Method for recovery and transportation of gas hydrates from bottom sediments and submarine vessel for recovery and transportation of gas hydrates
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes production of gas hydrates, their transportation to a consumer and decomposition of gas hydrates with gas recovery. Gas hydrate recovery process is implemented at thermodynamic parameters corresponding to formation of gas hydrates. Transportation of gas hydrates is performed in sealed and heat insulated cargo spaces of a vehicle at thermodynamic parameters excluding decomposition of gas hydrates. Decomposition of gas hydrates with gas recovery upon completed transportation is made by reduction of pressure in cargo space of a vehicle up to atmospheric pressure. Process of gas hydrate recovery and their storage during transportation is carried out at temperature of -0.2°C and pressure of 1 MPa. At that gas hydrates are withdrawn in hydrate state as briquettes by n-containers run down in sequence to submarine reservoir of gas hydrates from a submarine vehicle. The submarine reservoir of gas hydrates is heated up by heating elements located at edges of n-containers. Each n-container is buried in sequence to submarine reservoir of gas hydrates to the depth twice exceeding the container height. Upon loading of each n-container by free falling of gas hydrates they are loaded to cargo space of a vehicle. The vehicle is made as a submarine vessel. While heating submarine reservoir of gas hydrates only reservoir section under the container is heated. Containers are filled with gas hydrates represented by briquettes of natural metastable mineral in hydrate solid state.
EFFECT: improving efficiency in recovery and transportation of gas hydrates due to reduced consumption of energy and reduced capital and current costs.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the extraction and transportation of gas from gas hydrate sediments predominantly underwater transport.
The known method of extraction and transport of gas from gas and marine gas hydrate deposits, including extraction of natural gas wells, it is recycled to the hydration status using heat and transportation to a mobile vehicle to the device that supplies gas to the consumer (patent RU№2198285, 10.02.2003 ).
There is also known a method of extraction of gas hydrates from the ocean floor using an extracting device in the form of a self-propelled harvester with controls, communications, mining and loading device and delivering them to the surface in the form of a barge with the means of transportation and means of ascent to the surface (Patent RU №2004106857/03, Appl. 09.03.2004; publ. 20.08.2005 ).
The known method requires a complicated construction and management of equipment. The extracted gas hydrates during transportation can lose a significant amount of gas gidratoobrazovaniya and to make the extraction of minerals costly and unprofitable.
There is also known a method of production of gases (methane and its homologues, etc.) of solid gas hydrates in bottom sediments of seas and oceans, which drilled to the bottom of his shoes well revealed the formation of gas hydrates immerse two colon�s pipe - pumped and pumped. Natural water with a natural temperature or heated flows through the pipe and pumped gas hydrates decompose the system "gas-water", resulting in accumulation in the bottom of formation of gas hydrates spherical trap. According to another column pipes are pumping out of this trap gases (including flammable gases - methane, etc.) (patent RU №2005139956, Appl. 20.12.2005; publ. 27.06.2007 ).
There are also known methods and devices for extraction of natural gas in the open sea and from the bottom accumulations of gas hydrates (patent RU №2381348 , patent RU No. 2393338 , patent RU No. 2403379 , patent RU No. 2489568 , patent RU No. 2402676 , patent RU No. 2491420 , patent RU No. 2230899 , patent RU No. 2198285 , patent RU No. 2159323 , patent RU No. 2438009 ), and device for marine transportation of natural gas from the place of their production (patent RU №2440272 , patent RU No. 2062731 C1, 27.06.96 , patent RU No. 2027632 C1, 27.01.1995 , patent RU No. 2048371 C1, 20.11.95, patent RU No. 2087375 C1, 20.08.97, patent RU No. 2093411 C1, 20.10.97 , patent RU No. 2387571 C1, 27.04.2010 ).
Known methods of extraction of natural gas requires complicated construction and management of equipment. The extracted gas hydrates during transportation can lose a significant amount of gas gidratoobrazovaniya and to make the extraction of minerals costly and unprofitable [4-16].
The main disadvantages transport�x means (devices) [17-23] marine transportation of gas hydrates are, for example, when upgrading the application of the submarine - a large amount of space, in addition to a scuba tank, is used for personal needs: multiple compartments, lightweight and durable housing, energy system, composed of numerous submariners, many ancillary office and welfare facilities and devices. Elements of the aquatic environment and liquid cargo light oil tried to take into account the proposals of construction of submarine tankers with the case of two permeable frames with flexible hermetic container inside for cargo Bay and two additional soft tanks for balancing the buoyancy of the tanker. From the underwater hull has thrust it floats up and to the vessel-towing .
In an improved analogue of the interaction of towing with the hull of the tanker with permeable walls also includes floating elements, and thrust from the last run parallel to the pipeline, the first pipeline is used for injection of liquid cargo and has the inlet valve into the cavity of the underwater tanker, and during discharge of the second conduit with the outlet valve from the tanker through the first air is supplied from the bottom of high pressure .
Tankers with permeable casings need towing, have difficulties to adjust the depth of immersion of the tank when driving, the design thrust load b�a XYR not optimal for traction power applications, dangerous storm, opposing court reefs, which can lead to environmental disasters. Liquid cargo having a density less than the density of water, especially light oil in the water has a greater positive buoyancy, which is difficult to extinguish, so the work of the air tank and floats is unclaimed. Also pour water in a separate shell displaces in the permeable case the same volume of water and has a neutral buoyancy. Outstanding analogue submarine tanker for sailing in ice conditions with outer and inner solid buildings, including General Mezhdunarodny set of connections. Cargo compartments are in the form of polyhedra - prisms or pyramids, which generally give the body laboratries form .
