Device to produce deuterium ice in potable water
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water crystal cleaning of harmful admixtures including heavy isotopes of deuterium. Proposed device comprises case 11 to house riser 8 with two chambers 4, 1. The latter make inlets for portable water and heat carrier. Portable water chamber 4 is connected with inside of case 11 that has outlet at its bottom. Heat carrier chamber 1 is connected with inside of ribs 7 arranged in case 11 and combined by outlet. Outer surface of ribs 7 is wavy.
EFFECT: continuous formation of deuterium ice in portable water.
The invention relates to methods and apparatus for crystallization of water purification from harmful to human health contaminants, including heavy isotopes deuterium.
All existing methods of separating heavy water from ordinary water are determined by the physicochemical properties of these compounds. On the physical properties of heavy water differs from ordinary water: it boils at 101,43°C, freezes at 3,82°C, has a density of 1,104 g/cm3. The chemical properties of heavy water are very close to normal water, although some reactions it slow down or speed up (sometimes 2-3 times). It has also been noticed that the ice formed heavy water, floats on water and sinking.
There is a method of water purification from deuterium engineer M. M. Muratova. They designed an installation that allows water to get easy given salt composition with a reduced content of heavy water in the home uniform method of freezing. Article in Komsomolskaya Pravda report Timakova, A. A. "the Main effects of light water" at the 8th all-Russian scientific conference "Physico-chemical processes at selection of atoms and molecules" 6-10 November 2003, has attracted interest from engineer M. M. Muratova and decided to check out the properties of this water, he from November 2006 was to "ease" the water for cooking and drinking in uniform�marajuana.
By the method of M. M. Muratova water aeronaves and cooled with the formation of circulating in the tank water flow until formation of small ice crystals. Then filtered. The filter remained less than 2% of ice containing heavy water.
According to the author of this method six-the use of light water showed that by eating food and drink in the amount of 2.5-3 liters a day, a significant improvement of health on the 5th day of use. This is reflected in the fact that were drowsiness and chronic fatigue disappeared "heaviness" in the legs, decreased seasonal Allergy symptoms without drugs. For 10 days, noticeably, about 0.5 diopters improved vision. A month later the pain in the knee joint. After 4 months the symptoms disappeared chronic pancreatitis and had pain in my liver area. For 6 months the pain associated with IBS, and pain in the back and waist. 1 viral infection was very mild, "on your feet". Reduce the appearance of varicose veins. Also a marked improvement in palatability and water and food prepared with the use of treated water. The latter fact is confirmed by the tasting Commission of the industrial enterprise and is clearly visible to users of water (see http://www.o8ode.ru/article/answer/kach/file123456.htm).
The disadvantage of the above�ojinaga method is a static (non-flowing) separation of drinking water into heavy and light.
The invention aims at continuing education in a leaky drinking water deitering ice.
This object is achieved in that the temperature of the refrigerating chamber of the refrigerator set at the freezing point of heavy water (deuterium), for example 3°C, after which the cooling chamber is placed a device, scheme of which is shown in Fig. 1. It contains: the input cavity 1 (WH) pipe 6, which is continuously fed liquid (coolant, for example a mixture of alcohol and water or salt); a cavity 4 input (VH) of the pipe through which drinking water with a temperature corresponding to the freezing point of heavy water; the cavity 2 of the blades (ribs) 7 having the shape of side surfaces of the truncated cones which are connected with the cavity 1, wherein the outer surface of the blades has a wavy shape, as well as to increase thermal conductivity of the upper surface of each blade as the outer and the inner part can be hermetically United with the surface of the heat-conductive plate; a cavity 5 output (O 2) pipe the output of the final product; the cavity 3 output (O 1) coolant pipe, which is connected with the cavities 2 arranged in a cone-shaped blades 7; the housing 11 (Fig.2); the riser 8, the holes 9 which connect the cavities 4 and 5 of the device; opening 10 connect� the volume of the cavity 5 between them. O 1 of the heat carrier is connected via a temperature controller (not shown) with Bx 1 carrier, thereby forming a closed fluid flow with variable temperature and speed of circulation of the coolant.
The operation of the device is that when the supply of drinking water and drinking water coolant flow on the outer surfaces of the blades, the volumes of which also simultaneously filled with coolant, then there is heat transfer phone To ensure heat transfer in phase-change drinking water into ice select input parameters such as the mass and velocity of potable water, mass, speed and temperature of the coolant, the temperature of drinking water at the input device should provide education deitering ice (ice). Education deitering ice suggests that in running potable water formed a fixed deiteriy ice (black ice), which selects the deuterium from water, and as a result the water becomes easy. After the formation of a sufficient number deitering ice shutting off the water and raise the temperature of the coolant. Formed deitering recycle water, after which the process of formation of light water is repeated.
