Method for obtaining heat and electrical energy and device for its implementation

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining heat and electrical energy includes focusing of the sun rays by concentrator on the fixed heat-absorbing surface, and further focus movement over it in accordance with sun movement, the heating medium heating through the heat-absorbing surface, and transformation of the obtained heat energy in the electric energy. The concave mirror is used as concentrator, the mirror is moved by sun tracking, at that the heat-absorbing surface is arranged at crossing of the vertical and horizontal axes, around which the concentrator is rotated during tracking. For the concentrator rotation relatively the vertical axis the first motor is started, as result the worn screw 5 starts rotation and turning of the tooth-wheel 2 together with platform 1. When the concentrator achieves the required position (azimuth), the first motor shutdowns. For the concentrator rotation around the horizontal axis the second motor is started, resulting in rotation of the shaft 14 with worn screw 13, that by means of the tooth-wheel 12 and connected with its worn screw 10 the gear sector 9 with axle 6 and wheel 7 rotates. At that by means of the chain-drive 8 the driven wheel 15 with horizontal axles 17 and concentrator is rotated to the required position, then it is locked by the motor shutdown. At that on the bottom part of the heat-absorbing surface of the sphere 19 a light spot of the concentrated sun rays is created, the spot moves over this surface during the sun tracking during day time.

EFFECT: increased stability of the energy sources parameters, increased efficiency, improved operation characteristics.

10 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to power engineering and can be used to generate electricity, hot water and steam.

The prototype is a method of producing thermal and electric energy, including the focusing of the solar rays concentrator is stationary teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface and subsequent movement focus on it in accordance with the movement of the sun, heat through teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface of the fluid and converting the received thermal energy into electrical energy [us Pat. RF 2254522, IPC F24J 2/42, 2005].

The disadvantages of the prototype are:

- a small heating temperature of heat reception surface, due to, firstly, the dispersion of the rays in the hub, and secondly, a lack of transparency hub;

- the possibility of obtaining only a relatively low temperature of the coolant, due to the heating at the top (not the bottom), heat reception surface, resulting in missing the convection current of the coolant, resulting in lack of heating of the lower layers;

- the difficulty of obtaining stable properties of water and steam during the day.

The object of the invention is to eliminate these disadvantages, namely improving the stability of the parameters of energy resources, developing them with a higher efficiency, but also improve�Linux operating characteristics.

The task is solved in that in the method of producing thermal and electrical energy, including the focusing of the solar rays concentrator is stationary teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface and subsequent movement focus on it in accordance with the movement of the sun, heat through teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface of the fluid and converting the received thermal energy into electrical energy, as a hub use a concave mirror that is moved by tracking the sun, teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface is placed on the intersection of the vertical and horizontal axes, around which rotate the hub when tracking.

The rotation of the hub when tracking is carried out engines, which are installed outside the elements, moving along with the hub. After passing through the heat reception surface, the coolant serves on the heat transfer surface, which is used as the surface of the boiler tubes, which stoked fossil fuels. Heat exchange surface perform convex spherical relative to the incident solar rays.

The device for implementing the method of obtaining thermal and electric energy, comprising a sunlight concentrator and fixed the heat exchanger is further provided with a platform and El�electric motors connected by at least two kinematic connections with the hub and mounted with the ability to move it around the horizontal and vertical geometrical axis, wherein one part of the first kinematic connection is made in the form of two worms with mutually perpendicular intersecting axes and worm wheel, which is rigidly fixed on the axis of a worm placed on the platform and cooperating with a toothed sector which is the second part of the first kinematic connection is connected with a horizontal axis of rotation of the hub, and is associated with another worm, the axis of which is aligned with a vertical axis of rotation of the platform and hub, made in the form of a concave mirror.

The second part of the first kinematic connection is made in the form of a chain drive. The second kinematic connection is made in the form of a worm gear. One worm is executed globoid. The worm gear is made self-locking. Worm magnetized in the radial direction.

These distinctive features allow to achieve the following advantages in comparison with the prototype.

Use as a hub concave mirror, which is moved by tracking the sun, teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface is placed on the intersection of the vertical and horizontal EfE�, around which rotate the hub when tracking contributes to higher heating temperature, since the path of the sun's rays are missing any items. In this heated surface creates an upward air flow carries away the dust that protects the mirror surface from contamination. This increases the efficiency of the use of solar energy and improves performance.

The implementation of rotation of the hub when looking engines, which are installed outside the elements, moving along with the hub, reduces the moment of inertia of the rotating mechanism, the weight and reduces energy consumption.

The supply of coolant after heat reception surface on the heat transfer surface, which is used as the surface of the boiler tubes, which stoked fossil fuel, allows to obtain, first, couples with high parameters (pressure and temperature) before it is fed to the steam turbine, which increases the efficiency. Second, it gives the opportunity to keep stable parameters of energy at any time of the day due to changes in the quantity combusted in the fossil fuel boiler. This increases performance.

Performing heat exchange surface of the convex spherical relative to the incident solar rays providing�em perpendicular thereto heat reception surface and simplifies the exposure focal length when you turn the hub in the process of tracking, that increases the efficiency of the use of solar energy and improves performance.

