Method to extract gas hydrates from bottom deposits and device to this end

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: according to the method upper layer of gas hydrate mass is melted gradually by heating gas hydrate mass in bottom sediments of a water body up to temperature of 50-60°C. Heating is made by a heating element made as blade edge located along diameter of a cargo container lowered from a flotation device. The flotation device is made as a mobile underwater vehicle with retractable tract in the form of a container equipped with blade edge in the bottom part connected to heating elements inside container. Stability of the mobile underwater vehicle is endured in regard to the bottom of the water body. Container is rotated and electric current is supplied to heating elements. Gas hydrate stratum is heated up to 50-60°C. The container is lowered with rotation to the gas hydrate stratum with provision of single-point recovery of hydrates from the above stratum in solid state.

EFFECT: reduced material and operational expenditures and ecological consequences at gas hydrate extraction territory.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the production of methane and its homologues from the near-surface accumulations of solid gas hydrates in bottom sediments of lakes, seas and oceans. There are a number of technologies for the development of gas hydrate deposits, depending on their place of occurrence. thermal method of development of gas hydrate deposits involves the combustion of part of the hydrocarbons in the place of its occurrence using the resulting hot products for heating of the productive formation (Kreinin E. V. non-traditional thermal technology of production of hard recoverable hydrocarbons / E. V. Kreinin // Gas industry. - 2005. - No. 3. - p. 22 [1]). Technologies and equipment for mining and obtaining the target product has a number of features, due to the localization of this natural formation.

Gas hydrates in bottom sediments of seas and oceans is clathrate compounds formed under certain temperature and pressure conditions of the water and gas. They relate to compounds of variable composition and looks like a compacted snow. Due to its structure, the unit volume of gas hydrate can contain up to 160-180 volume of pure gas. In General the composition of the gas hydrates is described by the formula M·n·N2Oh, where M is the gas molecule - gidratoobrazovaniya, n is the number of water molecules coming�by one molecule of gas included, moreover, n is a variable number, depending on the type of gidratoobrazovaniya, pressure and temperature. In 1960-ies detected first deposits of gas hydrates on the North of the USSR. From this point on gas hydrates begin to be considered as a potential fuel source. Move out to their wide distribution in the oceans and instability with increasing temperature. Currently natural gas hydrates attracts special attention as a possible source of fossil fuels (Uncle Yu Gas hydrates / Yu Uncle. A. L. Gushchin // Soros educational journal. - 1998. - No. 3. - S. 35-64 [2]; J. Carroll. Natural gas hydrates / J. Carroll. TRANS. angl. M.: Publishing House Of Technopress. 2007. - 316 p. [3]).

The increase in demand for energy and reduction of stocks of oil and natural gas in the coming decades will have geopolitical consequences. So now a search for new alternative energy sources and their cost-effective obtain. Gas hydrates occupy in the list, not the last role, as in Russia there are huge prospective gas hydrate area, including at the bottom of the marginal and inland seas. The known method of extraction and transport of gas from gas and marine gas hydrate deposits, including extraction of natural gas wells, the p�ing the hydrated state using heat and transportation to a mobile vehicle-to-device the feed gas to the consumer (patent RU №2198285, 10.02.2003 [4]). The known method carries out processing gas to a mobile vehicle in a group of tanks with simultaneous decomposition in another group of containers hydrates of carbon dioxide industrial waste and injection of the last on the depth of the sea, providing burial in hydrated condition, and processing the extracted gas and the decomposition of hydrates of carbon dioxide is carried out using a heat balance between them.

The implementation of the known method is rather expensive venture that requires special expensive equipment for extraction and transportation of the produced gas. Injection of industrial waste to the depth of the sea is technically difficult and unsafe for the environment.

