Device for simulation of processes of decomposition of lubricant oils in compressors of aviation gas-turbine engines
FIELD: motors and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: simulation device contains an oil batcher, a dispersion chamber and a lubricant oil decomposition chamber (1). At the air outlet downstream the chamber the diffuser (2) is located. On the chamber the heater (3) with the thermocouple (4) and the thermorelay (5) is installed. The device includes the air duct (6) supplying the pumped-over hot air into the lubricant oil decomposition chamber connected through the manometer (7) to the air compressor (8). The device contains the cylinder (13) filled with ultra-pure nitrogen, (23, 24) the sealed gage tank with air cavity with oil and a cover for oil filling, with the oil pipeline connected to it through the gas pipeline with the regulator (12), the adapter (11) and cap nuts. The gage tank (9) is connected through the adapter (11) with cap nuts (20, 21) to the measured capillary (15) in a cooling jacket (16) with circulating water through the thermostat with the pump (18) and radiators, attached to the decomposition chamber by means of the cap nut (22) and the sealing cone (25). Also the device comprises the additional chamber (26) screwed to the main decomposition chamber of (1) coaxially and sealed with a gasket (27), with the rod with a flywheel (17) installed inside, with threaded and non-threaded parts. Meanwhile the threaded part is implemented with a possibility of movement in the internal washer with a thread (28) for adjustment of the decomposition chamber volume and change of conditions of simulation of oil concentration, while the non-threaded part is sealed in a gland with graphite seal (29).
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of simulation of composition of oil decomposition products in aviation gas-turbine engines.
The invention relates to simulation of processes of decomposition of lubricating oils for gas turbine engines (GTE) to conduct research on the toxicity of decomposition products of lubricating oils and to reduce the number of flight air samples of aircraft cabins (LA) in the study of air pollution with harmful substances coming together with the air in the air conditioning system (ACS), and determining the composition of contaminants, hazardous air concentrations of gases and vapors, increasing the sensitivity of their determination.
The main source of air pollution of aircraft cabins - ash lubricating oil from front supports engines with subsequent complete or partial decomposition in the path of the compressor of the gas turbine engine (GTE) in different operational modes. Complex mixture of vapours and aerosols of lubricating oil, a pair of aliphatic hydrocarbons, acrolein, formaldehyde, phenol, cresol, acetic acid, benzene, Tricresyl phosphate, ethyl, propyl, butyl and isobutyl alcohols, acetone, toluene, xylene, monoxide and carbon dioxide comes from the air conditioning system in the cab LA. In addition, the air booths LA polluting discharge from finishing materialov cab and anthropotoxins and to identify the source of contamination and migration associ�of the necessary data about the full composition of the products of oil degradation in GTE on a particular mode of flight and the air sampling GTE in flight is very difficult.
The proposed device can be used during factory testing and certification LA for compliance with the requirements of §831 AP-25 (Aviation regulations. Part 25. The airworthiness standards of transport category airplanes. 2008), similar to AP-29 (helicopters) and AP-23 (civilian light aircraft) and in conducting Toxicological studies.
Known "Method of evaluating the corrosion properties of engine oils" (copyright certificate AC No. 129872, publ. 59 G.) and device for components containing expendable tank, a pump for pumping motor oil, which is sprayed on the heated wall of the tank and flows down. The oil should wash the surface of the plates. However, this device does not ensure the accuracy of modeling the composition of the products of oil degradation in aircraft gas-turbine engine by replaying the concentration of oil degradation in aircraft gas-turbine engine, controlling the residence time of oil in the hot zone, change the mode of operation of the device to simulate specific modes of decomposition of oil in gas turbine engines.