An extra supply of the device for producing heat and electric energy platform and electric motors connected by at least two kinematic connections with the hub and mounted with the ability to move it around the horizontal and vertical geometric axis for attaching the hub to the desired position in the tracking process, which increases the efficiency of using solar energy.

The fulfilment of one part of the first kinematic connection in the form of two worms with mutually perpendicular intersecting axes and worm wheel, which is rigidly fixed on the axis of a worm placed on the platform and cooperating with a toothed sector which is the second part of the first kinematic connection is connected with a horizontal axis of rotation of the hub, and is associated with another worm, the axis of which is aligned with a vertical axis of rotation of the platform and hub, made in the form of a concave mirror, and move the motor that controls the rotation of the hub around the axis, outside of the platform. This reduces overall weight and dimensions characteristics of rotating parts, as well as their moment of inertia, during frequent starts and stops reduce�t power, makes it possible to use a less powerful motor, thereby improving performance.

The other part of the first kinematic connection in the form of a chain drive reduces overall weight and dimensions characteristics of the device, which reduces power consumption and improves performance.

The implementation of the second kinematic connection in the form of a worm gear reduces overall weight and dimensions characteristics of the device.

Execution of the globoid worm reduces overall weight and dimensions characteristics of the mechanism, and execution of the worm gear self-locking can automatically lock the hub in position after disconnection of the electric motor, which simplifies the design and improves the performance of the drive.

The magnetization of the worm in the radial direction can be used in the form of an angle sensor hub, placing this next to a worm, such as a reed switch or a Hall sensor. This simplifies the design, increases reliability and improves the performance of the drive.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the device for producing heat and electricity. Fig. 2 shows a view A of the device. Fig. 3 shows a diagram of the boiler, heated fossil� fuel.

A device for producing thermal and electrical energy comprises a platform 1 mounted on the worm gear wheel 2 that is installed rotatably on the sleeve 3 is fixedly mounted on the base 4, and paired with the worm 5, connected to the first electric motor (not shown) and rotating in the bearings of the base. The platform is rotatably mounted axle 6 on which is mounted the drive wheel 7 (sprocket) chain drive gear 8 and the sector 9 associated with teeth globoid worm 10, which is mounted in the groove 11 of the platform 1 with the possibility of axial rotation and is rigidly fixed on the axis of the worm wheel 12, combined with the worm 13, the shaft 14 which is mounted in the sleeve 3 rotatably and connected to the second motor (not shown) is fixed on the base 4. Driven wheel chain transmission 15 and the hub 16 of sunlight, installed fixedly attached to the platform with the possibility of horizontal rotation axis 17 on which may be placed a torsion bar 18 to compensate for the unbalance that is created offset from the horizontal axis of the center of gravity of the hub. At the intersection of the horizontal and vertical axes of rotation of the hub is fixedly placed teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface in the form of a hollow sphere,�s 19 (boiler), having the pipes 20, 21 respectively for supplying cold and hot water outlet (pair), with the tube 20 may be passed through gap worm 13 and secured in some way, for example on the underside of the base 4. In this case, the hub must have a slot 22 of a width greater than the diameter of the pipe, for the passage of the latter in the process. Note that the pipe can be fixed in other ways. The pipe 21 may be connected to the boiler 23, having placed in water 24 flue pipe 25, a steam space 26 through which the steam superheater 27 and 28 in communication with the steam turbine 29, which is kinematically connected with the generator 30 generates electricity for the consumer. In the combustion chamber 31 of the boiler is placed the burner 32 for combustion, such as gas fuel, the 33 products of combustion through which the flue pipe of the boiler and the flue pipe goes into the atmosphere.

The device operates to produce thermal and electrical energy as follows.

To rotate the hub 16 about a vertical axis includes a first motor, whereby the worm 5 starts to rotate in the bearings of the base and rotate the hub 3, the gear 2 with the platform 1 (Fig. 1-2). Thus there is also a rotation in the horizontal plane of the axis 6 and globoid worm 10 and worm wheel 12, which your the teeth budesonide on the helical surface of the worm 13. As the angle of the platform 1 in the process of the next correction of the position of the sun is small, and the gear ratio of the worm 13 to sector 9, on the contrary, is large, the wheel 12 will almost stand still when you swing, the more will not rotate sector 9 with a horizontal axis 6 and the wheels 7, 15, and hence the hub 16 along the axis 17. When the hub to the desired position (azimuth) first off the motor, thus a self-locking worm gear fix.

To rotate the hub 16 about the horizontal axis includes a second electric motor, thereby starting to rotate the shaft 14 with the worm 13, which by means of a gear wheel 12 and its associated worm 10 rotates the gear sector 9 with the axis 6 and the wheel 7. Thus due to the chain gear 8 rotates the driven wheel 15 with a horizontal axis 17 and the hub 16 to the desired position, and then produce it fixed by turning off the engine. On the lower part of the heat reception surface of the sphere 19 is formed by heating the coolant light spot of concentrated sunlight, moving along this surface in the process of tracking the sun during the daylight hours, during which the correction hub� can be performed according to a preset program. Note that, since both the electric motor is placed on the base 4, the mechanism for tracking the sun turns out to be extremely lightweight, which allows the use of low-power electric motors to move the hub, whose position can easily "remember" the number of revolutions of the worm.