The increase in the stiffness and strength of the hull of the tanker increases the amount of negative buoyancy, which can be used for repayment of the positive buoyancy of light and medium oil, and tanker goes to zero buoyancy to keep for passage under water. To crush ice, it is necessary to create increased positive buoyancy to the pressure of the tanker from the bottom up and then work from the top down on the surface that is possible with an empty cargo Bay for return flight for oil, however, problems arise in balancing the buoyancy, safety, minimising the desired amount�and cargo, and unexpected ice thickness for the ascent and passage can exceed 2-3 m.
In the known technical solution , as containers for fresh and marine water used ballast horizontal tank with an elastic partition separating the upper part of the tank with fresh water from the bottom with ballast water, and the deflection can be full up or down to fill the whole tank fresh or marine water.
In the known technical solution  proposed underwater armored tanker with streamlined longitudinal profile and cross sections, has a durable external casing shell cargo tank made with two partitions for the mass of the transported crude oil or its products. Underwater armored tanker also contains horizontal separation two-layer soft shell, two compartment regulation of buoyancy, two navigational felling, two remote-controlled docking cone devices, piping, pumps, four batteries, four reversible motor and the bottom landing. Increased safety is achieved, unsinkable tanker, saving the cargo in an emergency without disrupting the ecology of the waters.
Also known a method of extracting gas from gas hydrates in bottom sediments, which is characterized in that Provo�Yat gradual dissolution of the upper layer accumulations of gas hydrates with water, having natural temperature of the reservoir and non-saturated solution of the gas, with the filing of a bell dangling at the bottom, with the formation in it of the water-gas mixture of methane and its homologues, pumping a mixture of methane and its homologues on the surface of the first force, then due to the effect of the gas supplied into the bell of the water distributed over the inner surface of its wall by means of thin tubes provided at the end in the lower part of the bell hydrants-injectors for power supply water in different directions for erosion of sediments gas hydrates (patent RU№2412337, 20.02.2011 ).
There is also known a method of delivery of natural gas to the consumer, including the production of gas hydrates, moving them to the consumer, the decomposition of gas hydrate with getting gas in which gas hydrate are obtained in the form odoherty slurry containing solid particles of the gas hydrate is about 50% of its volume, wherein the process of obtaining gas hydrates is carried out at thermodynamic parameters corresponding to the formation of gas hydrate, with heat from a mixture of natural gas and water vogelezang pulp, preferably with particle size not exceeding 10 μm, the content of particles of ice about 50% of the volume vogelezang pulp, which are uniformly distributed in the volume of the reactor, transportation of gas hydrate pulp is carried out in a sealed�, insulated cargo spaces of a vehicle, in thermodynamic parameters, excluding the decomposition of gas hydrate, the gas hydrate decomposition of the pulp with a selection of gas at the end of his carriage, is carried out by reducing the pressure in the cargo space of the vehicle to atmosphere, thus vogelezang the pulp formed during the decomposition of gas hydrate slurry, return, keeping its temperature, to the place of obtaining gas hydrates, where re-used in the manufacture of vogelezang pulp suitable for the production of gas hydrate, the process of obtaining gas hydrates and their storage during the transportation process carried out at a temperature -0,2°C and pressure 1 MPa (patent RU №2496048 C1, 20.102013 ).
The disadvantage of this method  is the need of the underwater drilling that is technically cumbersome, costly and sometimes irreparable breach in this underwater environment of the reservoir.
In addition, the use for the extraction and delivery of natural gas, a surface vessel, especially in the Northern areas with adverse weather conditions significantly reduces the efficiency of data operations.
There is also known a method of delivery of natural gas to the consumer in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by obtaining the latest on hazardous�tion of the stations (GDS) with the use of expanders (Vasiliev Yu. "Motor fuel of the future". "Gas industry" 1995, №1 ).
The disadvantage of this method  is the complexity of manufacturing of turbo-expanders for large expenditures, working in the field of cryogenic temperatures, the need to use special cryogenic structural materials for the manufacture of the expander and the relatively large capital costs, the need for a deep cleaning of the gas from the high-boiling than methane components, which would otherwise freeze and bring the turbine down, the impossibility of continuous operation oddodefender system, while redundancy leads to higher costs, the complexity of the control modes of the expander under varying pressures, flow rates and temperatures through the GDS natural gas.
The known method of delivery of natural gas to the consumer in an insulated cargo spaces of the vehicle and dissociation of gas hydrate supply of heat from the outboard sea water temperature of +20°C. In the implementation of this technological scheme of transportation of gas hydrate on Board the ship is carried out in bulk, in the form of solid fragments of various shapes, at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of minus 20°C, which drastically reduces the intensity of heat to the hydrate (at the stage of its razloga�ia) because of its freezing in large agglomerates. In addition, sea water, at a temperature close to 0°C is removed overboard and useful is not used as a coolant when you receive a new hydrate (see J. S. Gudmundsson and A. Boslashrrehaug. Frozen Hydrate for transport of Natural Gas. AE & NUST. 1996 ).
There is also known a method of delivery of natural gas to the consumer, including obtaining gas hydrates, moving them to the consumer, the decomposition of gas hydrate with getting gas (see EN No. 2200727, CL. SS 5/02, 1997 ).
The disadvantages of the method include the fact that the process of delivery of gas to the consumer is vysokoenergichnym, because at the stage of obtaining the gas hydrate requires numerous kompremirovannyj and the subsequent cooling of the gas, and use that same energy to create the conditions of hydrate formation and preservation of hydrates, also high energy costs and at the stage of decomposition of gas hydrate with getting gas.
A common disadvantage of the known technical solutions is the use of pipelines in the extraction of gas hydrate, wherein the hydrate can be formed in the wellbore, industrial communications and pipelines. Settle on the pipe wall, hydrates dramatically reduce their throughput.