The closest in technical essence to the proposed device is the device described in the patent for invention of the Russian Federation No. 2476852 dated 13.02.2012. Known "Method of estimating the purity of air Germain aircraft coming from the compressors �aturbine engines the content of decomposition products of lubricating oils and the device containing the syringe dispenser is filled with lubricating oil, the plunger of the syringe-dispenser with electric drive, the membrane evaporator, the heat insulator, the temperature sensor, thermostat, the expansion chamber of the oil with the diaphragm at the exit of the air flow from the chamber to regulate the volume of the chamber inside of her steel balls placed, a heater located on the camera. To create air pressure in the chamber is installed a duct that is connected via the pressure gauge to air compressor (Pat. RU № 2476852, 13.02.2012).
In the syringe-pipette draw oil, identical to used in the engine. Syringe needle pierces the membrane and the heat insulator evaporator, combined with the expansion chamber of the oil is placed inside to control the volume of steel balls. In the expansion chamber using a heater, temperature sensor and thermostat creates a temperature equal to the temperature of a given stage of selection of the compressor. The air pressure in the chamber equal to the pressure in the stage selection GTE, created with the help of compressor and controlled by a manometer. The airflow is controlled via selection of the cross section of the diaphragm to simulate residence time of oil in the hot zone of the engine. The residence time of oil in the hot zone, calculated as the ratio of the volume of the hot zone of the compressor of the engine, Vacha�keetsa of the geometrical parameters of the engine, where decomposition of oil, to the volumetric rate of air through this stage.
The disadvantages of this design include the fact that to enter the oil in a heated chamber used a syringe with which it is difficult to achieve reproducible results, the concentrations of the products of oil degradation due to uneven flow of oil itself. Difficult analysis of the number of introduced oil during the experiment. In addition, the decomposition of oil begins in the syringe needle, which distorts the data on the composition of decomposition products. In the described device in the course of the experiment (without disassembly design) cannot change the basic parameter is the residence time of oil in the hot zone, because the volume of the chamber decomposition here is fixed.
The technical result, the aim of the invention is to improve the accuracy of modeling the composition of the products of oil degradation in aircraft gas-turbine engine by replaying the concentration of oil degradation in aircraft gas-turbine engine, controlling the residence time of oil in the hot zone, change the mode of operation of the device to simulate specific modes of decomposition of oil in gas turbine engines. The proposed device after appropriate metrological certification can be applied for testing overall systems air sampling GTE (SOPS).
To achieve the UK�mentioned technical result in the device for simulation of processes of decomposition of lubricants in the compressors of aircraft gas turbine engines containing the oil dispenser chamber sputtering and decomposition of lubricating oils, a diffuser at the outlet of the air flow from the chamber, placed on the chamber heater (tubular furnace) with thermocouple and thermal overload relay, air duct, inlet pumping hot air into the expansion chamber of lubricating oils, are connected through a pressure gauge to the air compressor, the device comprises a cylinder filled with high purity nitrogen, connected with it by pipeline through the regulator, adapter and cap nut sealed with a volumetric capacity of the air cavity, with butter and cover for Gulf oil, with an oil line, connected through the adapter with Union nut to the measuring capillary in the cooling jacket with circulating water through thermostat, pump and radiators attached to the expansion chamber through the Union nut and cone seal, additional camera, bolted to the main expansion chamber coaxially and sealed by the gasket, is installed inside the stock flywheel, with sliced and chopped pieces, where the cut portion is formed to be movable in the inner washer threaded to regulate the volume of the chamber decomposition and changes in the terms of modeling the concentration of oil rather than the sliced part is sealed in the stuffing box with graphite seal.
Thus, during about�nogo experiment without its termination it is possible to simulate all the processes of decomposition of oil in the compressor GTE (changes in temperature and air pressure time finding oil in the hot zone), which significantly reduces the time of the experiment.
Fig. 1 is a diagram of the proposed device.