As a result of the impact of solar energy in the field of water 19 will constantly heat up and act (for example by a pump) through the pipe 21 into the boiler 23, where required, will be heated to a greater temperature in contact with a heat transfer surface of flues 25, 33 heated by the products of combustion of the gaseous fuel combusted burners 32 (Fig. 3). Note that for heating large quantities of water using solar energy is needed in the boiler 23 to dispense hot water from several areas 19, heating Autonomous, free-standing hub, which is part of the described device. From the vapor space 26 through the steam superheater 27 and 28 high parameters steam goes to the turbine 29, the torque generator 30, which produces electricity. Exhaust after the turbine steam can be used to heat cold water directly or for industrial purposes.

In cloudy weather increase the amount burned in the furnace gas by the amount of vapor�to give effect to the allocation in the boiler thermal energy, which is equal to the heat transmitted to the water sector 19. Thus the generated power to the consumer remains the same. Note that it is possible to rotate the hub 16 to occupation, the highest possible upper position in which the mirror will be protected from the elements.

Implementation of the invention will allow to create simple in design, reliable and easy to use device for obtaining thermal and electric energy, which can be operated separately or in conjunction with a boiler heated by fossil fuels.

1. A method of producing thermal and electrical energy, including the focusing of the solar rays concentrator is stationary teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface and subsequent movement focus on it in accordance with the movement of the sun, heat through teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface of the fluid and converting the received thermal energy into electrical energy, characterized in that the hub uses a concave mirror, which is moved by tracking the sun, teplovosprinimayuschuyu surface is placed on the intersection of the vertical and horizontal axes, around which rotate the hub when tracking.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotation of the hub when tracking is carried out� engines that set out the elements, moving along with the hub.

3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that after passing through the heat reception surface, the coolant serves on the heat transfer surface, which is used as the surface of the boiler tubes, which stoked fossil fuels.

4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that teplovosprinimayuschuyu perform surface convex spherical relative to the incident solar rays.

5. The device for implementing the method of obtaining thermal and electric energy, comprising a sunlight concentrator and fixed the heat exchanger, characterized in that it further provided with a platform and an electric motor connected by at least two kinematic connections with the hub and mounted with the ability to move it around the horizontal and vertical geometrical axis, wherein one part of the first kinematic connection is made in the form of two worms with mutually perpendicular intersecting axes and worm wheel, which is rigidly fixed on the axis of a worm placed on the platform and cooperating with a toothed sector, the second part of the first kinematic connection is connected with a horizontal axis of rotation of the hub, and is associated with other black�the Yak, axis aligned with a vertical axis of rotation of the platform and hub, made in the form of a concave mirror.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the second part of the first kinematic connection is made in the form of a chain drive.

7. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the second kinematic connection is made in the form of a worm gear.

8. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that one worm is executed globoid.

9. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the worm gear is made self-locking.

10. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the worm magnetized in the radial direction.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: all-season vertical hybrid power unit contains vertical shaft installed with possibility of rotation, it is in form of cylindrical pipe enclosing the fixed hollow axis. The fixed hollow axis is secured on base. On the vertical shaft coaxially between two protective domes the Savonius rotor and Darreus rotor are installed. The protective domes are covered with anti-icing layer. Savonius rotor is installed inside the Darreus rotor. The Darreus rotor blades are made in form of twisted straps coated with anti-icing layer. On the entire surface of the Savonius rotor blades made in form of the twisted plates from both sides photoelectric converters are installed. The photoelectric converter outputs are connected with power input of the control device. Shaft rotation speed transmitter is installed on the vertical shaft. Output of the shaft rotation speed transmitter is connected with signal input of the control device. The first power output of the control device is connected via the first key with input of the brushless DC motor. The second power output of the control device is connected via the second key with input of the induction energy transmitter. Output of the induction energy transmitter is connected via the charge controller with the first input of electric power accumulator. The second output of the induction energy transmitter is connected via the charge controller with output of the electromagnetic generator. The electromagnetic generator is secured in bottom part of the vertical shaft.

EFFECT: increased generated electric energy due to use of wind and solar energy all year round under variable weather conditions.

13 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: clip connection (1) for fixing on guiding beams (8) of plate-like structural elements (13), in particular solar modules, consists of the support (2) having (1) a stop beam oriented in the longitudinal direction of the clip connection (4) with lateral wing-shaped bars (5, 6) with adjoining surfaces (10, 11) for structural elements (13), and also a toe provided on the lower side (7) for fastening of the support (2) on the beam (8) and also - of the clipping cover (3) with the longitudinal groove (9) covering the top part of the stop beam (4) and with clipping surfaces (13, 14) covering the support (2) adjoining surfaces (10, 11), and with the holding connection (25, 28, 29) for fixing of the clipping cover (3) on the support (2), and the beam (8) has the guiding grooves with the edges (34) protruding inside a groove, and the toe (7) designed as T-shaped one by its cross-piece (36) is inserted into the guiding groove and after 90 turn it is engaged behind protruding edges (34). The support (2) has the pass (24) along the centre of which the spring washer (31) is located which with the power closing takes the pressed, connected with the clipping cover (3) the holding pin (30) and thus fixes a clipping cover (3) on the support (2).

