Biofuel composition

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes biofuel containing acetals and vegetable oils; the biofuel represents diethylformal 40-80 vol % and unsaturated fatty glycerides 20-60 vol %.

EFFECT: producing the biofuel characterised by a high cetane number, which alongside with improving the low-temperature and start-up properties of the fuel prevents corrosion; it requires no engine rework, possesses the green exhaust with considerable reduction of costs by using the ingredients based on cheap heavy accessible products.

1 tbl


The present invention relates to fuels and can be used in the national economy as a motor fuel equivalent on the physico-chemical characteristics of petroleum motor fuels.

The state of the field of technology

The currently used fuel for diesel engines mainly contain components of crude oil.

As an alternative fuel for diesel engines using natural gas and dimethyl ether. The main disadvantage of these fuels is poor compatibility with petroleum diesel, because under normal conditions it is gases. In addition, requires modifications of the car to work on those alternative fuels (Dimethyl ether - Wikipedia).

There is a need for high quality fuel composition for diesel engines containing components of biological origin and also meet the quality requirements for diesel fuels when operating in the conditions of any temperature. Moreover, the fuel must be environmentally sound. Currently, the most common component of biological origin in fuels is a methyl ester of rapeseed oil as indicated by the ITRS (EN 2393209).

The disadvantage of the ITRS is the high viscosity and high pour point, which makes it impossible ISPO�isawanya at low temperatures. A by-product of obtaining the ITRS is glycerin, which can be a problem if produce large quantities of the product. In this way can produce other esters of vegetable oils and methyl esters of fatty acids, commonly known as FAME (methyl ester of fatty acid). Such FAME can be used for the same applications as methyl ester of rapeseed oil, but they also have a negative impact on the quality of diesel fuel, especially with respect to its characteristics at low temperatures, and, moreover, their use in fuels increases emissions of nitrogen oxides. In some cases, FAME and ITRS cause higher particulate emission and smoke generation during a cold start of the engine.

In the application WO 2001012581 describes a method of producing methyl esters used as biodiesel, which is a mixture of fatty acids and triglycerides esterified in the same phase. The present method is formed a solution of fatty acids, triglycerides, alcohol, acid catalyst and co solvent at a temperature below the boiling point of the solution. Joint solvent used in amounts that provide a single phase, then the solution is incubated for a time sufficient to happened catalyzed Ki�lotoi esterification of fatty acids. After that, the acid catalyst is neutralized, add the alkali catalyst for transesterification of triglycerides and, finally, the ester is isolated from the solution. Thus, get containing esters biofuels having a glycerin content of at least 0.4 wt.%.

The disadvantages are the complexity and multistage process and high cost products.

The closest to the claimed invention is patent US 6013114 (which is taken as a prototype). Offered fuel, components of which are vegetable oil and acetals with a flash point of more than +55°C (see paragraph 5 of the formula).

The disadvantage of this invention is the high cost of products. The raw material for the proposed acetals alcohols are butanol and higher, which are very expensive. Therefore, acetals derived from these alcohols, will also have a high cost. Formals-based alcohols With4and above have a relatively high viscosity and pour point and in a mixture with vegetable oils cannot be used at low temperatures. In addition, acetals, as described in the patent, are not relevant to the renewable bioproducts, therefore, increase the emissions of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.

The object of this invention is the development of biofuels that do not contain oil components�yente, by its physical and technical (chemical) properties (characteristics) are not inferior to an alternative fuel, based on inexpensive large-tonnage products available, secured domestic raw material resources, including renewable.

The technical result of the invention is improving the efficiency of the combustion process during operation of the engine at high rpm, which will reduce harmful emissions from the engine, improving the characteristics of cold flow and increase cetane number, which along with improved low-temperature starting properties of diesel fuel prevents the occurrence of corrosion, has a green emission with a significant cost reduction due to the application components, on the basis of an inexpensive large-tonnage products available, secured domestic raw material resources, including renewable, the use of this fuel requires no modifications of the engine.

This effect is achieved by the fact that biofuels contains diethylphenyl 40-80 vol.% and glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids 20-60 vol.%. As of glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids use any vegetable oil.

The use of diethylformamide allows to increase the cetane number of diesel fuel up to 60 points. The raw material for the synthesis of diethylformamide the tri�Xia bioethanol (cheaper raw materials), that will reduce the cost of products.

In addition, physico-chemical characteristics of diethylformamide surpass dibutylformamide, which allows to obtain biodiesel fuel with a pour point below -60°C.

A summary

It is known that Diesel had his engine on vegetable oil. But vegetable oil is a high viscosity, high pour point, why in the world are mainly used methyl esters of oils. The share of the transesterification process of oils to account for 30% of the costs, and it uses lye and formation of by-products.