In addition, the economic calculations show that the most effective is sea transport gas in gapagetracker condition.
As a prototype the selected method of delivery.�tion gas to the consumer, described in the source of information , and a device for delivery of natural gas, made in the form of a submarine .
The objective of the proposed technical solution is the reduction of energy consumption for the delivery of gas to the consumer.
The technical result expected from use of this invention is the reduction of energy, capital and operating costs for producing a gas hydrate and reverse its dissociation after delivery to the consumer. Furthermore, the reduced consumption of the equipment necessary for implementing the method.
The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of delivery of natural gas to the consumer, including the production of gas hydrates, moving them to the consumer, the decomposition of gas hydrates with getting gas, wherein the process of obtaining gas hydrates is carried out at thermodynamic parameters corresponding to the formation of gas hydrate, the gas hydrate transportation of the mixture is carried out in a sealed, insulated cargo spaces of a vehicle, in thermodynamic parameters, excluding the decomposition of gas hydrate, the gas hydrate decomposition of the pulp with a selection of gas, at the end of his carriage, is carried out by reducing the pressure in the cargo space of the vehicle to atmosphere, the process proceduresby hydrates and their storage during the transportation process carried out at a temperature -0,2°C and a pressure of 1 MPa, in which, unlike the prototype, the gas hydrate mixture is taken up in the hydration state in the form of briquettes through n containers, alternately lowered underwater formation of gas hydrates with the underwater vehicle, warm up the underwater formation of gas hydrates by heating elements placed in ribs n containers, bury in turn each of the n containers in the underwater formation of gas hydrates at a depth greater than twice the height of the container, after filling sonawala each of the n containers of gas hydrate mixture perform their rise in cargo space of the vehicle, the vehicle is made in the form of a submarine, for heating a subsea formation of gas hydrates warm up the plot (plot) gas hydrate formation under the container, the gas hydrate mixture, which fills the containers, is a natural briquettes metastable mineral in them hydrate - a solid state, and in a submarine to transport gas hydrates containing durable body - shell of the cargo tank, separating the soft shell, cut regulation of the buoyancy of the tanker, the mate's cabin, residential and auxiliary compartments, docking device, pipelines, pumps, power plant, electric motors, software driven�I, communication, safety, the vehicle is made with a streamlined profile, longitudinal and cross sections, in contrast to the prior art cargo tank is provided with a shaft with hoisting mechanism of Elevator type for alternately lowering and lifting n containers, the edges of which contain heating elements, regular light, and in the bow is made of icebreaking form with the possibility of destruction of ice on the top and bottom.
Signs of restrictive part of the formula of the invention, regarding the method consists in the fact that gas hydrate mixture is taken up in the hydration state in the form of briquettes through n containers, alternately lowered underwater formation of gas hydrates with the underwater vehicle, warm up the underwater formation of gas hydrates by heating elements placed in ribs n containers, bury in turn each of the n containers in the underwater formation of gas hydrates at a depth greater than twice the height of the container, after filling sonawala each of the n containers of gas hydrate mixture perform their rise in cargo space of the vehicle, but signs of restrictive part of the formula of the invention, relative to the vehicle solve the following functional tasks.
Getting gas hydrate mixture in the form of briquettes, computer�this rise of briquettes into the hold of the vehicle and its subsequent transportation to the destination. While gas hydrate mixture, taken in the form of briquettes, is a natural metastable mineral hydrate in the state, with the additional economic benefit can be achieved with a simultaneous sale to consumers of the transported gas and the pure water remaining after the decomposition of the hydrate (the formation of gas hydrates, the water is cleaned of impurities).
Allows transportation of gas hydrate mixture in ice conditions, including ice patches on the limit of shallow water with depths of 8-10 m.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure given a snippet of the technological scheme of the complex equipment, ensuring the implementation of the claimed method on the stages of extraction of gas hydrates and their shipment to the vehicle.
The drawing shows the site of formation of gas hydrate, comprising: a vehicle 1 having a light and durable 2 building 3, which is the shell of the cargo tank 4, in which n containers 5, the ribs 6 which contain heating elements 7. Cargo tank 4 is provided with a shaft 8 with a lifting mechanism 9 of the Elevator type, regular easy 2 block in the bow 10 is made in the form of ice-breaking form. In the drawing, the positions are also marked gas hydrate layer 11 and the operating position 12 of the container 5 when loading hydrate.
To�control-measuring equipment and other assistive devices, necessary for the operation of the node for the formation of gas hydrate, as well as a means of movement and navigation, ensuring the implementation of the claimed method, not shown.
As the storage node hydrate used insulated tank (or multiple tanks), made with the possibility to save thermodynamic equilibrium stored in them hydrate and also provided with means of shipment of material to the consumer, the horizontal method of regular shipments of port handling means via special loading hatches.
Cargo tank 4 of the vehicle 1 is in the form of a thermally insulated tank having a minimum burst pressure of more than 10 ATM (1 MPa). The insulation is designed as a layer of polyurethane foam with a thickness of about 100 mm.
The vehicle 1 is in the form of a submarine and contains rugged case shell cargo tank 4, separating the soft shell, full-time compartments regulation of buoyancy of the vehicle, the mate's cabin, residential and auxiliary compartments, docking device, pipelines, pumps, power plant, electric motors, tools, program management, communications, security, the tanker is made with a streamlined profile, longitudinal and cross sections, rugged-shell cargo container�STI. Cargo tank is provided with a shaft with hoisting mechanism of Elevator type for alternately lowering and lifting n containers, the edges of which contain heating elements, regular light housing in the bow is made in the form of ice-breaking form.