EFFECT: increase of durability.

26 cl, 8 dwg

Solar power plant // 2548244

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solar power engineering, namely to designs of solar power plants with a Sun tracking photoelectric sensor and systems of azimuthal and zenithal turns of the plane of the solar power plant. The power plant includes a solar energy receiving plane, a control system of drives of azimuthal and zenithal turns of the plane and its turn from west to east, shafts of drives and a Sun tracking system. The tracking system includes two photovoltaic modules fixed on an external platform that is installed parallel to the plane of the power plant, which receives solar energy. The first photovoltaic module represents a sensor of the Sun position as to azimuth, in the design of which there arranged are two Sun tracking photocells and a command photocell of the turn of the plane of the solar power plant, which receives solar energy, from west to east. The second photovoltaic module represents a sensor of the Sun position as to zenith, which includes two Sun tracking photocells. The design of each photovoltaic module includes a mounting platform, on the upper side of which two photocells are arranged, which are separated with a partition wall serving in its turn as a divider of illumination directions of the latter and a support for attachment of a mirror cylinder. The command photocell of the turn of the power plant plane from west to east is located on the lower side of the mounting platform of the photovoltaic module tracking the Sun position as to azimuth.

EFFECT: use of this invention provides for high tracking accuracy as to azimuth and zenith of the Sun position and improved operating reliability of a power plant.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: this module has protective glass coating and interconnected solar elements arranged between said glass and case with heat exchanger. Solar elements are electrically isolated from heat exchanger. Space between solar elements and heat exchanger and that between glass coating and heat exchanger are filled with the 0.5-5mm-deep ply of siloxane gel. Said protective glass coating is composed of evacuated glass stack of two glasses with vacuum gap of 0.1-0.2 mm with vacuum of 10-3-10-5 mm Hg. Heat exchanger is composed by sealed chamber with heat carrier circulation pipes. Total area of solar elements approximates to the area of heat exchanger case top base. Hybrid photoelectric module solar elements chains can be electrically connected in parallel by switching buses.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of solar energy conversion.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: mobile stand-alone solar power plant (MSAAPP) is intended to supply with electric energy battle positions and command posts of rocket artillery units, frontier pickets, check points and other remote field facilities of different purpose. MSAAPP is related to the sphere of renewable energy sources and, in particular, it is intended to generate electric energy from impact of solar radiation to photoelectronic modules (FEM). MSAAPP comprises the following: a two-wheeled trailer whereat a lightguide pipe square in cross section is placed; quadrihedral optically active dome; curved reflector of solar radiation beams; a rotating cylinder at which generatrix FEMs and a semicylindrical complex convex lens are placed; the cylinder shaft; bearings of the cylinder shaft; a micromotor; a fan; a temperature sensor; rechargeable battery pack (RBP); charge and discharge controller (CDC); inverter. Positive effect is reached due to collection of solar radiation beams by quadrihedral optically active dome notwithstanding solstice angle; additional concentration of beams by the curved reflector to surface of the quadrihedral optically active dome; transportation of solar radiation beams from the quadrihedral optically active dome through square lightguide pipe to semicylindrical complex convex lens; rotation of the cylinder at which generatrix there are FEMs receiving periodical concentration of solar radiation beams from the semicylindrical complex convex lens.

EFFECT: sustainable production of electric energy from solar radiation without use of sun tracking devices, improved reliability and efficiency of electric energy generation.

