Method for experimental in vivo simulation of cortical cataract
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, particularly to ophthalmology, and concerns simulation in vivo of cortical cataract. That is ensured by a double-side surgical sympathectomy by excising a superior cervical sympathetic ganglion.
EFFECT: by simplicity and effectiveness of modulation, the method provides forming the cortical lens-form opacity, which is morphologically and immunohistochemically identical to lens cell changes in age-related lens opacity in a human.
6 dwg, 2 tbl
The invention relates to medicine, in particular to ophthalmology, and is intended to be used in research practice, ophthalmology, gerontology, histological, biological and pharmacological laboratories is available effortless, and highly specific method for experimental modeling of cortical type of cataract in vivo, thereby greatly enhancing the effectiveness of ongoing studies on the mechanisms of formation and prevention of age-related cortical cataract in humans.
According to the world health organization, among the causes of blindness in the proportion of cataract accounts for 43%. It is important to note the extremely high incidence (over 97%) among persons older than eighty years.
Research cataractogenic factors, biochemical and biophysical aspects of cataractogenesis behind the rate of improvement of technology of surgical treatment of age-related cataract. Differences in prevalence of cataract among the population of different regions, the timing and localization of turbidity, the dynamics of progression, as well as maintaining the transparency of the lens in a certain part of elderly people do not allow one to link the issue of the treatment of age-related cataract only with the possibilities of surgery and confirms the necessity of finding new ways to�servative treatment of this disease.
There is no doubt that the development of age-related cataract occurs as a result of changes in the body. Evidence of this is noted by many authors, the relationship between the incidence of certain types of age-related cataract and General somatic pathology, and the development of age-related cataract in all cases, the observations on both eyes.
It is proved that in patients with age-related cortical cataract prevailing tone of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, which identifies specific pathogenetic features of systemic degenerative changes in tissues and organs of patients of this group (Korsakov N. In. "The role of the autonomic nervous system in the formation of age-related cataract in humans" // Materials of scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 75th anniversary of Professor V. N. Saparova. - Cheboksary, 2006. - P. 35-37).
The question of trophic function of the nervous system is the most important question in a relevant biological problem about the factors maintaining the stability of tissue differentiation and tissue metabolism of living organisms. Universal mechanism of pathology A. D. Speransky seen in the neuro-degenerative processes that are associated with the starting stage disease processes.
Fundamental differences neurotransmitter security of processes fo�formation of cortical and nuclear cataract (Korsakov N. In., Sergeeva V. E. "Features boninovo status of the lens in the conditions of formation of different types of age-related cataract in humans" // Ophthalmosurgery. - M., 2007. - No. 3. - P. 44-47) prove the existence of different pathogenic mechanisms leading to the formation of different types of neurodystrophic opacities in the crystalline lens of the eye.
Thus, the type of age-related cataract reflects the pathological process of aging of the various divisions of the autonomic nervous system of the patient.
However, the high financial costs of modern microsurgical techniques for the treatment of cataract lead to a significant restriction of their use. For example, in some developing countries are operated only 10% of cataract patients; according to S. K. West, H. A. Quigley (1998), in Africa there are more than 3 million blind cataract patients that do not have the financial capabilities of its surgical treatment; in India undergo surgical treatment only 50% of those patients.
Obviously, drug prevention and therapeutic treatment of the early stages of cataract as alternative to surgical methods is now a special value. It is estimated that the restraint of the development of conservative methods of cataract by 10 years could reduce the number of expensive operations by 50%, and late late diag�of astika age-related cataract in many countries now regarded as an undue burden on the state budget, as a socio-economic problem of national importance.
Objective: develop an affordable, effortless, and highly specific method for experimental modeling of cortical type of cataract in vivo.
The essence of the proposed method is to conduct experimental sympathectomy animal.
Positive effect: pathogenetically based modeling of pathological process in vivo, ease of application, reduction of working time of the experiment, a significant increase in efficiency studies on the mechanisms of formation and prevention of cortical form of age-related cataract.