The operation of the device will be shown by the following example. Take the temperature of the input water coolant -1°C, while using applications various�passes in one kg of the mass of fluid per second. Drinking water at the inlet has a temperature of +1°C, and water consumption is also one kg of mass per second. The device is placed in the refrigerating chamber with the established temperature of -1°C. To light the water does not carry a heavy ice formations of water, put the condition that the output light water should have zero temperature, while light water is partially converted with heavy water to ice (frost), which settles on the blades of the device. This condition will be satisfied when the amount of heat given to the heat carrier, will be 4,19 kJ/(kg·K) plus the heat produced by water during the phase transition from liquid to solid, which is assumed to be 1 kJ/(kg·K), for a total get to 5.19 kJ/(kg·K). From the above I can say that when applying drinking water with a temperature of +1°C and cooling it with a continuous circulation of the coolant is equal to the circulation of drinking water with inlet and outlet temperature -1°C under the condition of heat transfer taking place -1°With the surrounding environment and the condition of light water with a temperature of 0°C, it is necessary to perform heat exchange between water and coolant, equal to 5.19 kJ/(kg·K), multiplied by K, where K is the number missed in kg of drinking water, in this case, the cooling control of drinking water carried out by the quantity of output light water with regard to drinking, and� this ratio should be less than unity. Regulators of this relationship can serve as adjusting the temperature of the water and adjusting its mass, or both.
Product the device is lightweight water, which may find broad applications as a means of strengthening, rehabilitation and treatment of the body.
Device for the formation of deuterium in drinking water ice comprising a housing, characterized in that in case there is a riser that contains two cavities, which are the input for potable water and coolant, and the cavity of drinking water is connected to the volume enclosure, the bottom of which there is an exit hole, and the cavity of the heat carrier is connected with the cavities of the ribs located in the housing and a combined outlet, wherein the outer surface of the ribs is made wavy.
SUBSTANCE: method to generate ice scales includes growing of ice on one side of a membrane, the other side of which contacts with coolant, which is cooled down to negative temperature, and periodical action at the membrane at the side of coolant. The elastic element is a membrane, on surface of which water is sprayed. The membrane, coolant and water spraying facility are located in the chamber.
EFFECT: using this invention makes it possible to provide for simplified ice production with reduction of its energy intensity.
12 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: at least, one mould makes closed space to accommodate ice column. Said mould comprises two half-moulds displacing relative to each other after formation of ice column. This invention relates also to method of making ice blocks comprises the steps a) feeding fluid into mould, b) freezing fluid therein, c) removing ice block therefrom. Note here that fluid is fed at step a) into mould having, at least, closed space.
EFFECT: making ice blocks in great quantity.
9 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: personal use articles.
SUBSTANCE: refrigerator with ice generator comprises a freezing chamber, a refrigerating chamber, door housings selectively opening and closing the refrigerating chamber and the freezing chamber and the ice generator, provided in the freezing chamber, refrigerating chamber or the door housing for making ice. The ice generator is connected to a refrigeration unit that is independent of the freezing chamber and the refrigerating chamber.
EFFECT: use of this invention enables the ice generator to be unaffected by the physical effect of cooling conditions of other chambers, and provides the ability of independent ice production.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: ice generator includes heat exchanger, source water supply system and ice removal device, closed circuit which is formed with source water and generated ice storage tank, supply pipeline, flow pump, heat exchanger, valve and outlet pipe. Expansion tank is connected between pump and heat exchanger, and heat exchanger represents flow housing with cooling agent supply and discharge connection pipes, water supply flange and outlet flange of water mixed with ice crystals. Elastic element the inner surface of which is coated with antiadhesive coating is arranged between flanges. Ice generation method involves water pumping through heat exchanger and removal of the formed ice. Water is supplied from the tank through supply pipeline with a pump to expansion tank and inside elastic element which is located in heat exchanger and washed with cooling agent which is cooled to negative temperature. Cooling agent pressure is set below water pressure in elastic element. When expansion tank is filled, valve is opened and pressure in elastic element is reduced. Ice crystals separated during deformation of elastic element from its inner surface are supplied together with water flow via drain pipe to the tank.
EFFECT: use of this group of inventions allows performing the continuous ice obtaining process at high process efficiency.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: antiseptic ice production method consists in the following: water the temperature of which amounts to 0-4°C is saturated with ozone to the concentration of 5-10 mg/l. The received ozone and water mixture is oxidized to pH of 6.5-5.5 and frozen within 240-300 seconds to the temperature from -0.5 to -7°C.