In recent years many projects were suggested and programmes, including the project of the submarine supertanker to transport out of the Arctic liquefied natural gas U.S. firm General Dynamics, five-year program of the canadian government on the creation of underwater and surface vessels for the transport of oil, gas and other minerals. There are several projects on underwater tankers and bulk carriers. However, none of these projects and programs has not materialized. This is because they all require a substantial investment on the design and construction of specific underwater vehicles, as well as providing them with special infrastructure of ports and locations.
In the early 90-ies started research activities at the direction of the most economical ways of creating transport submarines, the main attention was paid to the issue of the use derived from Navy nuclear submarines. This is the most appropriate at the present time, the way to solve the problem, since the replacement missile weapons useful�m cargo allows efficient use of the technical capabilities of obsolete military ships.
The creation of alternative marine transport system for year-round delivery of the products without icebreaking on one vehicle is a nuclear submarine (NPS), converted for the carriage of goods. In this embodiment, significant economic benefits can be achieved, for example, through conversion of heavy nuclear submarine, carved out of the Navy for international agreement on arms reduction. To match the Premier League new purpose is required to implement the following three qualities (not compatible together none of the current vehicles):
- the ability to carry considerable amount of cargo (in regulated packaging) - up to 10 tons and more - in a submerged position;
- the ability to overcome the surface position of the ice-field cohesion 8-10 points and thickness up to 1.5-2 m;
- precipitation in the presence of the cargo is not more than 9.5 m to overcome the rifts on the Northern rivers.
Conventional submarines overcome ice obstacles while submerged, floating at a safe depth that exceeds the maximum for the area draught of ice formations (ice, icebergs), which requires sufficient water depth (usually at least 70-100 m), and for entry into a port by freezing and shallow waters, including river, PU�s approach (for example, p. Dudinka) on the surface necessary icebreaking support.
Thus, it is necessary to provide sufficient leoprechting underwater vessel on the surface. Existing shallow-draft ships ("Taimyr" and "Vaigach", "Kapitan Sorokin") is able to overcome the ice to a thickness of 1.6-2 m at depths of 7-9 m and on the fairways of the rivers, but they are not seaworthy. Sea, including nuclear icebreakers like "Arctic", having a high leoprechting and deeper draft, not adapted for entry into ports with shallow approaches.
Court type atomic lighter carrier "Sevmorput" UL class having a large capacity, have a draught of 10 m and insufficient leoprechting that do not provide year-round operation.
Therefore, the optimal choice of vehicle is the refitting of nuclear submarines, with the largest margin of minimum buoyancy and underlying sediment. This required lifting the vessel with provision of scuba diving, and minimum precipitation on the surface is realized at the expense of dismantling missile system and increasing the width of the bow, as well as reinforcement of a number of ballast tanks.
The aft part of the hull, including the nuclear power plant does not change (taking into account the need to develop full power DL� ensure the icebreaking capability). Also saved the module provide navigation, control, navigation, communication and lighting facilities ice conditions. Added ice strengthening class on LL1 of the Register, including strengthening of the superstructure and giving lightweight design (mainly in the bow) icebreaking form, optimized for icebreaking capability. To reduce time in port, and can be used horizontal method for regular shipments of port handling means via special loading hatches with a diameter of 4.5 m.
With sufficient water depth, the vehicle 1 overcomes the ice field in a submerged position. In shallow water (depth 17-70 m) vehicle 1 POPs up in positional position and having relatively deeper draft, breaks the ice from below. To overcome on the marginal ice zones shallow with depths of 8-10 m, and also to increase the icebreaking capability of the vehicle 1 when meeting with hummocky areas and opportunities raids it POPs up in surface cruising position and breaks the ice on top, as usual shallow-draft icebreaker.
Thus, the vehicle 1 overcomes the icy fields, changing sediment depending on the depth of the sea and ice conditions, and the special form of its forward end allows you to break the ice as SNES�, and from above.
It should be noted a number of advantages of use of the vehicle 1 in comparison with traditional sailing vessels with icebreaking support in the Eastern part of the Kara sea: there is no need for the constant presence of the sea icebreakers in the Eastern part of the Kara sea and river icebreakers in the Yenisei Gulf and the river;
- there is no risk of an ice captivity of ships in severe ice conditions at Cape Desire;
- there is a possibility of transportation of cargo to any point of the Arctic coast (go under the ice of the Central Arctic), including the coast of Canada and Alaska.
Ways of movement of the vehicle 1 reduce the transition duration during winter compared to icebreaking transport in 2-3 times. The transition under the ice to the coast of the Western Arctic may be performed weekly, at that transition the vehicle 1 in ice conditions in shallow seas Beaufort, Chukchi and Bering can be performed on the surface using the above-described three ways of crossing the icy barriers. Swimming in submerged to a depth of 100 m has at least three advantages:
- independence from weather conditions on the sea surface (wind, waves);
- the opportunity to develop a high speed against usual�of emergent situation where possible cavitation of propellers, especially in storm conditions;
- the possibility of crossing ice fields in the presence of sufficient water depth (60 m or more) without the need of breaking the ice.
Propulsion system of the vehicle 1 provides an economical underwater path at a speed of 16-18 km and at a speed of 2-3 km across the surface, forcing a continuous ice cover thickness up to 2.6 m. the Presence of two thrusters significantly increases the maneuverability of the vehicle 1, especially at slow speeds. The maneuverability in ice conditions in the positional situation can be significantly improved by maneuver trim: protopine poop, feed it under the edge of the ice channel and poloma ice outlet trim.