The closest to the proposed method is a model of cataractogenesis vertebrates in vitro (Krasnov M. S., Gurmit E. P., Gundorova R. A., Yamskova V. P., Y. A. Kapitonov "Model of cataractogenesis vertebrates in vitro // Ophthalmology, 2005. - Volume 2. - No. 2. - P. 43-49) applied the above authors in the development and patenting of a method for producing medicines (AMCOW I. A., Yamskova V. P., A. V. Nagovitsyn, Krasnov M. S. "a method of obtaining a medicinal product for the treatment of cataract". Patent RU №2315607, IPC AC 35/44, AK 38/17, AR 27/02). The prototype is as follows: in the experiments were used the lenses of Mature vertebrate vividly�tion (frogs, rats and smilochiropteryx eyes of cattle). The cultivation of the lenses of vertebrates was carried out in a nutrient medium for 3-8 days. For the induction of cataractogenesis was used a solution of hydrogen peroxide, the concentration of which ranged from 0.1 to 100 mm, and the solution of calcium chloride in the concentration range from 1.25 to 60 mm. Inducers of cataractogenesis was added to the nutrient medium at the beginning of cultivation. The degree of cataract was determined spectrophotometrically on the MR device 700 (Dynatech, Germany), and visually, using the lined substrate. In the latter case, the complete opacity of the lens was determined by the disappearance of the lines of the substrate under the lens. Induction of cataractogenesis by hydrogen peroxide in amphibians observed opacity of cortical layers, and the core remained intact. Induction of cataractogenesis by calcium chloride in amphibians observed clouding of the crystalline lens nucleus, cortical layers remain transparent, in some cases, observed the formation of a slight touch in the form of flair. The results reflect the dependence of localization induced cataract from the nature of the studied chemicals in two species of frogs. Induction of cataractogenesis in the lens of the bulls as in the case of calcium chloride, and in the case of the hydrogen peroxide gas� hydrogen arose cortical clouding moderate 3-4 days of cultivation. When cultured lenses of rats with hydrogen peroxide had any clouding of the crystalline lens nucleus and to a greater extent of cortical layers, we have developed a total opacity. Calcium chloride has caused a total clouding of the lenses of rats at the same time of cultivation. The results indicate differences in the regulation of functioning calcium-dependent enzyme systems, and also systems of lipid peroxidation in the membranes of cells and lens fibers in animals species studied.
Famous model of cataractogenesis vertebrates in vitro, mentioned above, may not be widely adopted in research and practice of ophthalmology, gerontology, histological, biological and pharmacological laboratories due to its high cost (environment for cultivation, the cost of electricity for prolonged cultivation), complexity (multistage, multicomponent), high costs of working time (over 8 days) and variability in modeling types of cataract in different experimental animals (specific models).
The following models of experimental cataractogenesis close to the proposed model due to changes in the conditions of life inside a living organism (in vivo), however they currently n� supported by Russian patents.
One of the models of experimental cataractogenesis in vivo based on the use of fotofabrikas effect of ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength shorter than 480 nm against a transparent refracting media of the eye (Linnik L. F., M. A. Ostrovsky et al."Artificial lenses that absorb UV rays: safety, efficacy and prospects for use in ophthalmic surgery (review of literature)" // Ophthalmosurgery. - M., 1991. - No. 4. - P. 3-7). Especially dangerous for the lens is UV light with a wavelength of 280-315 nm (range In). Clinically proven that people exposed to such radiation, regardless of gender and race are more likely to develop cortical cataracts type (Cruickshanks K. J. "Sunlight exposure and risk of lens opacities in an population-based study // Arch. Ophthal. - 1998. - V. 116. - N. 12. - P. 1666).
Another model of experimental cataractogenesis in vivo based on the use of higher concentrations of calcium, fluorine and silicon in drinking water and food experimental animals (Gophers, V. L., Andreev A. N., Stepanov R. V. et al."The role of biogeochemical factors in the pathogenesis of age-related cataract" // Ophthalmological journal. - 1990. - No. 5. Pp. 296-299).
This experimental model of cataract formation in vivo, based on the impact of TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) induces appearance� epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cells of the lens (De Iongh RU., Wederell, E., Lovicu FJ., McAvoy JW. "Transforming growth factor-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the lens: a model for cataract formation" // Cells. Tissues. Organs. - 2005. - V. 179. - N. 1-2. - P. 43-55).