The device for simulation of processes of decomposition of lubricants in the compressors of aircraft gas turbine engines contains the oil dispenser chamber sputtering and decomposition of lubricating oils (1), diffuser (2) the output flow of air from the chamber, placed on the chamber heater (3) (tube furnace) with thermocouple (4) and a thermostat (5), the duct (6), inlet pumping hot air into the expansion chamber of lubricating oils, are connected through a pressure gauge (7) to an air compressor (8), the oil dispenser is made of a sealed volumetric capacity (9), which is fed under pressure nitrogen through the gas pipe (10) connected through the adapter (11) and controller (12) to the cylinder (13), and the supply of oil in the expansion chamber (1) is carried out using makovody (14) from adapter (11) and through a measuring capillary (15), thermostated circulating water at room temperature in the cooling jacket (16) that provides an even flow of oil into the chamber, and the measuring device (9) before and after the experiment weighed to determine feed speed. The oil is evenly sprayed with hot air from the heated air duct without decomposition in a capillary (15). To change the simulation conc�AI oil chamber volume adjust by screwing in the threaded rod (17) on the thread performed inside the camera, not the cut portion of the rod moves additionally inside mounted outside of the compartment of the camera through the graphite seal with a lock nut.
In addition, the device comprises a cylinder filled with high purity nitrogen (high purity) (13), the controller (12) with the gas pipe (10) connected through the adapter (11) and nut (23) and (24) with a sealed air cavity volumetric capacity (9) with butter with lid (19) for Gulf oil, the oil line (14) from adapter (11) and cap nuts (20) and (21), the measuring capillary (15) in the cooling jacket (16) circulating water through thermostat to the pump (18) and a radiator that attaches to the expansion chamber through the cap nut (22) and cone seal (25), additional camera (26), bolted to the main chamber of the decomposition (1) (coaxial) and sealed gasket (27), stock flywheel (17) with sliced and unsliced part where the cut portion is moved in the inner washer with a thread (28) and not the cut portion is sealed in the stuffing box with graphite seal (29).
The operation of the device.
The device operates as follows. First set of modeled air parameters in the CCD (temperature and air pressure, the residence time of oil in the compressor stage CCD). Before starting work estimated or experimentally opredelaetsa� internal volume of the chamber decomposition (1) when fully screwed and twisted the stem (17) and the intermediate values (different number of revolutions of the spindle (17)). In the measuring device (9) through the neck with a cover (19) is filled with the investigated oil. Together with the pipeline (10) (up to the pressure regulator (12)) and maslovozom (14) no adapter (11) capacity is weighed. Further, it is attached through the adapter (11) with Union nut (23) and (24) to the pressure regulator (12) of the container with nitrogen (13) and through the adapter (11) with Union nut (21) and (22) to the capillary (15), with a cooling jacket (16) and radiators (30) to which is connected a water thermostat with the pump (18). The speed of the outflow of oil from the tank (9) depends on the differential pressure of nitrogen in the tank, set the pressure regulator (12), and air pressure gauge (7) on the decomposition (1) and the cross section of the measuring capillary (15). The pressure of nitrogen, and if necessary, the cross section of the capillary is selected empirically. The device is completely assembled. With the help of the stem (17) sets the required volume of the chamber. On exit from the cell decomposition with a cap nut (31) is screwed diffuser (2) the desired cross-section with a fitting to ensure the required flow rate of polluted air at a chosen pressure in the expansion chamber. Set the necessary parameters of the air compressor (8) controlled by a pressure gauge (7). Tubular furnace (3) via thermal overload relay (5) with the selected temperature is energized and when you exit the preset mode by thermocouple (4 the pressure in the container (9) is raised by the pressure regulator (12) to obtain the necessary differential pressure across the capillary (15) and provide the required oil flow. The flow is stable, because the capillary termostatica, and the differential pressure is kept constant during the whole experiment. Oil consumption for the experiment is determined by difference of weight of the tank with oil before and after the experiment (after disconnecting the cylinder in its place connects vacuum line to the waste oil from maslovoza and capillary). All parameters except speed oil consumption (change is undesirable due to the decrease of metrological characteristics), the needs vary within a wide range during the experiment. They are selected depending on the purpose of use of the received gas stream containing decomposition products of lubricating oil under conditions that simulate conditions in the compressor GTE and at constant concentration. The air pressure in the chamber equal to the pressure in the stage selection GTE, created with the help of compressor and controlled by a manometer. The airflow is controlled via selection of the cross section of the diaphragm to simulate residence time of oil in the hot zone of the engine. The residence time of oil in the hot zone, calculated as the ratio of the volume of the hot zone of the compressor of the engine, is calculated from the geometric parameters of the engine, where the oil degradation, flow rate of air through this stage.