Diving of the vehicle 1 at a safe depth in the ice conditions of the North-Western part of the Kara sea with a draught keels ridges up to 20 m, the water depth should be at least 60-70 m. In areas with less depth, the vehicle 1 must emerge to overcome the ice fields. Ice situation, for example, on the route Dudinka Dickson-Cape zhelaniya-Murmansk described statistically, and the entire route can be divided into three sections according to the conditions of overcoming of ice fields. There are three different types of such conditions: light, medium and heavy�. In medium and light conditions of the Barents sea and the North-Western part of the Kara sea the whole year do not require icebreaking navigation: the thickness of the ice at Cape Desire is not more than 0.7 m. In severe conditions in February-may can meet ice thickness of up to 1.2-1.8 m, which can be overcome in a submerged position.
The main parameters of vehicle 1: immersion depth of 400 m, a diameter of 23 m, length 183 m, displacement of 30,000 tons, speed 25 KTS, the nuclear reactor 2 is OK-650.
The method is implemented as follows.
The vehicle 1 is located above the gas hydrate reservoir 11.
Through the shaft 8 by means of the lifting mechanism 9 of the Elevator type, n-containers 5, the ribs 6, which contain heating elements 7, alternately descend on gas hydrate reservoir 11. By means of the heating elements 7 is heating section gas hydrate reservoir 11 under n-containers 5 and they descend to a depth greater than twice the height of the container, after filling sonawala each of the n containers of gas hydrate mixture exercise their rise in cargo space of the vehicle 1. While gas hydrate mixture in each of the n containers 5 has the form of a briquette.
Getting gas hydrate mixture in the form of briquettes, automated rise of briquettes into the hold of the vehicle and its subsequent transport�Cherevko to the destination. While gas hydrate mixture, taken in the form of briquettes, is a natural metastable mineral hydrate in the state, with the additional economic benefit can be achieved with a simultaneous sale to consumers of the transported gas and the pure water remaining after the decomposition of the hydrate (the formation of gas hydrates, the water is cleaned of impurities).
The claimed method of delivery of natural gas to the consumer of the vehicle, made in the form of a submarine ice navigation is safer, in comparison with the known technical solutions.
The program ensures saving of cargo in an emergency without disrupting the ecology of the waters, leaving at depth in stormy weather, safety in collisions.
Sources of information
1. Patent RU №2198285, 10.02.2003.
2. Application RU No. 2004106857/03, Appl. 09.03.2004; publ. 20.08.2005.
3. Application RU No. 2005139956, Appl. 20.12.2005; publ. 27.06.2007.
4. Patent RU №2381348.
5. Patent RU №2393338.
6. Patent RU №2403379.
7. Patent RU №2489568.
8. Patent RU №2402676.
9. Patent RU №2491420.
10. Patent RU №2230899.
11. Patent RU №2198285.
12. Patent RU №2306410.
13. Patent RU №2250365.
14. Patent RU №2451171.
15. Patent RU №2159323.
16. Patent RU №2438009.
17. Patent RU №2440272.
18. Patent RU №2062731 C1, 27.06.96.
19. Patent RU №2027632 C1, 27.01.1995.
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22. Patent RU №2093411.
23. Patent RU №2387571 C1, 27.04.2010.
24. Patent RU №2412337 C1, 20.02.2011.
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26. Vasiliev Yu. Motor fuel of the future. "Gas industry", 1995, No. 1.
27. J. S. Gudmundsson and A. Boslashrrehaug. Frozen Hydrate for transport of Natural Gas. AE&NUST. 1996.
28. Patent RU №2200727, 1997.
1. Method of extraction and transportation of gas hydrates in bottom sediments of the consumer, including the production of gas hydrates, moving them to the consumer, the decomposition of gas hydrates with getting gas, wherein the process of obtaining gas hydrates is carried out at thermodynamic parameters corresponding to the formation of gas hydrates, the transportation of gas hydrates is carried out in a sealed, insulated cargo spaces of a vehicle, when thermodynamic parameters, excluding the decomposition of gas hydrates, and decomposition of gas hydrates with a selection of gas, at the conclusion of their transportation, is carried out by reducing the pressure in the cargo space of the vehicle to atmosphere, the process of obtaining gas hydrates and their storage during the transportation process carried out at a temperature -0,2°C and a pressure of 1 MPa, characterized in that the gas hydrates are selected in a hydrated state in the form of briquettes through n containers, alternately lowered underwater seam gas�x hydrate with the underwater vehicle, warm up the underwater formation of gas hydrates by heating elements placed in ribs n containers, bury in turn each of the n containers in the underwater formation of gas hydrates at a depth greater than twice the height of the container, after filling sonawala each of the n containers of gas hydrates perform their rise in cargo space of the vehicle, the vehicle is made in the form of a submarine, for heating a subsea formation of gas hydrates warm up the land - only portion of the formation of gas hydrates under the container, gas hydrates, which fills the containers, is a natural briquettes metastable mineral in them hydrate - solid state.