13 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: solar heat photoelectric module with the compound parabolic concentrator consisting of the paraboloidal concentrator "Focon" and the heat photoelectric receiver located in a focal plane with uniform distribution of the concentrated radiation, differing in that the solar heat photoelectric module contains the compound parabolic concentrator and the cylindrical heat photoelectric receiver with the cooling device installed in the focal plane area, the concentrator representing a rotation body with smooth internal reflection surface, consisting of several zones (a-b, b-c, c-d) is designed compound using the principle of collecting of the reflected beams in two focal plane areas from separate zones of the concentrator: - the form of the reflecting surface of the zones a-b, b-c of the concentrator X (Y) is determined by the system of equations corresponding to the condition of uniform illumination of a surface of photo-electric part of the heat photoelectric receiver designed in the cylinder shape from the commutated high-voltage FEP with the length ho and the radius ro, Yn=Rn2/4fo, Xn=Rn-(k-1)ro, Rn=2fo(tgαn+cosαn), Δα=αo/N, αn=Δα(n-N/2), X*=2f1Q[(1+1/Q2)l/2-1], Q=B/ro, B=ho+h, Y*=X*2/4f1, Y*n=ΔY*n, Xn=[4f1(Y*+Y*n)]1/2, ΔY=P[1±(1-4R/P2)1/2]/2, P=L+Yb, L=fo+h+ho/2, where αn is an angle (in the zone of the working profile of the concentrator a-c) between the ordinate level in the point of coordinates Xn, Yn and the beam reflected from the parabola surface with the focal length fo arriving to focal plane area with the width ho located on the radius r0 of the cylindrical photo-electric receiver in Δα=αo/N intervals where n is selected from a series of integers n=1, 2, 3…N, values of the parameters fo, f1, k are selected according to boundary conditions, and geometrical concentration of illumination of the photo-electric receiver Kn is equal in intervals of the concentrator radius ΔXn=Xn-Xn-1: Kn=(Rn+12-Rn2)n/do, - shape of the reflecting surface of the zone c-d of the concentrator X (Y) is determined by the system of equations corresponding to the condition of uniform illumination of the surface of thermal part of the heat photoelectric receiver designed in the form of the truncated cone with a lateral surface with the length d*, upper radius rob and the lower radius rb: Xc=2Yc(1/codβb-tgβb), tgβb=(Yc-Hb)(Rc-rob), fb=Yc-Xctgβb, rb=Xc-Rc, d*=h*/sinφo, d*n=d*n/N, Kn=(R2n+1-R2n)/(r*n+1+r*n)Δd*, Xbn=2fb(tgγbn+1/cosγbn), tgφo=h*/(ro-r*bo), where βb - an angle (in the zone of the working profile of the concentrator c-d) between the ordinate level in the point of coordinates of Xc, Yc, and the beam reflected from parabola surface with the focal length fb arriving to focal plane area of the truncated cone with the radius rb of the photo-electric receiver, γn - an angle (in the zone of the working profile of the concentrator c-d) between the ordinate level in the point of coordinates Xn, Yn and the beam reflected from the parabola surface with the focal length fb arriving to the focal plane area of the truncated cone with the width d* of the photo-electric receiver in the intervals Δd*=d*/N, where n is selected from a series of integers n=1, 2, 3…N. The values of the parameters fb, k are selected according to boundary conditions, φo is an angle of inclination of the lateral surface of the truncated cone of the photo-electric receiver, and the geometrical concentration of illumination of the photo-electric Kn receiver is equal in intervals of the concentrator radius ΔXn=Xn-Xn-1: Kn=(R=2n+1-R2n)/(r*n+1+r*n)Δd*.

EFFECT: improvement of efficiency, and decrease of cost of the generated energy.

5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electrical power unit is photovoltaic array (16); fail-safe power supply is provided with storage battery (21) and wind power generating installation (17), charging of battery (21) from them is performed through switch (20); heat sources are represented with a unit of solar collectors (10) and wind power generating installation (17) connected to electric heater (19) in heat accumulator (3); air flow heated in collector (10) transfers heat through circuit (12) to a room and/or to heat exchanger (13) in accumulator (3) with water; heat supply to heating apparatus of the room is controlled with valves (34) and (35), pump (25) and heating pump (1), which maintains temperature at the outlet of its capacitor, and heat carrier flow is controlled with pump (25) and globe valves (34) and (35); control of heat supply to consumers is performed with temperature sensors. All sensors of thermal and electrical loads, actuating mechanisms in thermal circuits of the system and their disconnecting fittings are connected to automatic control system (41) that processes signals, determines a behaviour algorithm of all elements and generates control signals.

EFFECT: improving reliability, operating efficiency of a heat pump and a system as a whole; increasing economy.

1 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: control/monitoring equipment includes a support assembly, a support seat located on one end of the support assembly; a load-carrying platform fixed on the support seat by means of a hinge rotation assembly with a possibility of being turned in two directions, at least one solar energy generation module located on the load-carrying platform for conversion of solar energy to electrical energy. At least one drive assembly is located between the support assembly and the load-carrying platform and serves for actuation of the load-carrying platform in compliance with the specified parameters stored in a control unit. The load-carrying platform itself is installed with a possibility of being inclined in different directions and through different inclination angles relative to the hinge rotation assembly. There is also a detecting/correcting module located on the load-carrying platform for detection and reception of actual parameters including an inclination direction and an inclination angle of the load-carrying platform and for transfer of actual parameters to the control unit. The control unit compares actual parameters to the specified parameters stored in it in order to obtain a comparative result, and according to the comparative result, the control unit modifies the inclination direction and the inclination angle of the load-carrying platform by means of the drive assembly.

EFFECT: automatic tracking of solar energy in a generation system.

21 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to renewable energy sources, and namely to an electric energy generating device from a renewable energy source including an articulated joint having a bearing. The energy generating device for the generation of electric energy from renewable energy sources includes a base, an energy conversion device connected to the base and the articulated joint between the base and the energy conversion device, which includes a bearing element having a housing comprising a composite material having a stiff material and a friction reducing material covering the stiff material; with that, the stiff material includes a material chosen of a group consisting of aluminium and stainless steel, as well as an intermediate material located between the stiff material and the friction reducing material; with that, the intermediate material includes at least one functional thermoplastic polymer having functional groups with the following formulas: , , , -COOH and/or -COOR, where radicals R are cyclic or linear organic radicals having 1 to 20 atoms of carbon, and includes a copolymer of ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), perfluoroalkoxy ethylene (PFA), a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene perfluoro/methyl vinyl ester (MFA) and their combination. As per the second version, the energy generating device additionally includes an insert; as per the third version, it includes a bearing element connected to the articulated joint, has the housing including a composite material containing a stiff material and a friction reducing material covering the stiff material; with that, the bearing element has an atmospheric wear degree of not more than approximately 0.99 microns/h during at least approximately 15000 cycles of movement of the articulated joint; as per the fourth version, the friction reducing material has almost no visible defects after the salt fog resistance test is completed during at least 150 hours in compliance with the standard corrosion test ISO 9227:2006; as per the fifth version, the composite material of the bearing element has an average friction force that is not more than approximately 300 N during at least 15000 cycles of a vibration test.