The known method of extraction of gas hydrates from the ocean floor using an extracting device in the form of a self-propelled harvester with controls, communications, mining and loading device and delivering them to the surface in the form of a barge with the means of transportation and means of ascent to the surface (patent RU №2004106857/03, Appl. 09.03.2004; publ. 20.08.2005 [5]).

The known method requires a complicated construction and management of equipment. The extracted gas hydrates during transportation can lose a significant amount�in gas gidratoobrazovaniya and to make the extraction of minerals costly and unprofitable.

The known method of production of gases (methane and its homologues, etc.) of solid gas hydrates in bottom sediments of seas and oceans, which drilled to the bottom of his shoes well revealed the formation of gas hydrates immerse two columns pipes - pumped and pumped. Natural water with a natural temperature or heated flows through the pipe and pumped gas hydrates decompose the system "gas - water", resulting in accumulation in the bottom of formation of gas hydrates spherical trap. According to another column pipes are pumping out of this trap gases including combustible gases - methane and other (patent RU №2005139956, Appl. 20.12.2005; publ. 27.06.2007 [6]).

The disadvantage of this method is the need of the underwater drilling that is technically cumbersome, costly and sometimes irreparable breach in this underwater environment of the reservoir.

There are also known methods of production of gases (patent RU №2008110909 AND, 27.09.2009 [7], patent RU No. 2066367 C1, 10.09.1996 [8], patent RU No. 2292452 C2, 27.01.2007 [9], patent RU No. 2063507 C1, 10.07.1996 [10], patent RU No. 2262586 C2, 20.10.2005 [11], inventor's certificate SU # 1792482 A3, 30.01.1993 [12], application JP No. 2001280055 A, 10.10.2001 [13], patent US No. 5713416 A, 03.02.1998 [14]) are financially costly and contributing to environmental violations.

The use of any natural resource with the least material strateji safe for the environment technology is an important state task.

The technical result of the known technical solution (patent RU №2412337 C1, 20.02.2011 [15] is the reduction of material and operating costs, and reducing environmental impact on the territory of gas production.

The technical result is achieved in a known manner [15], which produce a gradual dissolution of the upper layer accumulations of gas hydrates with water reservoir, having a natural temperature of the reservoir and non-saturated solution of the gas, with the formation of a solution of methane and its homologues. The supply of this solution on the surface is carried out at first by force, then due to the effect of gas lift. The method is carried out using the device with the water supply and recovery of the resulting water-gas mixture to the surface of the reservoir, which is made in the form of a bell, to a closed end which summed up pipes for the supply of natural water and for pumping produced water-gas mixture. The supplied water is distributed on the inner wall surface of the bell with the help of thin pipes, provided at the end in the lower part of the bell special hydrants-injectors for power supply water in different directions.

Water flow in pipes is carried out using equipment fitted with measuring devices installed on a floating platform or vessel. Water flow in pipes� also carried out with the help of submersible equipment.

Pumping produced water-gas mixture of gas hydrates is carried out through a system of pipes connected to the tank storage, installed on a floating platform or vessel.

Dissolution of the upper layer accumulations of gas hydrates is carried out under excess pressure. The supplied water, which is not a saturated solution of methane in water is first directed into special tanks located at the top of the bell. Of them through a thin tube along the inner wall of the bell, it evenly under pressure enters the lower open end of the bell are two types of special hydrants-nozzles (one with the hole is directed along the wall of the bell, the other is perpendicular to the wall - inside the bell). At the end of the bell supplied water is sprayed (in pressure) through the hydrant nozzle, eroding bottom sediments and gas hydrates. In the inner space of the bell formed shards of gas hydrates, gas and a solution of methane in water. Through a system of pipes for pumping produced water-gas mixture is initially forcibly supplied to the surface of a pond. With a further rise in the presence of the effect of gas lift gas goes up by yourself and sent in a special tank storage, which arrives by pipeline to its destination.