2. Submarine for the extraction and transportation of gas hydrates containing durable body - shell of the cargo tank, separating the soft shell, cut regulation of the buoyancy of the tanker, the mate's cabin, residential and auxiliary compartments, docking device, pipelines, pumps, power plant, electric motors, tools, program management, communications, security, vehicle made with a streamlined profile longitudinal and transverse cross-sections, characterized in that cargo tank is provided with a shaft with hoisting mechanism leftover� type for alternately lowering and lifting n containers, the ribs which contain heating elements, regular light housing in the bow is made of icebreaking form with the possibility of destruction of ice on the top and bottom.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises mechanical destruction of seafloor layer by an stripping knife moving along the seafloor, and transportation of destruction products to the surface. The products of destruction are placed in elastic, gas-tight shells, which are collected along the surface and transported them to the place of use in the transportation vessel refrigerators. The combine is a moving platform with a knife for seafloor cleaning with the mounted video camera and the stripping knife under the hole in the platform designed as a horizontally rotating cylinder with the scrapers mounted on it. The platform has two mounted cylinders, the first is a container with shells located horizontally one above another one, and the second one, mounted above the hole, is a loading container in the top side of which the segments with drive mechanisms shifting them from the cylinder axis are located.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of ocean production of gas hydrates.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a clamshell ladle fitted with levers with bosses and flexible links, a sensor, a flexible cavity, a float. The device is also fitted with the vessel designed as a bent cylinder with the tapered extended cylindrical part which is inclined to the opposite side from the self-contained unit and through the frame is interconnected with it. The vessel is fixed on a cable with a possibility of vertical movement. The extended cylindrical part of the vessel is fitted with a sensor interacting with a sensor located in the container under a flexible cavity which is filled with liquid with a specific gravity, less than that of environment. The unloading hole of the extended cylindrical part of the vessel is fitted with the throwing-back tray. The distance from the clamshell ladle centreline to the tray in the thrown-back situation and distance from the lower edge of the clamshell ladle to the tray in the thrown-back situation are determined by the mathematical relations given in the description.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of underwater development of minerals.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a delivery pipe for supply of minerals designed from top to bottom with a bell and a pipeline for coolant supply. The delivery pipe is designed as variable section pipe with formation of alternating cylindrical compartments with inlets and outlets, and the top parts of some compartments are arranged with inclination as cross-lying with reference to other compartments, and the lower parts of compartments are designed conical, interconnected with coolant supply pipelines. Outlets of compartments are located from inlet holes at the distance necessary for passing and maintaining of soil and ice bodies in a suspension provided that: L≥3·dmax, where L - is the distance between inlets and outlets of compartments, dmax - maximum diameter of soil and ice bodies.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of production of minerals from continental shelf.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a conveying capacity in the form of a grab bucket provided with levers with thrusts and flexible links, a start sensor located in a container and a flexible cavity. The latter is filled with liquid with a capsule located in it and containing reagents. A capsule throw valve is located at the top of the flexible cavity. Radio beacons are fixed inside the container, on its side walls, and coupling rings are located on the outside. Sodium chloride (3%) and sodium hypochloride (0.3%) are used as reagents.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of operations.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes a grab bucket with armoured jaws and flexible links by means of which the bucket is connected to a gas generator and to a flexible cavity start-up sensor, which are located in a container, and a float. The grab bucket is made from elastic material, and a flexible cavity is equipped with a cable located inside the cavity in the centre, the lower end of which is attached to a partition wall additionally installed between a gas generator and the flexible cavity, and the upper end of the cable is attached to the float. As the elastic material of the grab bucket there used is for example thermopolyutherane. The upper edge of the grab bucket is perforated. Armoured jaws of the grab bucket are provided with holes uniformly distributed throughout the surface area. A full air discharge valve is located at the top of the flexible cavity. The float is made in the form of a radio beacon.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of operations.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: system contains at least one modular shaft with the central unit placed under water and an uprise buried to the ocean bottom and at least one air-lock chamber to transport duty shifts of workers, materials and equipment. Besides the system comprises at least one drilling area with a horizontal tunnel branched from the uprise in the central unit, and an inclined area for delivery of drill pipes and a vertical area in which bottom part there is a wellhead of at least one well. A power cable and control systems as well as pipeline in the protective shell for oil and gas transportation are connected to the modular shaft.
EFFECT: increasing development efficiency of subsea oil and gas deposits.
9 cl, 56 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises mineral feed pipe aligned inside hollow pipe with funnel at its bottom, and coolant feed pipeline. Additionally, this device comprises coolant feed pipelines distributed uniformly over hollow pipe perimeter, in funnel walls and in extra struts of said funnel. Hollow pipe is located at the level of funnel strut. Funnel strut inner walls are perforated. At the level of funnel, hollow pipe has vertical cut-outs furnished with plugs from top and bottom. Funnel strut top parts are also equipped with plugs.
EFFECT: continuous mining, lower power consumption and extraction costs, minimised negative effects on contamination of environments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for development of methane hydrates is based on their breaking by water jets at a temperature of more than 285K with the rate more than 1 m/s in a pulse mode with a frequency in the range from 1 up to 200 Hz, gasification and lifting from the seabed. A device for development of methane hydrates contains a floating device, handling equipment, a power generating unit, pipelines, a control unit and an underwater methane hydrate development unit in which body there is an installed infrared heater, a water-jet monitor with pressurised water feed equipment and a gas bleeder.
EFFECT: improvement of energy efficiency for underwater development of methane hydrates and their lifting to the floating device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises an underwater vessel with atmospheric pressure of air, a trolley, a pulp line with a cone-shaped mixer and a jacket, a bracket with a trolley and a jacket, a vertically arranged working organ with a hydraulic motor, its shaft and tillers. On the shaft of the hydraulic motor there is a conical body, tillers are made in the form of cutters and fixed on the conical body. On the side surface of the conical body there are through holes with transverse size of not less than concretion size. The conical body with cutters is installed below the horizontal input section of the mixer. The bracket is connected with the trolley by means of a rotary hydraulic cylinder with the vertical axis of rotation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a soil intake device due to achievement of continuity of the process for production of minerals at the specified area of the water reservoir bottom.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method and plant for sapropel production from the bottom of water reservoirs includes its mining with the help of spiral knives on a cone head of auger transport, its lifting to the reducer with two randomly round-directed output shafts, where jackets of two augers are connected with the help of a corrugated reinforced hose, transportation by another auger into floating containers for filling, towing of containers in a bunch by a boat to piers, their lifting along the trestle on a special trolley upwards, and their emptying by tilting onto a vibration sieve for removal of foreign objects (bottles, stones, plants, etc.), collection of sapropel in a hopper - accumulator for transportation to consumers.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of production of organic sapropel and cleaning of water reservoir.