When sharing (simple mix) diethylformamide and glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids improve 11 indicators of the European standard EN 14214 for biodiesel. Diethylphenyl - biofuels - can be easily obtained from bioethanol and biogas (renewable energy) by known methods of condensation of ethanol and formaldehyde (Kimichi. Chemical encyclopedia), and formaldehyde from methane via methanol ( Methanol, formaldehyde).

The use of acetals of diethylformamide in a mixture of glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids, which are used as vegetable oil in the amount of 20-60 vol.%, allows to obtain bio-fuels with a high cetane number, its characteristics are suitable�point to the Russian standard GOST R-2009, European standard EN 14214-2003, USA standard ASTMD 6751. Eliminating the need for transesterification of oils with methanol, which accounts to 30% of the costs, and eliminating the need for disposal of byproducts is glycerin and waste alkaline catalyst (Marketing research of the market of biofuels: bioethanol and biodiesel, may 18, 2012 Reseach Techart, p. 54). Better use of renewable vegetable raw materials beneficial to the environment as a whole.

Previously we have shown that when the concentration of the WEF, over 40% of all vegetable oils (corn, Flaxseed, rapeseed, palm) in terms of viscosity to meet standards and a viscosity lower than 5 cSt.

Tests were carried out on the car t Saga E, 1994 edition with two-liter diesel engine at temperatures below -20°C. In the empty tank filled to 100% biodiesel in quantities of 20 litres, and the car has been used for a few days. The tests conducted on three samples of biodiesel containing 40-80% of diethylformamide (WEF) and 20-60% of sunflower oil. The results are presented in the table.


The car works well in all tested samples without any significant deviations. When the concentration of diethylformamide below 40%, the viscosity does not meet standard�there - more than 5 cSt, and when the concentration of diethylformamide more than 80% reduced wetting ability (slide) and decreases the calorific value of biodiesel.

Biofuels containing acetals and vegetable oils, characterized in that the biofuel is a mixture of diethylformamide 40-80 vol.% and glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids 20-60 vol.%.


Same patents:

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to method of synthetic oil production out of greenhouse gases. The invention suggests the method of synthetic oil production out of gas containing CO2; synthetic oil produced by the above method, usage of synthetic oil as well as use of gas containing CO2 are specified in the suggested method. The method includes the following stages: gas delivery to the reactor containing culture of at least one species of microalgae capable of photosynthesis; photosynthesis using CO2; anaerobic fermentation of the received biomass; thermochemical decomposition of fermented biomass to receive synthetic oil mixed up with water and gas and separation of the produced synthetic oil. Upon photosynthesis stage from 5 up to 100% of the culture is removed from the reactor and divided into solid and liquid fraction. Solid fraction is subject to anaerobic fermentation stage. Carbonates and/or bicarbonates are separated from liquid fraction. Then liquid fraction less carbonates and bicarbonates is returned at least partially to the reactor.

EFFECT: inventions ensure large capture of CO2.

29 cl, 5 dwg, 11 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel composition for an injection diesel engine, which includes a basic amount of fuel and a minimum effective amount of a reaction product of (i) a hydrocarbyl-substituted compound containing at least one tertiary amine group, wherein the hydrocarbyl-substituted compound is selected from a group consisting of C10-C30-alkyl- or alkenyl-substituted amidopropyldimethylamines and C12-C200-alkyl- or alkenyl-substituted succinylcarbonyldimethylamines and (iii) halo-substituted C2-C8 carboxylic acid salts, wherein the obtained reaction product is substantially free of non-covalently bonded anionic substances. The invention also relates to a concentrate of the fuel additive for use in an injection diesel engine, as well as a method of improving performance of an injection diesel engine and a method of operating an injection diesel engine.

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23 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a composition of aircraft non-ethylated gasoline, which contains gasoline of catalytic reforming, alkylgasoline, toluene and an antiknock additive, and the composition additionally contains a gasoline fraction, boiling out in ranges of 62-85°C, and as the antiknock additive - monomethylaniline and methyltertbutyl ether with the following component ratio, wt %: alkylgasoline 15.0-25.0; toluene 10.0-20.0; gasoline fraction, boiling out in the range of 62-85°C, 20.0-35.0; monomethylaniline 1.5-3.0; methyltertbutyl ether 5.0-10.0; catalytic reforming gasoline - the remaining part.

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3 tbl

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5 cl, 1 dwg

Biofuel composition // 2544239

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biofuel composition, based on petroleum product, containing bioadditive, based on acetals and vegetable oils, with composition representing mixture of petroleum Diesel fuel 98-60 vol % with bioadditive 2-40 vol %, where as bioadditive used is diethylformal 35-40 vol %, with the remaining part being represented by glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids.