These methods, having the advantage of the specificity of the model in relation to specific types of cataracts, can not meet the requirements of modern medical science, as they are quite time-consuming, costly and require a significant investment of working time.
Thus, to date, there are no ways to get the most effective simulation of the experimental cortical cataract in vivo with minimal costs.
The proposed method is based on the identified basic differences in neurotrophic control of processes of formation of cortical and nuclear cataract (Korsakov N. In., Sergeeva V. E. "Features boninovo status of the lens in the conditions of formation of different types of age-related cataract in humans" // Ophthalmosurgery. - M., 2007. - No. 3. - S. 44-47; Pastev N. P., Korsakov N. In., Pozdeeva N. And., Sergeev, V. E., "the Frequency and nature of General somatic diseases, related to the formation of different types of age-related cataract in humans" // Ophthalmosurgery. - M., 2011. - No. 1. - P. 45-49), indicating a logical manifestations of age-related involution of the various divisions of the autonomic nervous system of patients.
Object of the invention is to develop DOS�upny, effortless and highly specific method for experimental modeling of cortical type of cataract in vivo, which will increase the efficiency comparison of different anticatarrhal substances, allowing for more efficient (pathogenetically substantiated) therapy cortical type of age-related cataracts and reduce the cost of state funding for remedial measures.
A method of experimental modeling of the cortical type of cataract in vivo, based on the change in tone of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system by conducting bilateral surgical sympathectomy experimental animal.
The proposed method allows high efficiency (80%) to initiate the formation of the cortical type of cataract experimental animal in both eyes and, most importantly, allows you to recreate experimentally histological and phenotypic changes in the cells of the lens with age-related cortical cataract identified in humans.
The invention has novelty, meets the requirements of inventive step and may find wide application in research practice, ophthalmology, gerontology, histological, biological and pharmacological laboratories.
Predlojeny� method is as follows. Under General anesthesia to produce bilateral sympathectomy of the upper cervical sympathetic ganglion (cervical ganglion superius) surgically:
- layers to dissect the skin and subcutaneous tissue on the anterior margin of the m.stemocleidomastoideus;
- to dissect the neurovascular bundle of the neck;
- v.jugularis intema and a.carotis intema slipping medially;
- at the level of 2-3 cervical vertebra to hold the allocation of n.vagus and cervical ganglion superius, located medial to n.vagus;
- make a sympathectomy of the upper cervical sympathetic ganglion surgically;
- to produce hemostasis, to seal the layered sutures in the wound.
As a result of bilateral surgical sympathectomy experimental animal in 5-7 months at biomicroscopy of the anterior segment of both eyes are seen the initial signs of cortical cataract mainly in the lower-nasal quadrant: intensely reflective, specialisee haze of grayish-white color facing the base to the periphery of the lens and located in the region of its bark. 12-14 months from the time of the experiment, the area described above, grayish-white cortical opacities of the lens of both eyes is significantly increased, forming a dazzling wedge-shaped opacities with the base facing the periphery of the lens.
In addition, it is noted by�quench signs of hydration in the area of the cortex of the lens - dissociation of cells called lens fibers, the formation of cracks and water vacuoles (Fig.1, 2).
Described macroscopic changes lenses experimental animal fully consistent with the clinical picture-maturing cortical age-related cataract types in humans can be detected by biomicroscopy of the anterior eye segment during standard ophthalmic examination (Fig.3).
Another important proof of the high specificity of the proposed model is identical histological and immunohistochemical changes of the cells of the lens during formation simulated by the proposed method experimental cortical cataract animal and age-related cortical cataract (according to the results of a morphological study of the postoperative material darkened lenses).
Comparative histological analysis of sections of crystalline lens with age and modeled cortical cataracts after their obesitological stained with hematoxylin-eosin showed identical morphological changes: distinct hydration of cortical lens, dissociation from lenticular cells-fibers, wedge-shaped space filled with detritus and vacuoles. Nuclear division of the lens is squeezed obvodnennye cortical masses, but has no structural otklonenie� from the norm (Fig.4-6).