4 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: under method the first device is installed in the horizontal well. Firth fluid is injected in the first horizontal well via the first device. HCs production is ensured from the second horizontal well under the first well. Second fluid is injected to the third well shifted to side from the first and second wells to displace fluids in the reservoir to the second well. At that HC production from the second well is continued. Hydraulic connection is ensured between the first, the second and the third wells. Pressure in the first well is increased using the second fluid injected to the third well. First well is closed when its pressure is increased by the second fluid to pressure sufficient to displace HCs from the second well during HCs production.
EFFECT: increased method efficiency.
29 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: during execution of the thermoshaft method of high viscous oil production including vapour injection in the oil reservoir, and oil extraction via the production wells, according to the invention the lower layer of the oil reservoir is developed by several horizontal wells drilled from the drilling level of the oil reservoir, steam injection in the lower layer of the reservoirs via the underground system of steam supply, at that the horizontal wells are developed under steam cycle mode, and the underground steam supply system of the further horizontal wells are connected after development of the previous and switching of part of the horizontal wells to the production mode.
EFFECT: creation of the method of high viscous oil production ensuring increased extraction coefficient of the crude oil due to uniform heating of the oil reservoir through height at minimum heat losses per oil production.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves installation of oil-well tubing string with well sucker-rod pump in a well. Additionally, the string features a liner with filter, heating cable along external surface from wellhead to the well sucker-rod pump, capillary well pipeline from wellhead to a depth below the well sucker-rod pump, entering inner space of the liner. Well operation involves simultaneous product extraction through oil-well tubing string by the well sucker-rod pump. Electric current runs over the heating cable. Mix of Intat asphaltene, resin and paraffin sediment solvent and Rekod demulsifier is injected via capillary well pipeline. Demulsifier to solvent ratio is (1:18)-(1:22). Cable with maximum heating temperature up to 105°C and maximum power up to 60 kWh is used as the heating cable.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of viscous oil emulsion production.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of high-viscosity oil well development and operation involves landing of tubing string with well pump with power cable to the well, and landing of capillary tube parallel to the power cable and attached to external surface of the tubing string by clamps. Oil or oil-containing reservoir fluid is produced. Chemical reagent is injected to the well from a tank by a metering pump through the capillary tube. Power cable is inserted to the well through cable gland. Power cable and capillary tube are protected against direct contact with internal well surface by protectors. Electric heater with extension unit, well pump with power cable and sleeve with radial hole to which the capillary tube is connected are inserted into the tubing upwards from the bottom at the wellhead. Electric heater extension unit is connected to the power cable of well pump. The tubing is landed to the well so that its shoe is located at least 2 m lower than bottom of high-viscosity oil reservoir, and electric heater is facing perforation interval of the high-viscosity oil reservoir. At the wellhead, power cable is connected to well pump and electric heater control stations and inserted to the well through cable gland. Capillary tube is inserted to the well through sealed side tap of the well X-mas tree. Electric heater is actuated, and a process break is made for 8 hours to heat bottomhole zone of reservoir in the perforation interval and high-viscosity oil heating at the inlet of well pump. After the process break, well pump is launched simultaneously with the metering pump supplying high-viscosity oil flux via the capillary tube through the radial hole in the sleeve to inner space of the tubing above the well pump.
EFFECT: enhanced well yield, reduced load in the well pump.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of high-viscosity oil or bitumen field development involves construction of two horizontal wells, one above the other, steam injection to the reservoir, reservoir heating by steam pocket formation, steam and hydrocarbon solvent injection to horizontal injector, and product sweeping from horizontal producer. Associated gas is used as hydrocarbon solvent. Steam and associated gas are injected in sequence in cycles. Steam is injected to the reservoir until extracted product viscosity is 3-5 times higher than initial viscosity at the cycle start, associated gas injection is started along with product extraction until extracted product temperature is reduced by 10-25%, then steam and associated gas injection cycles are repeated.
EFFECT: expanded reservoir coverage, higher level of high-viscosity oil and bitumen production along with material and power cost reduction.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of oil field development by a horizontal and vertical well system using thermal impact involves horizontal and vertical well drilling and equipment, so that vertical well bottom is located below horizontal well bottom at a design vertical distance of 3 to 7 m, formation of heating area by injection of combustible oxidising mixture (COM) and combustion initiator (CI) to ignite and warm-up the inter-well zone up to 100-200°C, depending on COM and CI type, and to establish hydrodynamic connection between wells; horizontal well is switched to liquid production by a pump, with continued supply of COM and CI to the vertical well to maintain burning and warming-up of the field to 250-350°C which is the temperature of independent burning of COM; afterwards, CI supply is stopped, and COM injection continues to maintain and promote burning along the horizontal wellbore. During construction, horizontal well is equipped with a filter with several zones along the horizontal section length. Before pump landing in the horizontal well, a liner with thermocouples installed inside it for temperature monitoring inside the well opposite to filter zones, that allows for serial opening of only one zone during turning and for shutting filter zones from bottomhole to wellhead. Zone adjoining the bottomhole is opened initially. After combustion initiation, if temperature in this zone falls down from the maximum achievable by combustion in the field conditions to 85-95°C, product pumping is stopped, the liner is turned from wellhead to a definite angle ensuring bottomhole zone shutoff and opening of the next zone used for further product extraction by pumping. After temperature in this zone changes from the maximum achievable by combustion in the field conditions to 85-95°C, this zone is closed by a turn of the liner opening the next zone from the bottomhole, and similarly zones are opened and shut in sequence till the last filter zone from the bottomhole.