EFFECT: invention shall improve reliability and durability of a bearing element.

13 cl, 2 tbl, 14 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: solar photovoltaic power plant consists of a supporting structure with suspended swings and a flexible frame for mounting a canopy over the swings with an apparatus for adjusting the angle of inclination of the frame to the horizontal. The canopy used is an arched solar panel having a shape similar to a fragment of a cylindrical surface, which consists of at least one one-sided photovoltaic module whose convex surface faces the sun. Light-emitting diodes are placed on the arched surface and said arched surface is coated with a light-reflecting material.

EFFECT: reduced material consumption of the solar photovoltaic power plant since there is no need for a separate structure for holding the solar panel and the LED lamp, broader functional capabilities of combined use of the photovoltaic modules and LED lamp.

5 cl, 5 dwg

Solar power plant // 2548244

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solar power engineering, namely to designs of solar power plants with a Sun tracking photoelectric sensor and systems of azimuthal and zenithal turns of the plane of the solar power plant. The power plant includes a solar energy receiving plane, a control system of drives of azimuthal and zenithal turns of the plane and its turn from west to east, shafts of drives and a Sun tracking system. The tracking system includes two photovoltaic modules fixed on an external platform that is installed parallel to the plane of the power plant, which receives solar energy. The first photovoltaic module represents a sensor of the Sun position as to azimuth, in the design of which there arranged are two Sun tracking photocells and a command photocell of the turn of the plane of the solar power plant, which receives solar energy, from west to east. The second photovoltaic module represents a sensor of the Sun position as to zenith, which includes two Sun tracking photocells. The design of each photovoltaic module includes a mounting platform, on the upper side of which two photocells are arranged, which are separated with a partition wall serving in its turn as a divider of illumination directions of the latter and a support for attachment of a mirror cylinder. The command photocell of the turn of the power plant plane from west to east is located on the lower side of the mounting platform of the photovoltaic module tracking the Sun position as to azimuth.

EFFECT: use of this invention provides for high tracking accuracy as to azimuth and zenith of the Sun position and improved operating reliability of a power plant.

3 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solar engineering, namely to drive devices for orientation of a solar plant and can be used for orientation of any beam energy collector irradiated with a movable source of heat radiation. In the solar plant orientation device containing a base with a supporting post, which includes a frame of the solar plant, an orientation drive, an azimuthal tracking system, according to the invention, the frame is additionally provided with front and rear controlled screens with drives, which are installed perpendicular to its plane, wind sensors, which are connected to the sensor drives through a control system.

EFFECT: invention allows saving energy of an accumulator and using free wind energy for rotation of an orientation device.

3 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solar heating plants and can be used for heat supply to residential and production areas and other facilities as well as for other domestic and process needs. The collector is equipped by a resilient panel serving as an absorber and providing for excessive pressure in the closed cavity at its deformation, as in a diaphragm pump. The panel deformation in cyclic mode is performed by heat-sensitive elements which are heated by solar radiation. Such design of the collector with a valve system provides for the circulation of heat carrier in the solar heat supply system without electrodriven superchargers even at the most common installation of the collector above the facilities to be supplied with heat. Additionally the collector-supercharger is fitted by an energy-independent device for self-guidance by the radiation source in the form of, for example, a heat-sensitive three-layer plate perceiving the solar radiation and kinematically coupled with a rotary collector base.

EFFECT: solar self-guided collector-supercharger provides for efficient conversion of solar energy in almost any conditions of its usage without the application of known electrodriven systems for heat carrier supply and position control systems of solar collectors.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device for orientation of a solar energy receiver comprises a mechanism of orientation by zenith and a mechanism of orientation by azimuth, comprising a reservoir with a working liquid, according to the solution the reservoir is made as cylindrical and is equipped with an azimuthal guide block, representing at least one helical slot, made on the inner surface of the reservoir, the mechanism of orientation by azimuth comprises a shaft with splints, arranged along the axis of symmetry of the reservoir, a float fixed on the slot as capable of movement along splints, a bellows with permanent difference of levels of inlet and outlet holes, fixed on the float, at the same time the inlet hole is submerged into a working fluid, and the outlet hole is removed outside the limits of the reservoir, on the side surface of the float there is at least one cross beam of the azimuthal guide block fixed with a roller at the end, arranged in the helical slot of the reservoir; the device additionally comprises a mechanism of orientation by zenith, comprises a stem kinematically connected with the shaft, a pusher made as capable of reciprocal movement, at the same time the ends of the stem and the pusher are connected hingedly with a receiver of solar energy.