All this allows, in addition to normal use � Toxicological experiments and in the use of the method of estimating the purity of air Germain aircraft coming from the compressors of gas turbine engines on the content of decomposition products of lubricant oils (patent for invention of the Russian Federation No. 2476852 dated 13.02.2012), can use this device with the metrological certification of the systems of air sampling GTE.
The device for simulation of processes of decomposition of lubricants in the compressors of aircraft gas turbine engines, containing oil dispenser chamber sputtering and decomposition of lubricating oils, a diffuser at the outlet of the air flow from the chamber, placed on the camera, heater with thermocouple and thermal overload relay, air duct, inlet pumping hot air into the expansion chamber of lubricating oils, are connected through a pressure gauge to air compressor, characterized in that the device comprises a cylinder filled with high purity nitrogen, connected with it by pipeline through the regulator, adapter and cap nut sealed with a volumetric capacity of the air cavity, with butter and cover for Bay oil, with the oil line that is connected via the adapter with Union nut to the measuring capillary in the cooling jacket with circulating water through thermostat to the pump and radiators attached to the expansion chamber through the Union nut and cone seal, additional camera, bolted to the main expansion chamber coaxially and sealed by the gasket,is installed inside the stock flywheel, with sliced and chopped pieces, where the cut portion is formed to be movable in the inner washer threaded to regulate the volume of the chamber decomposition and changes in the terms of modeling the concentration of oil rather than the sliced part is sealed in the stuffing box with graphite seal.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: research method for the pipeline demulsification process includes preparation of a synthetic brine, which composition corresponds to the ionic composition of the deposit brine water, creation of blank and work samples, setting of samples at a reciprocating shaker moving at the speed equivalent to the speed of emulsion motion at the pipeline demulsification, at that the time and temperature of mixing are set as the values corresponding to the pipeline demulsification, introduction of a demulsifier and rust and salting inhibitors in a sequence, concentration and quantity that simulate local dosing of the reagents at feed points in the real system of the pipeline demulsification, withholding of the above agents within 20-24 hours at room temperature, determination of the quantitative content of the solubilised oil in the water phase and receipt of a conclusion on the rust and salting inhibitors effect on the quantitative content of the oil solubilised by the demulsifier. At that the blank and work samples consist of a water-in-oil emulsion prepared of pure oil from the researched deposit and synthetic brine; the samples are obtained by mixing during 30-35 minutes with the rotation rate of the stirrer of at least of 2600 r/min.
EFFECT: method ensures consideration of a mutual effect of the rust and salting inhibitors to the quantitative content of the oil solubilised by the demulsifier.