The main disadvantage JV�soba [15] is the high complexity, due to the presence of underwater communications system (pipes, bell), articulated with a floating platform or vessel. In addition, the extraction may be carried out only under favorable weather conditions. Otherwise, the piping system between the vessel and the bell will be subjected to mechanical stress.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is to increase the reliability by the underwater extraction of gas hydrates.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of extracting gas from gas hydrates in bottom sediments of the reservoir, which is characterized in that conduct the gradual dissolution of the upper layer accumulations of gas hydrates, in which unlike the prototype [15] the gradual dissolution of the upper layer accumulations of gas hydrates is carried out by heating accumulations of gas hydrates in bottom sediments of the reservoir to a temperature of 50-60°C by a heating element made in the form of the cutting edge, hosted by the diameter of the cargo container being lowered from a boat, made in the form of a self-propelled underwater vehicle with a retractable crawler tract in the form of a container with a cutting edge at the bottom, connected to the heating elements inside the container, ensure the stability of the self-propelled underwater vehicle relative to the bottom of the reservoir, vol�lnewt the rotation of the container and the supply of electric current to the heating elements, heated gas hydrate reservoir to 50-60°C, perform the descent of the container with the rotation of the gas hydrate in the reservoir to ensure the point of extraction of hydrates of the said reservoir in solid form, and a device for extracting gas from gas hydrates in bottom sediments of the reservoir, consisting of the swimming facilities of tripping mechanisms and the working body, swimming tool made in the form of a self-propelled underwater vehicle equipped with a retractable crawler tract, the locking mechanism for the sustainable provision of floating vessel relative to the bottom of the reservoir, arm, articulated with rotating column, providing the possibility of placing the column in the container and rotation of the latter, the working body is made in the form of a container, a hollow body which in its lower part made in the form of a cutting edge connected with heating elements placed inside the hollow body of the container, the vertical axis is made with a hole for the column.

Method of extracting gas from gas hydrates is illustrated by a drawing.

In the drawing the positions designated swimming tool 1, which is made in the form of a self-propelled underwater vehicle equipped with a retractable crawler tract 2, the locking mechanism 3, the rocker 4, articulated with rotating column 5, konteinerami, placed in the cassette 7, is cylindrical in shape, the containers 6 are also cylindrical in shape, while in the lower part of the container 6 is made in the form of a cutting edge 8, which is connected with the heating elements 9 disposed inside the hollow body 10 of the container 6.

Swimming tool 1 made in the form of a self-propelled underwater vehicle, also equipped with navigation and orientation 11, wheels 12, the movement management system 13, a cargo compartment 14 for placement of the containers 6. Each container 6 along its vertical axis is provided with a hole 15, through which the manipulator 4 is inserted into the rotary column 5.

The manipulator 4, articulated with rotating column 5 is the lowering-lifting mechanism.

The working body is made in the form of the container 6, a hollow body 10 which in its lower part made in the form of a cutting edge 8, which is connected with the heating elements 9 disposed inside the hollow body 10 of the container 6. Complex for the production of gas from gas hydrates is as follows.

Swimming tool 1 made in the form of a self-propelled underwater vehicle for a given program goes to the point of occurrence of the formation of gas hydrates. By means of locking mechanisms 3 adopts a stable position relative to the bottom of the reservoir. Through manipulate�and 4 in the first container 6 is inserted into the rotary column 5, heating elements 9 is energized. By the heating elements 9, the reservoir is heated to 50-60°C.

Further, due to rotation of the rotary column 5 is the rotation and lowering of the gas hydrate in the reservoir 16 of the container 6. After filling of the container 6 by rotation of the rotary column 5 in the opposite direction there is a rise of container 6 and install it on a regular place in the cargo compartment 14 swimming facilities 1.

Swimming tool 1 after full loading of the gas hydrate in solid form due to the presence retractable crawler tract 2 installed on both sides and transports the produced gas hydrate.

