Aircraft cabin air sampler

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft cabin air samplers, gadgets for analysis of admixtures in aircraft cabin air samples for analysis of concentration of contaminants in aircraft air conditioning systems and for determination of the composition of harmful admixtures and dangerous concentrations of gases and vapours in air. This sampler comprises evacuated vessel as air consumption booster, absorption cartridge with sorbent-concentrator composed of sharpened steel tube with plugs of glass wool at tube ends, with side bore in said tube filled with sorbent and glass wool. Evacuated vessel is composed of cylindrical case with inlet and outlet pipes fitted at case ends. Outlet pipe is provided with tube of vacuum rubber and metal plug to be fitted in the tube free end after evacuation. Inlet pipe is welded to the case end and features ID larger than that of the case inlet and internal thread. Aforesaid absorption cartridge with sorbent-concentrator is fitted in said inlet pipe and, partially, in evacuated vessel used also as a sampler of admixtures not absorbed by concentrator. Locking device composed of the tube with air sample passage inlet is screwed via seal ring in evacuated vessel surface neck to tight fit. Cover with stiffness ribs and rubber washer is secured to said locking device and aligned therewith. Lever with triangular cam at the end is articulated with the device on opposite side from the cover attachment side to lift said cover to unseal the system and to bleed air. Said lever and cover are secured to be revolved in one plane relative to axles of rotation and attachment. Springs secured from one side to locking device case and to cover stiffness ribs on opposite sides. This makes said cover opened and cover closed at lowered lever and cover located at lever can outer leg. Lever shifted, cover goes up to unseal the system and to bleed air.

EFFECT: higher sampler sensitivity, accuracy of analysis, accelerated in-flight experiment.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the sampling of air of aircraft cabins (LA), concentration of impurities in the air samples cabins LA for studying the degree of air pollution with harmful substances coming together with the air in the air conditioning system (ACS) and determine the composition of contaminants, hazardous air concentrations of gases and vapors, increasing the sensitivity of their determination.

The level of technology

The main source of air pollution of aircraft cabins - ash lubricating oil from front supports engines with subsequent complete or partial decomposition in the path of the compressor of the gas turbine engine (GTE) in different operational modes. Complex mixture of vapours and aerosols of lubricating oil, a pair of aliphatic hydrocarbons, acrolein, formaldehyde, phenol, cresol, acetic acid, benzene, Tricresyl phosphate, ethyl, propyl, butyl and isobutyl alcohols, acetone, toluene, xylene, monoxide and carbon dioxide comes from the air conditioning system in the cab LA. In addition, the air booths LA pollute the selection of finishing materials enclosures and anthropotoxins.

The proposed device can be used during factory testing and certification LA for compliance with the requirements of §831 AP-25 (Air PR�Vila. Part 25. The airworthiness standards of transport category airplanes. 2008), similar to AP-29 (helicopters) and AP-23 (civilian light aircraft). Domestic purity requirements of bleed air from the aircraft GTE and served for ventilation for the crew and passengers, are regulated in AP-25. In accordance with §25.831 along with the requirement of filing a ventilation system sufficient amount of air (a), does not contain harmful or hazardous concentrations of gases and vapors" (b) the need to ensure the following conditions:

Maximum permissible concentrations of other toxic contaminants (except monoxide and carbon dioxide), mg/m3, (d*):

a pair of fuel - 300;

vapours and aerosols of mineral oils - 5;

vapours and aerosol of synthetic oils - 2;

the acrolein - 0,2;

formaldehyde - 0,5;

phenol - 0,3;

benzene - 5;

Tricresyl phosphate is 0.5;

dioctylsebacate - 5,0;

nitrogen oxides - 5.

The known device for sampling and storage of samples of the air in the form of a glass ungraduated gas pipette with two single taps, made according to GOST 18954-73 "Device and glass pipette for sampling and storage of samples of gas."

A similar device made in the form of canisters that are described in ASTM (2001): "Standard Test Method for Determination of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Atmospheres (Canister Sampling Methodology), West Conshohocken, PA, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM Standard D5466-01". The canister with shut-off valve is used either to pre-evacuate, or selected by the method of gas exchange (canister purge a large amount of air).