EFFECT: increased reliability of a device due to simplified design and accuracy of orientation of a solar collector to the Sun due to usage of a bellows clock mechanism providing for smooth even rotation.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: solar collector comprises a drive 1, for instance, a clock mechanism, a gear 2, an annular circuit 3, a lever 4, a concentrator 5 with an axis of rotation 6, a base 7 and a radiation receiver 8. The gear 2, rigidly fixed on the shaft of the drive 1, may move along the outer and inner arcs of the circuit 3 in forward and return directions. This provides for rotation of the concentrator 5 via a sliding joint of the drive 1 with the lever 4, the other end of which is rigidly connected to the concentrator 5, the axis of which 6 is fixed on the base 7. Time of gear 2 movement along the quarter of the circle of the outer arc of the circuit 3 makes 12 hours. For this time the concentrator 5 rotates by 90°. It makes it possible during daytime to continuously forwarded sun rays reflected with the concentrator 5 to a fixed receiver of radiation 8. Circuit configuration is designed so that in case of forward and return travel of the gear 2 the number of rotations is identical, which provides for automatic operation of the solar collector.

EFFECT: simplified design and expanded functional capabilities due to provision of forward and return travel of a concentrator according to a single-stage circuit.

4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: photovoltaic plant Sun tracking system comprises a subsystem of azimuthal rotation (1) and a subsystem of zenithal rotation (2). The first drive via the first reducer rotates a spatial frame (10), where solar modules are installed, in azimuthal direction with the transmission ratio Iaz and simultaneously rotates the third reducer with the transmission ratio Iaz. On the driven gear of the third reducer there are two cams fixed, which interact with limit switches of the first drive. The second drive via the first reducer rotates the spatial frame (10) in zenithal direction with the transmission ratio Izen and simultaneously rotates the fourth reducer with the transmission ratio Izen. On the driven gear of the fourth reducer there are two cams fixed, which interact with limit switches of the second drive. Transmission ratios Iaz, Izen, Iaz and Izen meet certain ratios. The Sun tracking system does not require seasonal reconfiguration of limiters of limit angles of photovoltaic plant rotation, regardless of its geographic location on the planet.

EFFECT: system improvement.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for automatic sun tracking using a receiving panel behind the sun has a stand on which is mounted a vertical shaft having a revolving frame rigidly mounted on it for azimuthal movement, a receiving panel, a gearmotor, a sun orientation detector with an automatic control unit which connects the electric motor to an accumulator battery. In the middle part, the receiving panel is pivotally connected to the revolving frame with possibility of movement thereof in the vertical plane relative the revolving frame, wherein between the lower part of the receiving panel and the lower part of the stand there is a rod whose length can be varied depending on the date, the rod being mounted by hinges at its outermost points which enables corresponding change in the zenithal position of the receiving panel during azimuthal movement of the revolving frame during daylight.

EFFECT: providing maximum level of illumination of an object mounted on the receiving panel of the apparatus during the tracking process, and enabling monitoring using one electric motor, tracking is carried out automatically using a kinematic scheme whose components are meant for the presumed latitude of the place where the apparatus is used.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: solar concentrator photoelectric apparatus has concentrator photoelectric modules (2) mounted on a mechanical system, azimuthal and zenithal drives located in an electromechanical box and a system for alignment of the concentrator photoelectric modules (2) towards the sun with a solar sensor. The mechanical system is formed by a base frame (3) and at least two suspended frames (4). The base frame (3) is adapted to turn about the vertical axis on a base ring (1) through wheels (5). Two wheels (5) are provided with sections of a roller chain which are engaged with toothed gears mounted on faces of two horizontal oppositely rotating output shafts (8) of the bevel gear speed reducer of the azimuthal electric drive mounted on the base frame (3). Each suspended frame (4) with concentrator photoelectric modules (2) is mounted to a horizontal pipe which is adapted to rotate on supports mounted to the base frame (3) and is pivotally connected by levers and bars to neighbouring suspended frames (4). One of the suspended frames (4) is provided with two vertical circular sectors separated on sides, circular surfaces of said sectors being attached to sections of the roller chain which are engaged with the toothed gears mounted on the horizontal shaft of the reducer of the zenithal electric drive mounted on the base frame (3). The distance L between the horizontal pipes of neighbouring suspended frames (4) satisfies a certain relationship.

EFFECT: high unit power of the photoelectric apparatus while keeping a sufficiently simple design.