Extraction of gas hydrates can be produced point and periodically in a limited area and to be renewed after some time, as near-surface hydrates will be formed again on the same square. This method of production allows for minimal and limited in area changes on the bottom that does not lead to catastrophic and irreversible changes in the biocenosis of the reservoir.

Sources of information

1. Kreinin E. V. non-traditional thermal technology of production of hard recoverable hydrocarbons / E. V. Kreinin // Gas industry. - 2005. - No. 3. - p. 22.

2. Uncle Yu Gas hydrates / Uncle Yu, A. L. Gushchin // Soro�native educational journal. - 1998. - No. 3. - Pp. 35-64.

3. Carroll J. Natural gas hydrates / J. Carroll. TRANS. angl. M: Publishing House Of Tehnopress, 2007. - 316 p.

4. Patent RU №2198285, 10.02.2003.

5. Application RU No. 2004106857/03, Appl. 09.03.2004; publ. 20.08.2005.

6. Application RU No. 2005139956, Appl. 20.12.2005; publ. 27.06.2007.

7. Application RU NO. 2008110909 A, 27.09.2009.

8. Patent RU №2066367 C1, 10.09.1996.

9. Patent RU №2292452 C2, 27.01.2007.

10. Patent RU №2063507 C1, 10.07.1996.

11. Patent RU №2262586 C2, 20.10.2005.

12. Inventor's certificate SU # 1792482 A3, 30.01.1993.

13. Application JP No. 2001280055 A, 10.10.2001.

14. Patent US No. 5713416 A, 03.02.1998.

15. Patent RU №2446983 C2, 10.04.2012.

1. Method of extraction of gas hydrates in bottom sediments of the reservoir, characterized by the fact that the conduct of the gradual dissolution of the upper layer accumulations of gas hydrates, characterized in that the gradual dissolution of the upper layer accumulations of gas hydrates is carried out by heating accumulations of gas hydrates in bottom sediments of the reservoir to a temperature of 50-60oWith by means of a heating element made in the form of the cutting edge, hosted by the diameter of the cargo container being lowered from a boat, made in the form of a self-propelled underwater vehicle with a retractable crawler tract in the form of a container with a cutting edge at the bottom, connected to the heating elements inside the container, ensure the stability of the self-propelled underwater�of the apparatus relative to the bottom of the reservoir, perform the rotation of the container and the supply of electric current to the heating elements heat the gas hydrate layer to 50-60oTo perform the descent of the container with the rotation of the gas hydrate in the reservoir to ensure the point of extraction of hydrates of the said reservoir in solid form.

2. Device for the extraction of gas hydrates in bottom sediments of the reservoir, consisting of the swimming facilities of tripping mechanisms and the working body, characterized in that the floating means made in the form of a self-propelled underwater vehicle equipped with a retractable crawler tract, the locking mechanism for the sustainable provision of floating vessel relative to the bottom of the reservoir, arm, articulated with the column, with the possibility of rotation, and providing the possibility of placing the column in the container and rotation of the latter, the working body is made in the form of a container, a hollow body which in its lower part made in the form of a cutting edge connected to the heating elements, placed inside the hollow body of the container along the vertical axis is made with a hole for the column.



 

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12 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: according to the method capital mining operations are carried out on penetration and developing access channels to a productive formation of a deposit. Underground mining and development operations and field operations on the well production of shale oil and gas are performed using multistaged hydraulic fracturing or thermal effect on the formation. A shale oil- and gas-containing deposit is penetrated by vertical shafts. Preparation of the productive formation for hydrocarbon production is carried out by the underground mining and development openings placed below a water-bearing horizon covering the rock above the shale rock of the deposit. Hydrocarbon production is carried out by mining blocks of underground producing wells with horizontal sections protruded in the formation. The producing wells are drilled from underground cells constructed mainly in the mining and development openings. Before complete hydraulic fracturing of the formation small diagnostic hydraulic fracturing of the formation is made in the producing wells of a small diameter, which are drilled mainly from the mining and development openings to the whole thickness of the productive formation transversely to its course. The product of the producing wells is divided in the shaft bottom into shale gas and shale oil. The shale oil is outputted to the surface for further treatment before delivery to consumers. The shale gas is burnt in the boiler of a shaft bottom heat-generating plant to generate water steam or hot water used for the production of electricity or for the purpose of a thermal effect on the productive formation in order to increase intensity and the production rate.