EFFECT: obtaining biofuel higher-quality composition, more resistant to oxidation and polymerisation processes, with low prime cost and high product output.

2 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: claimed invention deals with composition for improvement of fluidity properties in fuel compositions. Composition for improving properties of fluidity in fuel compositions contains polyalkyl(meth)acrylate polymer, which contains fragments of monomers of formula , where R represents hydrogen atom or methyl, R2 represents linear alkyl residue, containing 7-15 carbon atoms and having weight average molecular weight Mn from 1000 to 10000 g/mol and polydispersity Mw/Mn from 1 to 8, and ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer, representing grafted copolymer, containing ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer as base, and alkyl(meth)acrylate, containing 1-30 carbon atoms in alkyl residue as grafted layer. Application of composition in fuel composition is also claimed.

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17 cl, 1 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: in the proposed method processing is performed in a circulating flow by hydrodynamic and ultrasonic cavitation action in cyclically repeated sequence consisting of two phases. A phase of hydrodynamic action involves mechanical destruction of liquid and (or) solid parts of components to the sizes that do not exceed the value of about 1 mm, and a phase of ultrasonic action involves ultrafine destruction of liquid and (or) solid particles of components, which are produced during the first destruction phase. Frequency of acoustic ultrasonic field fT is measured depending on temperature of processed multicomponent medium according to the following expression: fT=fN/(1+αΔT), where fN - resonance frequency of an ultrasonic emitter at normal temperature TN=25°C, ΔT -difference between actual values of temperature and TN, α - thermal expansion coefficient of material from which an ultrasonic emitter is made, and two-phase cyclic processing sequence of multicomponent medium is continued till more than 5% of suspended solid and/or liquid particles with a size of more than 25 mcm is left in it. The invention also describes a plant for implementation of the specified method.

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2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

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FIELD: chemistry.

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3 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: solar engineering; methods and the solar equipment for production of an artificial liquid fuel from carbon materials.

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3 cl, 2 dwg

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4 cl, 5 tbl

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5 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing industry.

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2 cl, 3 tbl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

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3 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: environmental protection; methods of the environmental protection of the earth air environment.

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EFFECT: the invention ensures the reduced emission of the nitric oxide (NOx) with the exhaust gases of the diesels without deterioration of their technical and economic indices.

1 tbl

FIELD: oil refining industry and petrochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed antiknock additive contains the following components, %: aromatic amine, 2-5; anti-oxidant, 3-5; straight-run petroleum gasoline, 35-50; chloroparaffin, 1-2; the remainder being isoparaffin. Proposed additive is treated in vapor-and-liquid phase by metallic manganese.

EFFECT: enhanced antiknock activity of additives in gasoline.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl

FIELD: oil refining industry and petrochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed antiknock additive contains the following components, %: aromatic amine, 2-5; anti-oxidant, 3-5; straight-run petroleum gasoline, 35-50; chloroparaffin, 1-2; the remainder being isoparaffin. Proposed additive is treated in vapor-and-liquid phase by metallic manganese.

EFFECT: enhanced antiknock activity of additives in gasoline.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl

FIELD: fuel engineering, in particular, preparing of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has reservoir 6 for basic hydrocarbon fuel and mixing reservoir 9, said reservoirs being connected with one another through pipeline and locking fittings. Reservoir 6 and reservoir 9 are equipped with level measuring devices. Output of mixing reservoir 9 is connected through circulation pump with inlet of disperser 8 whose outlet is connected to inlet of mixing reservoir 9. Apparatus is additionally provided with reservoir 1 for softened water, said reservoir 1 having cooling member, reservoir 3 designed for saturating of softened water with air and provided with level measuring device, pumps for feeding water through meter 4 from above reservoirs into disperser 8 and further to mixing reservoir 9. Disperser 8 is formed as acoustical radiator. Mixing reservoir 9 is joined to sulfur removal unit 10 furnished with separating device and positioned on pipeline for feeding of resultant hydraulically stabilized combustible mixture into accumulating reservoir 11. Apparatus of such construction allows desulphurized liquid aqueous-hydrocarbon mixture to be produced, said mixture being characterized by inseparability with time and being designed for increasing of fuel combusting process.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of fuel combustion process enhanced due to utilization of liquid aqueous-hydrocarbon mixture, and increased ecology controlling of process.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: liquid fuel additives.

SUBSTANCE: additive contains (i) mixture of alkoxy-substituted benzenes of general formula: (I) wherein R represents ethoxy or methoxy radical and (ii) aniline at their ratio 1:1.

EFFECT: considerable increased antiknock effect.

6 ex