7 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: solar plant with functions of heating and electric energy generation includes at least a solar concentrator adapted to actuation of mechanisms capable of orienting themselves towards the sun within the day to get maximum amount of solar energy for heating and accumulation of fluids for various applications and for generation of electric energy with high energy efficiency. The device using solar energy to heat and generate electric energy adapted for heating of fluids for various application and generation of electric energy with high energy efficiency, includes at least a solar concentrator capable of variable orientation relative to the sun within the day, characterised by a basic bearing structure (7), installed on the earth. And an additional bearing structure (9), supported with the specified basic bearing structure (7) and attached to the specified solar concentrator (8) and providing for the possibility for the specified solar concentrator (8) to rotate by the previously established maximum angle of rotation, performing the first reciprocal rotary motion along the circle in the horizontal plane along the specified bearing structure (7) and the second reciprocal motion along the curvilinear trajectory in the vertical plane orthogonally to the specified horizontal plane. The specified solar concentrator (8) may be started for performance of the specified first motion and with the help of the specified second motion within the entire day with the help of the first and second start devices, accordingly, which are actuated with driving devices connected to the specified first and second start devices according to appropriate orientations of the specified solar concentrator (8) according to detection by the first and second sensor facilities, accordingly, connected to the specified driving devices to maintain the specified solar concentrator permanently oriented to the sun in a proper manner within the day in order to ensure maximum possible quantity of solar radiation, which shall be received for each established orientation. The solar plant is further characterised by heat exchange facilities and electric energy generation facilities resting against the specified additional bearing structure (9) and preferably arranged in the focus of the specified solar concentrator (8), which provide for the possibility to perceive solar radiation received by the latter and concentrated in it, and to cause heating of the liquid circulating in the specified facilities of heat exchange, and generation of electric energy, accordingly, in the amounts corresponding to the amount of the received solar radiation. The specified facilities for electric energy generation include at least photoelectric panels comprising multiple photoelectric elements, which are arranged as adjacent to each other and are fixed on a support structure, formed from appropriate shields made of electric insulating material, equipped with joined electric contacts and current-conducting paths. The specified basic bearing structure (7) comprises at least a horizontal metal guide ring (10) of the previously established diameter, having such configuration, which provides for availability of a flat upper edge and an outer guide slot stretching along it and equipped with a set of metal brackets arranged below as identical to each other and arranged with even intervals along the entire circumference of the specified ring, besides, each bracket is bent to form a lower support base, a vertical stand and an upper head, in which the specified support base is fixed with the help of bolts or similar fastening facilities to a horizontal foundation slab (17) made of a material of appropriate stiffness and strength, such as concrete, metal, etc., which is reliably fixed on the ground, and the specified upper head is equipped with facilities of sliding, such as idlers or similar facilities, interacting with the specified guide ring (10) and capable of sliding relative to it to ensure reciprocal motion for this guide ring. The specified additional bearing structure (9) comprises a set of rectilinear bars stretching in longitudinal direction and rectilinear bars stretching in transverse direction, and also a pair of semicircular elements, which are connected to the specified bars and the specified solar concentrator (8), according to the invention, the semicircular elements have configuration of guide semirings, appropriate end parts of which are connected to each other by means of a pair of rectilinear bars and a pair of intermediate bracing traction rods, the specified additional bearing structure (9) additionally includes a pair of metal reinforcing elements, having a semicircle shape, which are fixed on the specified longitudinal bars and to the specified semirings, which in their turn rest as capable of sliding against a row of sliding and supporting brackets installed below, which rest against appropriate horizontal end parts and are attached to these end parts, one of two lengthy crosspieces (64, 65), identical and fixed on the specified guide ring (10) so that the specified crosspieces are arranged in parallel to each other and are separated from each other, the specified first and specified second pair of brackets are equipped with facilities of sliding and facilities of a mechanical drive, which may be actuated by the specified start facilities. The specified first and the specified second sensor facilities are made of at least the first and second pair of photoelectric sensors (97, 98, 99, 100), accordingly, which are arranged closely to each other and coaxially to each other and rest against the specified additional bearing structure (9) in the position to be permanently turned towards the sun, starting from the early morning and practically within the entire day, so that the specified sensors are permanently exposed to solar radiation within the specified period of time, sensors of the specified first and the specified second pair of sensors are arranged in the mutually leveled position in longitudinal or transverse direction of their location on the specified additional bearing structure (9) and are prepared to recognize brightness of solar radiation and to start by means of the specified start facilities to cause the specified first motion and the specified second motion of the specified solar concentrator (8), either for continuing or for stopping, and as a result the specified solar concentrator (8) shall be properly oriented in the appropriate position, when both sensors of the specified first and the specified second pairs of sensors are illuminated at different levels of brightness and with identical levels of brightness, accordingly.

EFFECT: invention shall provide for production of maximum high quantity of solar energy within a day and high energy efficiency, both heating of liquids and generation of electric energy.

4 cl, 26 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method to rotate panels of solar batteries includes water arrival from a reservoir into a working tank, pressing a device with limiters, which controls even lowering of the reservoir, at the same time the drum rotates and turns panels of solar batteries along their axis. The device to rotate panels of solar batteries comprises a reservoir with water having a drain, a working reservoir installed on a device with limiters, which is connected by means of a rope with a drum and panels of solar batteries.

EFFECT: improved heating properties, reduced power inputs, efficiency and simplicity of manufacturing.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: device for implementation of the method includes heater-evaporator 1 with heat exchange ribs 2, airlift 3, condenser 4, ejector 5, energy converter 6, and branch pipe 7. Liquid 8 circulates inside the device.

EFFECT: simpler implementation of the method and the design; improved reliability, durability, ecological and economical properties; enlarged field of application.

14 cl, 2 dwg

Up!