Comparative immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies to the neuron-specific enolase (NSE), protein S-100 (S-100), vimentin (Vim), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and partitocracy (EMA) in all departments of intact crystalline lens of the eye and the experimental animal did not reveal any specific staining, as an intact crystalline lens, as part of the "barrier of the body" (the blood-barrier), with no immunohistochemical label of the basic tissue types of the body. However, when forming in the lens of age or simulated by the proposed method cortical cataract found expressed immuno-positive reaction to certain monoclonal antibody - NSE, Vim and protein S-100, and the area of its existence is limited to the cortical division of the lens (PL. 1), which suggests the formation of identical transformation of the phenotype of cells of the crystalline lens.
The possibility of pathogenetically proved experimental modeling of cortical type of cataract, recreating phenotypic changes in the cells of the lens with age-related cortical cataract in humans, is confirmed by complete coincidence immunohistochemical characteristics presented in table 1.
Table 2 shows the advantages of using the proposed method compared izvestnymi.
|Comparative immunohistochemical characterization of cells of the crystalline lens of rabbit and human in experimental and age-related cortical cataract|
|Immunohistochem. method||Neuron-specific enolase (NSE)||Protein S-100||Vimentin (Vim)||α-gedcoms. actin (α-SMA)||Partitocracy (EMA)|
|The object of the observation||rabbit||people||rabbit||people||rabbit||people||rabbit||people||rabbit||people|
|Intact lens||Staining revealed no||Staining revealed no||Staining revealed no||Staining revealed no||Staining revealed no|
|Cortical type of cataract||(+) in the region of the cortex||(+) in the region of the cortex||(+) in the region of the cortex||(+) in the region of the cortex||(+) in the region of the cortex||(+) in the region of the cortex||(-)||(-)||(-)||(-)|
|Note: (+) - immunopositive reaction;|
|(-) - mononegative reaction.|
|The advantages of the proposed method for experimental modeling of cortical type of cataract in vivo over other known methods|
|Benchmarks||Method Krasnov M. S. and co-authors||Method of Linnik L. F. and co-authors||Method Suslikov V. L. and co-authors||Method claimed|
|Physiology experimental model||- (in vitro)||+ (in vivo)||+ (in vivo)||+ (in vivo)|
|The cost of funds||+++ (significant)||+++ (significant)||+++++ (maximum)||+ (minimum)|
|The complexity (multistage)||+++ (significant)||++ (moderate)||+++++ (maximum)||+ (minimum)|
|Staff time||+++ (8 days)||+++++ (some years)||++++ (1 year)||+ (30 minutes)|
|Morphologically proven pathogenetic validity||+ (minimum, at the level of visual control)||+ (minimum, at the level of visual control)||+ (minimum, at the level of visual control)||+++++ (maximum, phenotypic matching)|
|The expediency of application||+++ (significant)||+ (minimum)||++ (minor)||+++++ (maximum)|
Fig.1. The intact rabbit lens. Method biomicroscopy of the anterior segment of the eyeball. Slit lamp XG-ZG-06.
1 - absence of opacities in the lens cortex, 2 - iris, 3 - the cornea.
Fig.2. The lens of the rabbit, startled experimental cortical cataract. Method biomicroscopy of the anterior segment of the eyeball. Slit lamp XG-ZG-06.
1 - extensive wedge-shaped grayish-white opacity in the lens cortex, 2 - iris.
Fig.3. Age-related cortical cataract person. Method biomicroscopy of the anterior segment of the eyeball. Slit lamp XG-ZG-06.
1 - wide wedge-shaped grayish-white opacity in the lens cortex, 2 - iris.
Fig.4. Sagittal slice of the intact lens. Coloring with hematoxylin-eosin. SW.: about. 90, at around 15. Biolam 70. The gomal 1,7.
1 - capsule; 2 - nuclei of epithelial cells of the crystalline lens; 3 - nucleus Equatorial cells-fibers. SW.: about. 90, approx. 15.
Fig.5. Sagittal slice of the lens of the rabbit, startled experimental cortical cataract. Coloring with hematoxylin-eosin. SW.: about. 40, at around 15. Biolam 70. The gomal 1,7.
1 - the lens cortex with signs of hydration (dissociation of cell-fibers), 2 - wedge-shaped space�of nsta, filled with detritus and vacuoles, 3 - core of the lens, muffled obvodnennye cortical masses.