5 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbons concentration is measured in vapour-air mix flowing from filler neck as well as time interval from fill in start to initial occurrence of hydrocarbons in said mix, said concentration being taken as the minimum magnitude. Time interval when hydrocarbons concentration reaches maximum magnitude and moment when maximum level in the tank is reached are measured. Bulk of losses of oil or oil products is determined by the formula:
EFFECT: lower labour input, higher accuracy of loss determination.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: samples of identical diagnosed and reference oil and oil with maximum tolerable contaminant content are incorporated in carrier of capillary-porous material to be placed in the area of surface glow HV discharge from plate electrode. Glow discharge sliding over the oil surface is photographed and subjected to algorithmic processing. Degree of fouling, type of contaminants and oil fitness for operation are defined by comparison of operating oil glow intensity with reference oil with maximum tolerable content of content. Comparison is made using the conditional intensity factor defined by the lengths of glow discharge corona in green band of the spectrum.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of analysis.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: optic emission beam exciting oil fluorescence is directed at the controlled oil; fluorescence intensity of fresh oil is measured simultaneously at three spectrum ranges and two operating spectrum ranges are determined, in which values of intensities are higher than in the third one; fluorescence intensity is measured during oil operation; oil ageing index is determined as ratio of intensities in working spectrum ranges, and oil operability is evaluated as per the ageing index. Optic emission exciting oil fluorescence is polarised, and in addition, fluorescence intensities are measured simultaneously with parallel and perpendicular emission polarisation relative to polarisation of optic emission exciting oil fluorescence, as per which anisotropy index of oil fluorescence is determined, as well as oil temperature is measured and oil dynamic viscosity is determined additionally as per the specified calibration dependence and oil operability is evaluated as per the ageing index, by comparing the index value to a threshold value, and as per the change of oil viscosity at its operating temperature relative to the threshold value. Besides, a device adapted for implementation of the above method is described.
EFFECT: improving reliability of effective monitoring of oil operability owing to increasing informativity by using for effective evaluation of oil state of two diagnostics indices - oil ageing degree characterising the change of oil chemical properties and oil viscosity characterising the ability of providing effective thickness of lubrication layer between surfaces of friction assemblies.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on application of simplified model of intake of admixtures into cabin which allows for only oil decomposition products in gas turbine engine. Major portion of air samples, 95-97%, required for identification and quantitative determination of oil decomposition products, is sampled on surface from device simulating oil decomposition conditions including air temperature and pressure at point of sampling from engine compressor, and oil stay time in hot zone.
EFFECT: decreased time of in-flight experiments and that of surface analysis of samples.
1 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves titration of a suspension with a solvent which is soluble in water and dissolves the suspended resin-like substance until reducing light scattering, which is determined either visually or using optical devices which enable to measure the amount of light passing through the liquid.
EFFECT: rapid estimation of the amount of resin-like substance suspended in water.
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises dividing formation fluid into water and hydrocarbon phases to produce solid hydrocarbon scale. Said division is executed by settling formation fluid at +4°C for 24-72 hours. Then, water phase centrifugation is carried out at 10000-14000 rpm for 15 minutes to use it for DNA isolation and subsequent molecular biological analysis.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and validity.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for evaluating quality of lubricating oil has an oil tank with a cover, an oil pump, a heating element with a heat exchanger and a gear friction couple connected through oil pipes for feeding and discharging oil into a closed loop. In the oil pipe for discharging oil there is a sealed test chamber with test specimens of structural and sealing materials which can be adjusted on the setting angle relative the oil current. The test chamber has a removable cover in which there are cross beams for mounting the specimens, and thermocouples at the oil inlet and outlet of the chamber, and the removable cover of the oil tank is configured for installation inside above the level of the oil of the test specimens for evaluating effect of oil vapour thereon.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of the device for obtaining additional data on the effect of aviation oil on structural and sealing materials when covered by oil and in oil vapour.
SUBSTANCE: described are versions of a method and apparatus for conducting such evaluation when determining the final degree of purity or final degree of contamination of fluid during sampling thereof. The described apparatus and method involve measuring the refraction index of the fluid over a certain period of time, curve fitting using refraction index measurement results or data values derived therefrom and calculating the final refraction index or final data value based on the fitted curve in order to calculate the final degree of contamination or purity of the fluid.
EFFECT: high information content and reliability of evaluation.
25 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure is based in usage of concentrator of micro-impurities in aerosol containing sprayer of examined oil, heating chamber, cooling chamber, channel for drainage of condensed fluid, and channel for exhaust of concentrated aerosol connected to source of spectre excitation. Also, aerosol of examined motor oil is generated by means of a jet-centrifugal sprayer. It is ignited with a high-voltage torch discharge directing it into a plasma-chemical reactor axially to axis of plasma flow for successive aerosol particles after-burning. Further, upon passing through the cooling chamber and filter produced solid, liquid and gaseous products are examined by methods of spectral analysis.