EFFECT: reduced total volume of operations on drilling producing wells while developing shale deposits.

2 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method envisages the usage of aqueous solutions of binary mixtures - inorganic or organic nitrate or hydrate of alkali metals, which are injected through individual channels. The method includes the mounting of equipment in wells at the selected area of a deposit. Each well is equipped with devices to control the temperature, pressure and composition of reaction products in a real time mode. Formation areas in vicinity to the well with a volume of at least 20 m3 are heated preliminarily up to a temperature of at least 100°C by injection of at least 2 t of binary mixture reagents. Cyclic heating of the formation area in vicinity to the well with a volume of at least 100 m3 and weight of 250 t is made up to a temperature of at least 140°C due to a reaction of at least 12 t of the binary mixture reagents. At that the first level of explosion safety is ensured by the alternation of injection of saltpetre solution portions, 1 t each, with portions of industrial water of at least 0.05 t each. The second level of explosive safety in the borehole is ensured by the continuous control and monitoring of the reaction process with the temperature limitation in the well bore below the pre-blasting temperature. This temperature is determined against signs of the reaction self-acceleration at recorded charts of time-temperature and time-pressure curves. In case of these signs the injection of a saltpetre decomposition initiator is stopped to the well. Further injection of the saltpetre solution with the weight of at least 10 t is made to the preheated formation. At that the third level of explosive safety is implemented in the reaction process in the formation, which is catalysed by the heat accumulated during the previous cycles. The third level of explosive safety is ensured by a ratio of the weight of the saltpetre injected to the pores and fractures of the formation to the weight of the rock. The ratio is equal mainly to 1 to 20. Low explosive probability, close to zero, is ensured by a mixture of 95 wt % of rock and 5 wt % of saltpetre. The injection of reagents at all cycles is made at continuous temperature control in the reaction zone and pressure and temperature control in the zone near the packer and in the process of the reagents injection for the purpose of timely cessation of the reaction when the parameters of the reaction exceed limits of permitted modes.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of oil production at worked-out deposits with an increased production safety.

4 cl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes production of gas hydrates, their transportation to a consumer and decomposition of gas hydrates with gas recovery. Gas hydrate recovery process is implemented at thermodynamic parameters corresponding to formation of gas hydrates. Transportation of gas hydrates is performed in sealed and heat insulated cargo spaces of a vehicle at thermodynamic parameters excluding decomposition of gas hydrates. Decomposition of gas hydrates with gas recovery upon completed transportation is made by reduction of pressure in cargo space of a vehicle up to atmospheric pressure. Process of gas hydrate recovery and their storage during transportation is carried out at temperature of -0.2°C and pressure of 1 MPa. At that gas hydrates are withdrawn in hydrate state as briquettes by n-containers run down in sequence to submarine reservoir of gas hydrates from a submarine vehicle. The submarine reservoir of gas hydrates is heated up by heating elements located at edges of n-containers. Each n-container is buried in sequence to submarine reservoir of gas hydrates to the depth twice exceeding the container height. Upon loading of each n-container by free falling of gas hydrates they are loaded to cargo space of a vehicle. The vehicle is made as a submarine vessel. While heating submarine reservoir of gas hydrates only reservoir section under the container is heated. Containers are filled with gas hydrates represented by briquettes of natural metastable mineral in hydrate solid state.

EFFECT: improving efficiency in recovery and transportation of gas hydrates due to reduced consumption of energy and reduced capital and current costs.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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