Fig.6. Sagittal cut of the crystalline lens of the eye, the affected cortical cataract. Coloring with hematoxylin-eosin. SW.: about. 40, at around 15. Biolam 70. The gomal 1,7.
1 - the lens cortex with signs of hydration (dissociation of cell-fibers), 2 - wedge-shaped space filled with detritus and vacuoles, 3 - core of the lens, muffled obvodnennye cortical masses.
The method of experimental modeling of the cortical type of cataract in vivo, characterized in that the method of surgical bilateral sympathectomy experimental animal by excision of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion initiate the formation of cortical lens opacities, clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics are identical to the changes in the cells of the lens with age its opacity in humans.
SUBSTANCE: during the trial rabbits are given the inhibitor preparation lynestrenol in vivo endogastrically with the daily dose of 110 mkg/kg of animal body weight in the course of 14, 21 or 28 days.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to use lynestrenol as positive control of lower activity of glycoprotein-P for prediction of inclusion of studied medicinal agents into substrates of a transporter protein.
SUBSTANCE: cecum lymphoma is modelled by the introduction of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzosulfonic acid to a rat in a dose of 0.1-0.15 ml, diluted in 0.1-0.15 ml of a 50% ethanol solution. Introduction is realised into a submucosal layer of the cecum cupola 2-3-times daily for 2-3 weeks.
EFFECT: creation of an adequate model of the cecum lymphoma.
SUBSTANCE: to correct pathologic changes in the condition of viable offspring under a cytostatic impact the medication glutoxim is introduced to female rats in a dose of 50 mcg/kg 5 days before and 5 days after the introduction of the cytostatic medication vepesid. The latter is introduced once intravenously in a maximal tolerable dose, equal to 30 mg/kg. It has been established that glutoxim can be applied as means for the correction of pathologic changes in the viable offspring of rats, obtained from coupling 3 months after the cytostatic impact.
EFFECT: application of glutoxim as the means of corrective therapy makes it possible to increase efficiency and reduce its side effects.
SUBSTANCE: method is realised by the intravenous allogeneic transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSC) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to laboratory mice one hour after irradiation. HSC are obtained from the placenta of female mice at the 14-day gestation term. MMSC are introduced in a dose of 6.5 mln cells/kg, with HSC being introduced in a dose of 400 thousand cells/kg.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to extend the arsenal of means, capable of providing the regeneration potential of the spleen tissues, as well as to increase the regeneration of main morphometric spleen indices after exposure to a radiation load.
SUBSTANCE: melanin having water-solubility of at least 80% and an paramagnetic centre concentration of at least 8·1017 spin/g is administered orally into the animals having been exposed to the radiation in a dose high enough to cause a spinal radiation injury; melanin is administered after dissolved in distilled water in the effective concentration. Melanin water is used as drinking water for the mice having been exposed to single and fractionated acute radiation, which is able to cause acute radiation disease. Melanin water is taken from the 1st to 30th day following the single radiation, or from the 1st day of the fractionated radiation to the 30th day on completion of the radiation.
EFFECT: higher survival rate, faster recovered haemopoiesis, body weight and orientation and motion activity.
7 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to animal's behavioural physiology. The orientational-exploratory and locomotor behaviour in rats is rated with an underlying developing acquisition of a food-producing skill by differentiating an animal's motion path in a batwing-shaped labyrinth. The rating procedure is based on the following forms of motor actions: movement to the labyrinth loci without a food reward; purposive movement to the locus with the food reward; exploratory travelling through all the labyrinth landings; movements to the locus contra lateral with the food reward; multiple movements between the two labyrinth loci; freezing behaviour in the start position.
EFFECT: method enables increasing the investigation reliability that is ensured by a multiple assessment of the central nervous system functions.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes sampling bone blocks with a porous wire material to be analysed, fixation of the bone tissue with the porous wire material, decalcination, degreasing, dehydration, pouring the said tissue, preparation of cuts, staining and histomorphometry. Before or after the fixation of the bone tissue with the analysed porous wire material and before or after decalcination search and fixation of an edge wire element of the porous wire material in the bone block is carried out. Untwisting of the porous wire material from the bone block is performed by the method of pulling out the edge wire element. An analysis of macropreparations is carried out when pore spaces of the porous wire material are emptied. After that, the tissues are sampled from the emptying pore spaces, including the sampling and analysis of intra-pore fragments.