EFFECT: complete collection of wear products.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft cabin air samplers, gadgets for analysis of admixtures in aircraft cabin air samples for analysis of concentration of contaminants in aircraft air conditioning systems and for determination of the composition of harmful admixtures and dangerous concentrations of gases and vapours in air. This sampler comprises evacuated vessel as air consumption booster, absorption cartridge with sorbent-concentrator composed of sharpened steel tube with plugs of glass wool at tube ends, with side bore in said tube filled with sorbent and glass wool. Evacuated vessel is composed of cylindrical case with inlet and outlet pipes fitted at case ends. Outlet pipe is provided with tube of vacuum rubber and metal plug to be fitted in the tube free end after evacuation. Inlet pipe is welded to the case end and features ID larger than that of the case inlet and internal thread. Aforesaid absorption cartridge with sorbent-concentrator is fitted in said inlet pipe and, partially, in evacuated vessel used also as a sampler of admixtures not absorbed by concentrator. Locking device composed of the tube with air sample passage inlet is screwed via seal ring in evacuated vessel surface neck to tight fit. Cover with stiffness ribs and rubber washer is secured to said locking device and aligned therewith. Lever with triangular cam at the end is articulated with the device on opposite side from the cover attachment side to lift said cover to unseal the system and to bleed air. Said lever and cover are secured to be revolved in one plane relative to axles of rotation and attachment. Springs secured from one side to locking device case and to cover stiffness ribs on opposite sides. This makes said cover opened and cover closed at lowered lever and cover located at lever can outer leg. Lever shifted, cover goes up to unseal the system and to bleed air.
EFFECT: higher sampler sensitivity, accuracy of analysis, accelerated in-flight experiment.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: system contains casing-well, cylindrical sampler comprising three main parts, top part is manifold chamber, middle part is connecting coupling with female thread and groove connecting bottom and top parts, bottom part is receiving chamber for accumulation of gas supplied via side holes of the casing-well, receiving chamber and manifold chamber are covered with lids, above the connecting coupling a discharge tube is installed, under it a receiving tube is installed, above it a ball valve is installed, top discharge tube passes through the manifold chamber, lid and goes outside, on it the inlet union valve is installed to inject air in the manifold chamber and safety union valve for overpressure relief, the pneumatic chambers are located one above, and another below the inlet holes in the sampler casing, in top lid of the sampler the outlet valve is installed, casing pipe is made out of n pipes connected by outside thread coupling, with side holes of same diameter uniformly distributed along length of the casing pipe-well.
EFFECT: simplified design.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a solution for fixing biological cells. The fixing solution is intended for in vitro preservation of a cytological sample containing nucleated cells and erythrocytes. The solution contains 80-95 vol. % of a mixture of 590 ml normal saline, 10 ml polyethylene glycol (Carbowax®), 203 ml isopropyl alcohol, 193 ml pure ethanol, 0.01 vol. % sodium azide, and 5-20 vol. % buffered 4% formalin; pH of the fixing solution is in the range of 6.4 to 7.4.
