crossing; 15 - lane heated; 16 - geosynthetic material; 17 - zamorazhyvanyy layer of ice; 18 - abutment; 19 - anchor thrust; 20 - swivel; 21 - flooring of timber; 22 - rope; 23 - ramp.

The method is as follows.

On the future site of the ferry crossing to the formation of a natural ice cover 3 on the bottom (of the river) 1 set support 4, to which is attached the shaft 5. The shaft is attached the hoses to the cables 6, which fix the position of the containers 8, and fill them with air (gas) under pressure. After the formation of the natural ice cover on a body of water (river) 2 the surface of the ice cover in the target terminal geosynthetic reinforced material 16, placing it in the upper part of the ice column, and samarajiva on top of the ice layer 17, thus eliminating the possibility of formation of thermal cracks on the surface of the ice cover and reduce the occurring tensile stresses in the top layer of the ice thickness from the action of the buoyancy force generated by a system of tanks. After the formation of the frozen layer were provided ice 17 and the opening of traffic on the crossing capacity 8 raise on the hoses with the tro�AMI 6 under the bottom part of the natural ice cover 3, pre-reducing the buoyancy to prevent the occurrence of tensile stresses in the upper part of the ice cover. During passage of the vehicle or when the cargo is the pumping of air (gas) in the tank 8, whereby the buoyancy force on the vessel 8, counteracts the load, which has to the ice moving vehicle or floating cargo.

The magnitude of the buoyancy force p per 1 running meter terminal, which counteracts the load generated by moving vehicles and transported goods is calculated as follows:

For example, if:

the displacement of one container Vk=3 m3;

the width of the ice crossing In=10 m;

the width of one container to the width of the crossing andK=10 m;

the length of one container in a direction crossing bK=0.3 m;

the density of water ρin=1000 kg/m3;

the density of ice ρl=900 kg/m3;

the density of air ρthe who=1,304 kg/m3;

the density of the material capacity ρMK=1600 kg/m3;

the thickness of the ice above the water surface (hLV=0.7 m;

the weight capacity on the air RK=1962 n;

the length of hose to a receptacle l=100 m;

the cross-sectional area of the hose STSH=0.01 m2;

score�AI of free fall g=9.81 m/s 2

- the value of pushing force p per 1 running meter terminal will be: 10016 n/m.

Injection of air (gas) in the tank 8 is made through the hose 6 cables connected to the pneumatic system 13 installed in the office to service the ice crossing 14. The pneumatic system 13 is equipped with a pressure control system for controlling the injection and venting air (gas) from containers 8. Hoses with cables 6 are attached to each tank so that the failure of one tank did not lead to the failure of the whole structure.

If the pond river is navigable, for the period of navigation or ice the air (gas) is discharged, and the capacity is lowered to the bottom using a hose with 6 cables that wrap around the shaft 5 as it rotates. Rotation of the shaft is realized by the motor 12 that is installed in a service room to service the ice crossing 14. Rotation is transmitted to the gearbox, connected by the corner (cardan) transmission 9 to the shaft 5. To prevent vmerzanii shaft angle (cardan) transmission 9 in ice cover heated suit lane 15. For the convenience of fixing hoses with wires 6 on the shaft 5 provides the limiters 7, which prevent the tangling of hoses with ropes between them.

To ensure the sustainability of the whole structure capacity 8 �uedineny interconnected by means of hinges 10 on the body of the containers. To prevent displacement of the containers 8 (deviations from the target terminal) due to the influence of the flow front of the tanks, located downstream, has a streamline shape, and directly behind the tanks (at the back) set the delay devices 11 of different types. The vessel 8 is made of prematerial or any durable, flexible, hydrophobic and gas-tight material, set in one row, in an amount sufficient to overlap lanes crossing.

The design of the Congress from shore to ice and back consists of the shore of the supports 18, made in the form of metal boxes, covered with stone and additional mounting using anchor rods 19 on the shore. Coastal bearing 18 is pivotally connected to the ramp 23 having a sliding bearing against the surface of the ice cover.

After the melting zamorojennih layers of ice 17 in the spring of geosynthetic material 16 can be rolled up and removed for storage before preparations for the crossing to the new season, or disposed.

At the end of the ice, this design can serve as a pontoon crossing in the summer. The lift capacity on the hoses with the cable 6 to the surface of the water body (rivers) and they inject air (gas). On top of the containers 8 are mounted flooring of wooden beams 21 for the best coupling with wheels AV�of transport. Entry and exit is carried out by sliding on the surface of the flooring ramps 23 pivotally attached to the shore the supports 19. During the period of use design as a pontoon crossing for greater stability in the target terminal extreme capacity is longitudinally held in place with anchored on the banks of the cables 22, threaded through the loop 10 on the container body.

Thus, the proposed method of creating a terminal of high load capacity provides increased bearing capacity of crossings and traffic safety.

1. Method of creating a terminal, including the installation prior to the formation of a natural ice cover on the reservoir tanks with variable buoyancy, characterized, so that each container is fixed at the bottom by wrapping the rope around with the hose secured in the bearings of the shaft and is filled with gas under pressure, and then strengthen the ice cover by the location on the surface of reinforcing material and subsequent freezing on the surface of the ice layer, after the formation of the frozen layer were provided lift capacity, and the magnitude of the buoyancy force, which counteracts the load generated by vehicles and transported goods is determined by the formula:

where:
Vk- the displacement of one tank, m3;
In-the width of the ice crossing, m;
andK- the width of one container to the width of the crossing, m;
bK- the length of one container in a direction crossing, m;
ρin- the density of water, kg/m3;
ρthe who- air density, kg/m3;
hPL- the thickness of ice above the water surface, m;
ρl- the density of ice, kg/m3;
PK- the weight of the container in air, n;
l - length of hose to a receptacle, m;
STSH- cross-sectional area of the hose, m2;
ρMK- density of material capacity, kg/m3;
g - free fall acceleration, m/s2
and in the summer time the container is used as a pontoon crossing.



 

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