EFFECT: optimised operation of horizontal well, reduced power cost of its operation, expanded effective coverage of horizontal producer effect, reduced content of gas in the product extracted, enhanced depletion of oil field stock.
1 ex, 3 tbl, 8 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: as per the method, an oxidiser and fuel is supplied to a gas generator. Fuel is burnt in the gas generator so that there obtained is a flow of hot gases containing carbon dioxide and acting on gas hydrate so that displaced gas is obtained. Displaced gas is collected on the surface. Gas hydrate is dispersed. In order to obtain the flow of hot gases containing carbon dioxide, a system of gas generators is used. This system includes at least one pair of gas generators oriented anti-symmetrically relative to each other so that flows of hot gases leaving them in opposite directions and acting on the gas hydrate simultaneously bring into rotational movement a turbine with a gas hydrate dispersion device installed on the shaft common to it. There is a fan blade device. Its rotation is provided by transportation of displaced gas directed in an upward direction and non-decomposed dispersed gas hydrate. They are subject during transportation to decomposition so that an additional amount of displaced gas is formed.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of gas extraction due to reduction of power, material and financial costs for implementation of a technological process and minimisation of commercial product losses.
12 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: according to the method capital mining operations are carried out on penetration and developing access channels to a productive formation of a deposit. Underground mining and development operations and field operations on the well production of shale oil and gas are performed using multistaged hydraulic fracturing or thermal effect on the formation. A shale oil- and gas-containing deposit is penetrated by vertical shafts. Preparation of the productive formation for hydrocarbon production is carried out by the underground mining and development openings placed below a water-bearing horizon covering the rock above the shale rock of the deposit. Hydrocarbon production is carried out by mining blocks of underground producing wells with horizontal sections protruded in the formation. The producing wells are drilled from underground cells constructed mainly in the mining and development openings. Before complete hydraulic fracturing of the formation small diagnostic hydraulic fracturing of the formation is made in the producing wells of a small diameter, which are drilled mainly from the mining and development openings to the whole thickness of the productive formation transversely to its course. The product of the producing wells is divided in the shaft bottom into shale gas and shale oil. The shale oil is outputted to the surface for further treatment before delivery to consumers. The shale gas is burnt in the boiler of a shaft bottom heat-generating plant to generate water steam or hot water used for the production of electricity or for the purpose of a thermal effect on the productive formation in order to increase intensity and the production rate.
EFFECT: reduced total volume of operations on drilling producing wells while developing shale deposits.
2 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages the usage of aqueous solutions of binary mixtures - inorganic or organic nitrate or hydrate of alkali metals, which are injected through individual channels. The method includes the mounting of equipment in wells at the selected area of a deposit. Each well is equipped with devices to control the temperature, pressure and composition of reaction products in a real time mode. Formation areas in vicinity to the well with a volume of at least 20 m3 are heated preliminarily up to a temperature of at least 100°C by injection of at least 2 t of binary mixture reagents. Cyclic heating of the formation area in vicinity to the well with a volume of at least 100 m3 and weight of 250 t is made up to a temperature of at least 140°C due to a reaction of at least 12 t of the binary mixture reagents. At that the first level of explosion safety is ensured by the alternation of injection of saltpetre solution portions, 1 t each, with portions of industrial water of at least 0.05 t each. The second level of explosive safety in the borehole is ensured by the continuous control and monitoring of the reaction process with the temperature limitation in the well bore below the pre-blasting temperature. This temperature is determined against signs of the reaction self-acceleration at recorded charts of time-temperature and time-pressure curves. In case of these signs the injection of a saltpetre decomposition initiator is stopped to the well. Further injection of the saltpetre solution with the weight of at least 10 t is made to the preheated formation. At that the third level of explosive safety is implemented in the reaction process in the formation, which is catalysed by the heat accumulated during the previous cycles. The third level of explosive safety is ensured by a ratio of the weight of the saltpetre injected to the pores and fractures of the formation to the weight of the rock. The ratio is equal mainly to 1 to 20. Low explosive probability, close to zero, is ensured by a mixture of 95 wt % of rock and 5 wt % of saltpetre. The injection of reagents at all cycles is made at continuous temperature control in the reaction zone and pressure and temperature control in the zone near the packer and in the process of the reagents injection for the purpose of timely cessation of the reaction when the parameters of the reaction exceed limits of permitted modes.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of oil production at worked-out deposits with an increased production safety.
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil production, particularly, to from underground oil deposits. In compliance with this invention, at least one production well and one injection well can be used. Temperature distribution in the zone between said wells is analysed. In case temperature is distributed between said zones so that minimum temperature makes at least 20°C, maximum temperature does not exceed 320°C, while their difference makes at least 20°C, aqueous gel-forming preparations are injected via injection well that contain one or several chemical components. These preparations after injection in the deposit form gels under the effects of deposit temperature. Said preparations differ in type and/or concentration of chemical components. Chemical components and/or their concentration are selected to make gel-forming temperature and/or geol-forming time of the second and, if required, any other injected portion, differ from portions injected there before.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of oil extraction due to levelling of injectivity.
19 cl, 4 tbl, 7 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to HC underwater production, in particular to systems connecting the field facility and underwater wells. Oil and/or gas underwater production system contains central production facility, many underwater wells, fluid transportation network and separate power supply and data exchange network. The transportation network connects each well with the central production facility. The power supply and data exchange network is intended for DC and data supply, it is in-line connected with each underwater well.
EFFECT: invention ensures power supply to long distances, increases system flexibility.
16 cl, 5 dwg