EFFECT: produced ice ensures increase of treatment effectiveness of products of plant and animal origin, increases their storage life and can be used in different spheres including medicine, cosmetology and pharmacology.
1 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: device for obtaining of thaw water by water freezing and its following unfreezing includes broadening upward and round in plan view tank for water freezing with heat-insulating top cover and bottom mounted on the heat-insulating pallet. The water freezing tank is provided with vertical tube which lower hole looks on the outer tank surface. The bottom and side wall of water freezing tank can be designed double-layered (having outer and inner walls), with holes for hot water inlet and outlet. The device for thaw water obtaining can additionally be provided with water unfreezing tank with holes thaw water bleeding in the centre and periphery of its bottom. The inner part of the bottom has the ring around of the central hole with diametre not less than diametre of the removed contaminated ice column; the design of central hole allows flow control of the bled contaminated thaw water.
EFFECT: increase of thaw water yield, enhancing of the removal efficiency of the ice with decreased deuterium content, enhancing of device usability.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method of objects decoration with artificial ice forms includes installation of water drains supply and distribution system, creation of ice forms frame, water supply to it at temperature that provide its crystallisation. Pitch between water drains is selected as 3 - 500 mm with diameter of distributing nozzles of 0.3 - 50 mm. Height of nozzles above frame is established as 5 - 500 mm. During formation of extensive ice surfaces incline of water supply and spraying is selected as 0.1 - 2%. Water is preliminarily activated by means of magnetisation, and temperature of water in supply system is stabilised with the help of self-regulatory electric cable. After ice formation remaining water in supply system is removed by system blow down with compressed air.
EFFECT: invention allows to create different ice forms.
FIELD: manufacture of thermoelectric ice-making machines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed thermoelectric ice-making machine has housing with ice mold mounted on it which is provided with thermoelectric modules and straight-flow heat exchangers on vertical walls and hinged cover under it, reservoir above ice mold and polarity selector switch of thermoelectric modules. Thermoelectric ice-making machine is provided with water filter mounted in housing above reservoir equipped with thermoelectric modules and straight-flow heat exchangers on its vertical hat-conducting walls, drain branch pipe with cock fitted on the outside of housing under reservoir and reversible motor mechanically linked with pusher located between vertical walls of ice mold and hinged cover; water filter is hydraulically connected with reservoir, straight-flow heat exchangers of reservoir and ice mold; reservoir is hydraulically connected with drain branch pipe and ice mold.
EFFECT: increased productivity of ice-making machine.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: production of ice.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises producing a hollow near the ship's side, delivering air under the ice cover, the air volume does not exceeding the volume of the space defined by ice covering from the top, water from the bottom, and ice walls from the sides over the contour of the future hollow. The walls are frozen from top to bottom by means of direct nonseparable heat exchangers mounted in advance into the covering immediately behind the contour up to the bottom of the future hollow. The delivery stops and the bottom of the future hollow is frozen with the use of L-shaped nonseparable heat exchangers set into the covering simultaneously with the direct heat exchangers. As a result, a closed space is defined, which is stripped, and ice blocks are removed.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to steam fractions separators. Steam separator comprises vessel for boiling fluid with top section provided with circular horizontal ring with inner groove and hole for condensate. Several identical elements consist of vertical tubes with horizontal rings arranged at their lower part and like rings at upper part provided with grooves with holed for condensate draining. Note here that said elements are fitted one on the other while the last one at upper part is plugged.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to technology of processing water with ozone and can be used in systems of water supply of towns and settlements for decontamination of drinking water from surface water sources, in particular, with large seasonal fluctuations of water contamination, requiring up to sixfold change of ozone dose. Ozone-air mixture is supplied by steps with constant consumption at each step and change of ozone concentration in ozone-air mixture. Ratio of maximal consumption of ozone-air mixture at the last step to minimal at the first step is taken equal to not more than 2. Dimensions of ozone-air mixture bubbles is from 0.8 to 1.2 mm. Device for processing water with ozone contains system of preparation of dried and cooled air, providing its supply into ozone and ozone-air mixture generator onto disperser in steps, as well as three separate lines of similar dispersers.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides reduction of loss of ozone produced by generator, efficiency of produced ozone application not lower than 95%, increased accuracy of ozone dosing, increased reliability of installation functioning and its safety.
12 cl, 14 dwg, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of purifying waste water includes adding a natural zeolite to the water to be treated, mixing, settling and filtering. The natural zeolite used is a natural zeolite containing 50-60% clinoptilolite with particle size of 1.0-1.5 mm. Uniform mixing is carried out at a rate of 1-2 rps for 10-15 s and settling is carried out for 12-48 hours.