Different versions of these devices (the selection in gas pipettes, plastic bags, etc.) suitable only for sampling air content laboartories gases, and according to Russian up in the air booths normalized LA the great concentration of high-boiling compounds (oil, kerosene, Tricresyl phosphate, etc.). The famous "air sampling", the patent for the invention №2494366, comprising a housing, which are connected by a vertical panel on which are located samplers with adsorption packages that have hubs, solenoid valves, filter drier, sensors measure temperature and pressure, reservoir sampling, placed in front of the subjects GTE diffuser with nozzles, vacuum pump and control panel. However, this complex is only used for bench testing of engines. The disadvantages of this design include the fact that the shut-off device (solenoid valves) are located after the sampling, the valve may be settling of the impurities and, on the contrary, they can release impurities.

Napoleonischen in technical essence to the proposed device is a device that described in MU 1.1.258-99, introduced 01.07.2000 NYISO. These defects are partially eliminated by the fact that the air sampling is performed by concentrating the impurities on the adsorbent, and vacuumed the capacity is used here as the thoriated stimulus rate with good metrological characteristics. The design of the device for the concentration of impurities of the air (sampler) includes a housing and a hub with a sorbent made of sharpened steel tube with side hole and the push rod with the adjusting screw. The hub is centered and sealed in the housing by means of two rubber bushings. After sampling, the sampler is disassembled, the hub without disassembly goes to chromatographic analysis by desorption of impurities into the chromatograph evaporator, after which it fit again for selection without special treatment.

The disadvantages of this design include the fact that the shut-off device (solenoid valves) are located after the sampling. During the long flight, especially maneuverable aircraft, due to the change in pressure in the cabin will be unaccounted selection of air pumping through the hub to equalize the air pressure in the cabin and the dead volume between the valve and the hub). Simple change places these nodes does not solve �Roble, so the valve may be settling of the impurities and, on the contrary, they can release impurities. Possible parasitic passive sampling on adsorbent in the hub, as the entrance to the hub will be here permanently open. In addition, the background contamination of the hub discharge from rubber bushings is possible due to the large area of contact with the hub. All this distorts the results of subsequent gas chromatographic analysis in a significant overstatement.

The technical result, the achievement of which the claimed device is to increase the sensitivity of the determination of threat of air concentrations of gases and vapors, the accuracy of the analysis by reducing background contamination, minimize ground-based and flight experiments on the estimation of the clean air booths LA.

Essential features.

To achieve this technical result in the device for sampling air in the cabin of the aircraft, containing evacuated capacity as a stimulus rate of air, the absorption with the sorbent cartridge (hub), made from a piece of sharpened steel tube with glass wool plugs at the ends of the tube, with lateral hole in the tube filled with sorbent and glass, vacuumed the tank comprises a cylindrical �of Cabinet with inlet and outlet nozzles, provided in its ends. The outlet is provided with a vacuum tube from rubber and metal input plug in the free end of the tube after evacuation. The inlet pipe is welded to the casing, formed with an internal diameter greater than the diameter of the entrance into the body, and internally threaded. The absorption with the sorbent cartridge (hub) installed in the inlet and partially in the vacuum vessel, which is used as sampler nesorbiruyushchegosya hub impurities. A locking device in the form of a tube having an inlet for passage of air samples to screw up tightly pressed through the sealing ring to the neck surface of a vacuum container.

To shut-off device at the entrance cover is attached coaxially with ribs and rubber gasket and the opposite cover sides on a device pivotally mounted lever with a triangular eccentric Cam on the end, made with the possibility when pushing the lever to lift the lid, lasermedizin system and making selection of the air. The lever and the lid is secured and is made with the possibility of rotation in one plane relative to the axis of rotation and fixation, between them there are springs attached at one side to the housing of the locking device, and on the other hand - to �Abram stiffness of the cover, providing when you lowered the lever when the cover is on the outer leg of the eccentric lever, position the cover is closed, and the lid is open when raised and lies with technological gap on the inner leg of the eccentric, when pushing the lever cap is lifted, lasermedizin system and making selection of the air.

In addition, the device is ergonomic when making the selection procedure of the sample pilot in riot gear in the cramped cockpit maneuvering of the aircraft by minimizing the number of actions during the sampling.

Fig.1 is a diagram of the proposed device for sampling air cabins LA.

Fig.2, 3 shows a drawing of the locking device with the lowered arm, triangular eccentric on the end and raised in moments of closing and opening the lid.

The device selected as a prototype, contains the vacuum vessel, the hub.

