Biofuel composition

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes biofuel containing acetals and vegetable oils; the biofuel represents diethylformal 40-80 vol % and unsaturated fatty glycerides 20-60 vol %.

EFFECT: producing the biofuel characterised by a high cetane number, which alongside with improving the low-temperature and start-up properties of the fuel prevents corrosion; it requires no engine rework, possesses the green exhaust with considerable reduction of costs by using the ingredients based on cheap heavy accessible products.

1 tbl

 

The present invention relates to fuels and can be used in the national economy as a motor fuel equivalent on the physico-chemical characteristics of petroleum motor fuels.

The state of the field of technology

The currently used fuel for diesel engines mainly contain components of crude oil.

As an alternative fuel for diesel engines using natural gas and dimethyl ether. The main disadvantage of these fuels is poor compatibility with petroleum diesel, because under normal conditions it is gases. In addition, requires modifications of the car to work on those alternative fuels (Dimethyl ether - Wikipedia).

There is a need for high quality fuel composition for diesel engines containing components of biological origin and also meet the quality requirements for diesel fuels when operating in the conditions of any temperature. Moreover, the fuel must be environmentally sound. Currently, the most common component of biological origin in fuels is a methyl ester of rapeseed oil as indicated by the ITRS (EN 2393209).

The disadvantage of the ITRS is the high viscosity and high pour point, which makes it impossible ISPO�isawanya at low temperatures. A by-product of obtaining the ITRS is glycerin, which can be a problem if produce large quantities of the product. In this way can produce other esters of vegetable oils and methyl esters of fatty acids, commonly known as FAME (methyl ester of fatty acid). Such FAME can be used for the same applications as methyl ester of rapeseed oil, but they also have a negative impact on the quality of diesel fuel, especially with respect to its characteristics at low temperatures, and, moreover, their use in fuels increases emissions of nitrogen oxides. In some cases, FAME and ITRS cause higher particulate emission and smoke generation during a cold start of the engine.

In the application WO 2001012581 describes a method of producing methyl esters used as biodiesel, which is a mixture of fatty acids and triglycerides esterified in the same phase. The present method is formed a solution of fatty acids, triglycerides, alcohol, acid catalyst and co solvent at a temperature below the boiling point of the solution. Joint solvent used in amounts that provide a single phase, then the solution is incubated for a time sufficient to happened catalyzed Ki�lotoi esterification of fatty acids. After that, the acid catalyst is neutralized, add the alkali catalyst for transesterification of triglycerides and, finally, the ester is isolated from the solution. Thus, get containing esters biofuels having a glycerin content of at least 0.4 wt.%.

The disadvantages are the complexity and multistage process and high cost products.

The closest to the claimed invention is patent US 6013114 (which is taken as a prototype). Offered fuel, components of which are vegetable oil and acetals with a flash point of more than +55°C (see paragraph 5 of the formula).

The disadvantage of this invention is the high cost of products. The raw material for the proposed acetals alcohols are butanol and higher, which are very expensive. Therefore, acetals derived from these alcohols, will also have a high cost. Formals-based alcohols With4and above have a relatively high viscosity and pour point and in a mixture with vegetable oils cannot be used at low temperatures. In addition, acetals, as described in the patent, are not relevant to the renewable bioproducts, therefore, increase the emissions of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.

The object of this invention is the development of biofuels that do not contain oil components�yente, by its physical and technical (chemical) properties (characteristics) are not inferior to an alternative fuel, based on inexpensive large-tonnage products available, secured domestic raw material resources, including renewable.

The technical result of the invention is improving the efficiency of the combustion process during operation of the engine at high rpm, which will reduce harmful emissions from the engine, improving the characteristics of cold flow and increase cetane number, which along with improved low-temperature starting properties of diesel fuel prevents the occurrence of corrosion, has a green emission with a significant cost reduction due to the application components, on the basis of an inexpensive large-tonnage products available, secured domestic raw material resources, including renewable, the use of this fuel requires no modifications of the engine.

This effect is achieved by the fact that biofuels contains diethylphenyl 40-80 vol.% and glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids 20-60 vol.%. As of glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids use any vegetable oil.

The use of diethylformamide allows to increase the cetane number of diesel fuel up to 60 points. The raw material for the synthesis of diethylformamide the tri�Xia bioethanol (cheaper raw materials), that will reduce the cost of products.

In addition, physico-chemical characteristics of diethylformamide surpass dibutylformamide, which allows to obtain biodiesel fuel with a pour point below -60°C.

A summary

It is known that Diesel had his engine on vegetable oil. But vegetable oil is a high viscosity, high pour point, why in the world are mainly used methyl esters of oils. The share of the transesterification process of oils to account for 30% of the costs, and it uses lye and formation of by-products.

When sharing (simple mix) diethylformamide and glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids improve 11 indicators of the European standard EN 14214 for biodiesel. Diethylphenyl - biofuels - can be easily obtained from bioethanol and biogas (renewable energy) by known methods of condensation of ethanol and formaldehyde (Kimichi. Chemical encyclopedia), and formaldehyde from methane via methanol (ru.wikipedia.org. Methanol, formaldehyde).

The use of acetals of diethylformamide in a mixture of glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids, which are used as vegetable oil in the amount of 20-60 vol.%, allows to obtain bio-fuels with a high cetane number, its characteristics are suitable�point to the Russian standard GOST R-2009, European standard EN 14214-2003, USA standard ASTMD 6751. Eliminating the need for transesterification of oils with methanol, which accounts to 30% of the costs, and eliminating the need for disposal of byproducts is glycerin and waste alkaline catalyst (Marketing research of the market of biofuels: bioethanol and biodiesel, may 18, 2012 Reseach Techart, p. 54). Better use of renewable vegetable raw materials beneficial to the environment as a whole.

Previously we have shown that when the concentration of the WEF, over 40% of all vegetable oils (corn, Flaxseed, rapeseed, palm) in terms of viscosity to meet standards and a viscosity lower than 5 cSt.

Tests were carried out on the car t Saga E, 1994 edition with two-liter diesel engine at temperatures below -20°C. In the empty tank filled to 100% biodiesel in quantities of 20 litres, and the car has been used for a few days. The tests conducted on three samples of biodiesel containing 40-80% of diethylformamide (WEF) and 20-60% of sunflower oil. The results are presented in the table.

Conclusions

The car works well in all tested samples without any significant deviations. When the concentration of diethylformamide below 40%, the viscosity does not meet standard�there - more than 5 cSt, and when the concentration of diethylformamide more than 80% reduced wetting ability (slide) and decreases the calorific value of biodiesel.

Biofuels containing acetals and vegetable oils, characterized in that the biofuel is a mixture of diethylformamide 40-80 vol.% and glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids 20-60 vol.%.



 

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Biofuel composition // 2544239

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