EFFECT: preserving the integrity of nucleated cells.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: static, dynamic or vibration sensing is carried out preliminary at the selected points to the depth from 1 m with respect to the top of the earth fill. At the same time the samples of compacted soil of undisturbed structure are selected in order to determine the moisture and density of skeleton of the specified soil from several drilled wells at points at a distance of not more than 1 metre in plan from sensing points. Laboratory researches of standard compaction with definition of compacting factor depending on the density of soil skeleton, are carried out on the selected samples of soils from the body of compacted fill. Construction of correlation dependence is performed between the specified values of compaction factor and values of the resistance to penetration of standard cone into the soil during sensing, taking into account determinations previously performed in the laboratory followed by evaluation of compaction quality of the earth fill.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of definition and identifying the areas of non-compacted soil for its subsequent local postcompaction.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the preparation of smear from peripheral blood with preliminary fixation with methyl alcohol, drying, washing with distilled water. After that, the smears are placed in a potassium chloride solution in a ratio of 0.57 g of potassium chloride per 100 ml of distilled water for 20 min and washed with distilled water. Additionally prepared is a mixture of solutions, prepared ex tempore, containing a solution "A" and "B". The solution "A" includes a 50% silver nitrate solution in an amount of 5 g of silver nitrate + 5 ml of distilled water. The solution "B" includes a 2% solution of gelatin on a 1% formic acid solution in an amount of 15.8 ml of distilled water + 0.2 ml of 100% formic acid + 4.0 ml of 10% gelatin. The solutions "A" and "B" are mixed in an amount of 5 ml of each, in darkness, with further submergence of the blood smears for 20 min in darkness in the thermostat at a temperature of 37°C with the further submergence of the smears into distilled water for 2-3 seconds. After that, they are twice subjected to a 8 min exposure in a 5% sodium thiosulphate solution in darkness in the thermostat at a temperature of 37°C. After that, they are washed successively with tap water and distilled water, after-staining is performed in the Romanovskiy dye for 30 min. After that, the smears are washed again with tap water, air-dried, placed in the Canadian balm and covered with a coverslip.
EFFECT: increased quality of smear staining and provision of a possibility to identify and further evaluate parameters of nucleolus organiser regions.
4 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of selection of horizontal soil monolith comprises embedding along the genetic horizons of nth thin-walled metal cylinder-monolith-selector of the ith diameter with a pointed lower end of a triangular shape. The selection of the horizontal soil monolith from the pit is carried out with the number of cylinders-monolith-selectors k, equal to where i - number of the cylinder diameter (n > i > 1), n - number of cylinders of different diameters, ki - the number of repetitions of the cylinder of ith diameter (ki > 3). And each time, prior to selection of the horizontal soil monolith the inner surface of each used cylinder-monolith-selector is greased with petroleum jelly, and the load on the cylinder-monolith-selector is performed in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the pit stepwise with fixing the load of each step. The set of devices for selection of the horizontal soil monolith comprises the said k-th number of thin-walled metal cylinder-monolith-selectors and a metal cylindrical nozzle on the cylinder-monolith-selector. The metal nozzle is provided with a cylindrical recess in one of its ends, which diameter is equal to the outer diameter of the cylinder-monolith-selector having a maximum diameter of n cylinder-monolith-selectors, and the axis of symmetry coincident with the axis of symmetry of the metal cylindrical nozzle. The set also comprises (n-1) washer with an outer diameter equal to the diameter of the recess and the thickness equal to the height of the recess in the end of the metal cylindrical nozzle with the ability of mounting of each of them to the recess, followed by fixing in it. The inner washer diameters are different and equal to the outer diameter of each of the (n-1) cylinder-monolith-selector, constituting a pair: washer-cylinder-monolith-selector. Set is provided with a screw press with a head and a heel of cylindrical shape and a shield with a recess on its axis of symmetry with the ability of mounting in it through the heel of the screw press. And in the other end of the metal cylindrical nozzle on the cylinder-monolith-selector on its axis of symmetry a recess of cylindrical shape is made, the diameter and depth of which correspond to the diameter and thickness of the head of the screw press.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of sampling soil of undisturbed placement and increase in the accuracy of determining the water-physical and filtration properties of soil on genetic horizons of the soil profile, reduction of time for selection of the monolith and the complexity of operations in selection of quality horizontal soil sample.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a floating element 10, which is placed onto the sea surface and connected to a pump, rigidly fixed to the sea bottom or to massive floatage 8. The pump is made in the form of a cylindrical pipe-shaped vertically arranged chamber 1 semi-submerged into the sea, which in its upper and lower parts is equipped accordingly with lower 3 and upper 6 nozzles. At the lower nozzle 3 there is a hose 4 with certain length arranged in water depth. In the chamber there is a piston in the form of an inlet check valve placed on the stem 9, which is made as capable of passing water in the chamber only in direction from the lower nozzle to the upper one and is connected by means of the stem 9 with a floating element 10. The piston may be made within a membrane 12 adjacent to the plane of a disc 11 made with through holes, axes of which are parallel to the axis of the disc.