EFFECT: possibility of the qualitative and quantitative estimation of histomorphometric parameters of intra-pore tissues in the entire volume of an implant.
3 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: general anaesthesia is performed. A skin incision 1.5-2 cm long is made with incising the skin, subcutaneous fat and fascia. The muscles attached to an infraspinous fossa of shoulder bone are skeletonised towards a spine; a caudal surface of a scapular spine is skeletonised; a blind bone bed is formed within the scapular spine at an angle of 45° to the surface of infraspinous fossa of shoulder bone. An implant of the analysed material is implanted into the bone bed to achieve primary stability. The wound is closed.
EFFECT: method provides minimum injuries accompanying the wound formation, reduces a risk of the incision wound damage by an animal, makes it possible to perform the surgery on opposite shoulder blade simultaneously, ensures the adequate volume and quality of the bone tissue in the surgical site, prevents the disordered muscular integrity throughout and loss of no more than 1 point of the muscular attachment.
2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of the express-modelling wear of a polyethylene insert of a metal cup or a polyethylene cup under dynamic conditions at different angles of horizontal inclination in an experimental module of the hip joint endoprosthesis consists in carrying out long-term and multiple cyclic movements in the hip joint endoprosthesis module under experiment conditions. The experimental module of the hip joint endoprosthesis, which has a leg, a polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup and a head, consisting of ceramics, metal, metal alloys and other materials with a rough surface, is used in the method. The experimental module of the hip joint endoprosthesis is fixed in the device in such a way that the head is located in the polyethylene cup or in the polyethylene insert of the metal cup of the endoprosthesis module, after which the device with the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup is installed in such a way that the longitudinal axis of the module head and neck has a 10-degree deviation relative to the plane of entrance into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or into the polyethylene cup. After that dynamic tests for joined compression and cyclic twisting in the friction pair are carried out. Then, the worn polyethylene cup or the polyethylene insert and the head with the rough surface are replaced with new ones. The device with the new polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup is installed in such a way that the longitudinal axis of the module head and neck has a 20-degree deviation relative to the plane of entrance into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or into the polyethylene cup, after which dynamic tests for joined compression and cyclic twisting in the friction pair are carried out, after which the worn polyethylene cup or the polyethylene insert and the head with the rough surface are replaced with new ones. Then the device with the new polyethylene insert of the metal cup or the polyethylene cup is installed in such a way that the longitudinal axis of the module head and neck has a 30-degree deviation relative to the plane of entrance into the polyethylene insert of the metal cup or into the polyethylene cup, after which dynamic tests for joined compression and cyclic twisting in the friction pair are carried out, after which the wear of the polyethylene insert of the cup or the polyethylene cup of the experimental module of the hip joint endoprosthesis is analysed.
EFFECT: efficiency under dynamic conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to systems for training the medical stuff and population to get skills of the first aid to an individual suffering from the upper airway obstruction with a foreign matter. An interactive training system comprises a full-size model of the human body including a head unit with the oral cavity and an open mouth provided with a foreign matter simulator, the neck unit with anelastic deformation front surface connected to the head unit through the neck unit, and a device for the foreign matter extraction from the upper airway. The model is made of an inflexible plastic material and provided with an electronic assembly, an upper airway obstruction simulator, a sensor of forward and backward flexion of the head, a sensor of a paramedic's hands position on the chest surface when giving a closed-chest cardiac massage, a sensor of the paramedic's hands position on the abdominal surface, a sensor of back strokes, a sensor of forward inclination of the body connected to the electronic assembly which is also connected to a control unit, dynamic speakers and an internal battery.
EFFECT: training system enables simulating pathological conditions occurred in the choking individual, extending the range of trained rescuing measures, improving the ease of use and enabling the self-assisted training of the rescue skills.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: medicine, experimental abdominal surgery.