EFFECT: low content of heavy metal and ammonium ions when treating waste water below the maximum allowable concentration while enabling use of the treated water for crop irrigation.
1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, particularly to sea water desalination and can be used for purification of sweet water. Sweet water can be produced by evaporation and condensation of water vapours in costal areas and at sea platforms. Sea water desalination includes its evaporation and condensation of water vapour. Sea water is taken separately from top warm and cold bottom layers. Note here that warm water is forced to evaporation while cold water is used for condensation of water vapour resulted from heated sea water and atmospheric air.
EFFECT: lower power and metal input, higher efficiency of desalination.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiological industry and can be used in biological purification of water and soil from oil and oil products. Claimed is consortium of strains of microorganisms Acinetobacter sp. VKM B-2753D and Ochrobacterium sp. VKM B-2754D, possessing nitrogenase activity.
EFFECT: consortium is capable of atmospheric nitrogen fixation and possesses high utilising ability with respect to oil and oil products with their high content in substrate.
1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: what is provided is heterogenic catalytic decomposition of process media containing oxalate ions having the concentration of 16-18 g/l (complexing agents (up to 2 g/l), surfactant (up to 50 mg/l)) and nitric acid (up to 60 g/l) on a platinum catalyst applied on anion exchange resin VP-1AP (0.05-2 wt % of platinum). The effect is achieving a degree of decomposition of oxalate ions, complexing agents, surfactants up to 99.9%, in the residual concentrations - less than 10 mg/l in oxalate ions and less than 1 mg/l in complexing agent (EDTA, Trilon B) and surfactant (sulphonol).
EFFECT: improving the characteristics.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gravity-magnetic separator for flocculation of plankton and bacteria contained in ballast water and to separation of flakes collected by magnetic force. This separator comprises first tank with mixer connected with outboard water feed pipe to mix said water with added flocculating agent and magnetic powder. The latter is fed from appropriate device to make magnetic micro flakes including magnetic powder. Second tank comprises mixer for slower mixing of water whereto polymer flocculating agent is added. This allows the increase in sizes of magnetic micro flakes for processed water discharged from first tank with mixer. Magnetic separator serves to collect increased magnetic flakes by magnetic force. Said processed water is discharged from second tank with mixer and includes increased magnetic flakes. Return and addition device returns collected flakes from magnetic separator by scrapers into outboard water feed pipe to position ahead the first tank with mixer and ahead of position where flocculating agent is added to add collected flakes to outboard water.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of flocculation with no use of chemicals.
5 cl, 7 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: water treatment plant to produce melt drinking water comprises the following units set sequentially in one longitudinal vessel 1: water freezing zone with a circular freezing chamber 2, zone for displacement of impurities from the ice front and concentration of them in the form of a brine, zone for convertion of water from solid state into liquid one with a ring heating element 10, separate branch pipe to withdraw impurities' brine and melt drinking water 11 located in the lower part of the vessel 1, a drive unit 3 to move a frozen water stick which is made as rollers 4 with gear surfaces engaging with the frozen stick 3 via slots 5 in the vessel 1 and set along the perimeter of the longitudinal vessel 1, as well as a disconnecting device in the form of a pipe 6 with a ring cutting part 7. Rollers 4 with geared surfaces are equipped by electrodriven vibrators coupled with the axes of the rollers 4 by rods 13.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of water purification. Method includes interaction of metal aluminium with hydrochloric acid solution, further introduction of additive into mixture and mixture exposure of with obtaining polymerisation product. Activated carbon with particle size 100-10000 nm is introduced into mixture as additive in amount 9-12 kg/ton. Polymerisation product contains polyaluminiumhydrochloride with polymerisation degree about 70% and index of basicity 5/6. Method of water purification with obtained means is realised in apparatus, which contains mixer, flocculator and flotator.
EFFECT: claimed is method of obtaining means for water purification based on chloroaluminium-containing coagulant.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: system for conversion of hardness salts contains the housing 1 which contains the generator of non-sinusoidal electromagnetic oscillations of shaking frequency, to outphase outputs 2 of which the radiating wires 3, 4 are connected with a possibility of their winding in mutually opposite directions on the pipeline 10. In the housing 1 the unit of smart alerting mode 5 connected with the generator of non-sinusoidal electromagnetic oscillations of the shaking frequency and the independent power supply 6 are located. Indicator 7 is located on the housing 1. The alarm sensor 8 is connected with the housing 1. Couplers 9 are made of non-conducting material with a possibility of fixing of radiating wires 3, 4 and located on the pipeline 10.
EFFECT: invention allows to improve reliability of the system operation and to ensure its safety.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.