EFFECT: simplified design, expanded area of application of a device for water lifting.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment for determining consumptions and periodic water sampling from different horizons of a peat deposit, which are fixed as to depth. The complex includes a well casing pipe with a cone tip and a water intake structure. Besides, a sampling unit includes a cylindrical housing, on which there located are two elastic rubber cuffs with diameter equal to well diameter; in the wall of the cylindrical housing there are side holes - a middle one - for water receiving from a working horizon and is located between two cuffs; an upper one is located above the upper cuff; the lower one is located under the lower cuff; upper and lower holes are of a transit type and connected to each other with a tube passing inside the cylindrical housing of the sampling unit; the lower part of the cylindrical housing is connected to the water intake structure through a flange attached to the cylindrical housing; the upper part of the cylindrical housing is connected to a bracket for lifting the sampling unit and the water intake structure connected to it, the diameter of which is lower than inner diameter of the well casing pipe; the well casing pipe is pipes from one to N, which are connected to each other with external threaded couplings and side holes made throughout length of the pipes.
EFFECT: simpler design.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a measuring probe for measurement and taking samples in molten metal. The probe is provided with a measurement head located on a rod, which includes at least a temperature sensor and a sampling chamber. The latter is at least partially enveloped with the measurement head and includes an input channel passing through the measurement head. The input channel has an internal section with length L, which is located in the measurement head, and has minimum diameter D at least at one point in this internal section; with that, L/D2 ratio is less than 0.6 mm-1. Besides, the measurement head has counter pressure Pg of lower than 20 mbar, which is determined so that first a reference gas flow is passed via a pipe with two open ends, and pressure P1 is measured in the pipe. Then, the pipe is inserted with one end into the inlet channel of the measurement head; the same reference gas flow is passed via the pipe and pressure P2 is measured in the pipe, and counter pressure Pg of the measurement head is determined based on difference P2-P1.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of the obtained samples.
23 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes a receptacle in the form of a sealed container whose lower part is fitted with a controlled two-way diaphragm valve, and a nozzle for feeding water used to wash the sample delivery line. The apparatus also includes a filter element, which is hermetically connected to a filtrate storage container, and an information control, display and transmission unit. The filter element is located in the working medium and is mounted on the sample removal line. To regenerate the filter surface, the apparatus includes a hydraulic pressure pulsator, which is installed on the sample removal line between a ball valve and a resistance disc, through which the sample is fed into the sample receptacle in the form of a sealed container, having a water-cooled jacket located at the end of the filtrate removal line.
EFFECT: invention improves the accuracy of monitoring process parameters, provides timely detection and rectification of process disorders, which enable to obtain more reliable data on the chemical composition of a solution.
FIELD: automatical aids for sampling liquids.
SUBSTANCE: system for sampling and delivering filtrate has filter submerged into tested medium and connected with collecting tank and vacuum pressure source which is connected with top hole of collecting tank by means of pneumatic pipe. System has sample receiving tank connected with collecting tank and control unit which has first output to be connected with vacuum pressure source. Collecting tank has two separated chambers - washing chamber and dispatching chamber. Lower hole of washing chamber has to be lower hole of collecting tank and side hole of dispatching chamber has to be side hole of collecting tank. Floating valve is installed inside washing chamber to shut off lower and top holes. Filter is connected with lower hole of collecting tank through sampling pipe. Side hole of collecting tank is connected with lower hole of tank for receiving samples through sampling pipe. Flow-type sensor and check valve are installed inside transportation pipe. Output of flow-type sensor is connected with input of control unit; second output of control unit is connected with control input of analyzer.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of sample ion composition; prolonged service life of filter.
1 cl, 1 dwg