SUBSTANCE: as experimental animals one should apply mongrel dogs of 12-17 kg body weight. Under general anesthesia one should conduct superior-median laparotomy, introduce 3.0 ml 70%-ethanol solution under pancreatic capsule and then laparotomic wound should be sutured up. Manipulation should be performed once. The method provides modeling adequate acute pancreatic inflammation at no side effects being very simple in implementation.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves studying transverse longitudinal and rotation stiffness characteristics. The studies are carried out step-by-step from the first order units to complete external fixation apparatus structure. The device has frame and is provided with calibration loads, wire rope, displacement indicators, strip for fastening to loading end of bone imitator fragment, beam for fixing displacement indicators, beams having unit for modeling longitudinal and transverse loadings. The frame is manufactured as parallelepiped. The fixing panel has openings for bone imitator, for fixing external fixation apparatus and yoke connection union and is fixed in end face part of the frame. Beam for fixing displacement indicators has longitudinal slit for fixing the indicators and arranging them on lateral slots in frame base. The beams having unit for modeling rotational, longitudinal and transverse loadings are arranged on lateral frame sides on lateral slots in base.
EFFECT: high vision acuity without applying spectacle-based correction; accelerated treatment course.
2 cl, 16 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: experimental medicine.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with modeling urinary calculosis in rats due to injecting intraperitoneally 60%-glucose solution at 1 ml/100 g animal body weight twice daily for 2 mo. The method is very simple and enables to achieve lithogenesis in 25% experimental animals.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of experimental modeling.
2 dwg, 2 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves using Hann diode crystal with proper frequencies of pathogenic microorganisms and cells during their death period or during the stimulating factors action period being applied.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of treatment; wider range of biophysical action types.
3 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine, experimental physiology.
SUBSTANCE: hypoxia with hypercapnia should be modeled due to creating a closed system of inhaled air circulation. Air enters lungs out of hermetically sealed reservoir and at expiration returns back. The process of recirculation is supplied with an apparatus of artificial pulmonary ventilation. The innovation suggested provides steadiness in development of hypoxia with hypercapnia excluding the development of stressor reaction. Conditions should be created to carry out any manipulations with an animal in the course of an experiment.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of modeling.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, stomatology.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation should be carried out for the purpose to study ethiology and pathogenesis of parodontitis. One should affect with emotional stress in experimental animals (mature rats) due to placing 10-11 experimental animals into the cage at area of 0.018 sq. cm/animal. Before placing into the cage one should create artificial dental plaque around the cervix of the upper and lower incisors with the help of stomatological cement for every experimental animal. In the course of modeling all experimental animals should eat paste-like food. The method enables to shorten terms for obtaining the model desired and increase its similarity with pathomorphological manifestations of human parodontitis.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of investigation.
FIELD: medical equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device has input first variable resistor, capacitor and permanent resistor. Permanent resistor is connected to arm second and third variable resistors. Second ends of variable resistors are connected with motionless contacts of polarized relay. Movable contact of relay is connected to common bus. Input of device is connected to amplifier which has output connected with control wiring of polarized relay. Second end of wiring is connected with common bus. Device is intended for electrical modeling of balanced and misbalanced conditions of acupuncture point at electropunctural action with unlike-poled signals due to liquidation mutual errors at any circuit of opposite arms of the device. Values of active resistances can be installed independently at any arm of device.
EFFECT: increased precision.
FIELD: experimental medicine.
SUBSTANCE: laboratory animals should be once injected intraperitoneally or intravenously with phenylhydrazine at the dosage of 100-150 mg/kg.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: medicine, experimental biology, ecology, toxicology.
SUBSTANCE: at studying the mechanisms of heavy metals toxic action, in particular, cadmium upon renal function, it is suggested to introduce cadmium sulfate solution into stomach once daily for 2 mo at the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, on conversion to metal, where cadmium corresponds to 0.5 mg per 1 ml solution. The present innovation enables to study the pathology in dynamics of development and elaborate and searching preparations for treating and preventing chronic toxic nephropathy.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing cell or cell group to external power source. At least two electrodes are introduced before treating the cells. One of electrodes is set on cytoplasmatic external cell membrane surface and the other one cell membrane and membrane potential value is measured. External electric voltage source is connected to the introduced electrodes oppositely in polarity with cell membrane potential difference value being not less than cell membrane potential.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in building cell damage model by means of energy burst and death.