The proposed device, see Fig.1, comprises a cylindrical vacuum tank 1, the inlet pipe 2 installing the hub 3 through the annular rubber seal 4, which is sealed by vmorajivaniem in the neck of the tube 2 of the housing of the locking device in the form of a tube 5 with the threaded neck 6. At the entrance of the tube 5 on the opposite sides are attached lid 7 with ribs and rubber gasket and the lever 8 with a triangular uh�centrecom at the end. They are pinned and free to rotate in the same plane with the axes 9 and 11. Between them are springs 10 mounted on one side on the housing of the locking device 5, on the other hand - on the edges of the cover 7, which provide the permanent closure of the lid 7, when lowered, the lever 8. At the opposite end of the container 1 is formed with the outlet 12 with rubber sleeve 13 and the cap 14 used for vacuum and residual pressure before and after air sampling.

The operation of the device

The device operates as follows. At the entrance of the cylindrical vacuum container 1 set locking device 5 with the lever 8, having two stable spring - loaded positions-closed, when the cover 7 rests on the outer leg of the eccentric lever, and open when the lid is raised and rests with the technological gap on the inner eccentric leg, see Fig.2 and 3.

Absorbing sorbent cartridge with hub 3 is mounted in the inlet pipe 2 and partially in the vacuum container 1, which is used as sampler nesorbiruyushchegosya hub impurities. In the closed position of the cover device are collected and evacuated through the second outlet 12 with the vacuum tube from rubber (rubber coupling) 13, which is then drowned out by introducing into the tube metal�quarter rivet 14 of larger diameter. In the open position (lever up) is the selection of the sample. After selection (1-2 min) device with a single motion of the pilot is closed (lever down). This before and after sampling contamination of the hub is eliminated, which significantly reduces the error in determining the concentration of harmful pollutants in the air booths LA. In addition, the fact that the locking device 5 is provided with a cover strip 7 and without any lubricant and with a large orifice, and not in the form of needle or ball valve, or valve, to avoid sedimentation of impurities in the locking device 5 to the hub 3 and at the same time does not contaminate the sample with grease or other discharge valves. Device for sampling air cabins LA quite compact.

For reliable analysis of air cabins according to the requirements of the AP, according to the existing methods, it helps to pump the air through the hub of 0.1-0.2 DM3(assuming that the background contamination of the hub is small enough, and ensures that the proposed design of the device). If mounted on cylindrical vacuum container 1 elastic annular band with a Velcro closure, it can help to strengthen such devices by the required amount to the head restraints of seats of the cab LA, having the intake device in the breathing zone of occupants. Passing on �Alon, engineer-experimenter in one motion opens the desired device, and on the way back closes them (at the time of selecting no more than 1-2 minutes). This greatly reduces the time and number of flight experiments to assess the purity of the air booths LA. Manoeuvrable aircraft is also very favorable to the compactness and ease of operation of the proposed device. Operations for opening and closing them, the pilot can perform even in protective gear (for other designs, this process is very complicated).

A device for sampling air in the cabin of the aircraft, containing evacuated capacity as the stimulus rate of the air, absorbing sorbent cartridge with a hub made of sharpened steel tube with glass wool plugs at the ends of the tube, with lateral hole in the tube filled with sorbent and glass, characterized in that vacuumed the tank comprises a cylindrical body with inlet and outlet nozzles mounted in its ends, the outlet is provided with a vacuum tube from rubber and metal cap, introduced into the free end of the tube after evacuation, the inlet nozzle is welded to the casing, made with an inner diameter greater than the diameter of the inlet in the casing, with internal thread, absorption cartridge with�Bantam the hub is installed in the inlet and partially in the vacuum container, which is also used as a sampler to nesorbiruyushchegosya hub impurities, a locking device in the form of a tube having an inlet for passage of air samples to screw up tightly pressed through the sealing ring to the neck surface of a vacuum container, a locking device at the entrance cover is attached coaxially with ribs and rubber gasket and the opposite cover sides on a device pivotally mounted lever with a triangular eccentric Cam on the end, made with the possibility when pushing the lever to lift the lid, lasermedizin system and making selection of the air, the lever and the lid is secured and is made with the possibility of rotation in one plane relative to the axis of rotation and fixation, between them there are springs attached at one side to the housing of the locking device, and on the other hand to the ribs of the cover, ensuring that when you lowered the lever when the cover is on the outer leg of the eccentric lever, position the cover is closed, and the lid is open when raised and lies with the technological gap in the domestic leg of an eccentric.



 

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