Article having component made of nonwoven fabric, wherein fibre elevation improving fastening figures and configurations are formed by calendering

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is an article having, as a component, a piece of nonwoven fabric formed primarily from polymer fibres. The piece of nonwoven fabric can have a configuration of fibre-consolidating fastening points stamped on its surface. The fastening points can have the shape of at least one figure, and such a figure can have a periphery with the greatest measured length and the greatest measured width. The periphery can have a curved part and a ratio of the length to the width of at least 2.5. The fastening points also have a certain density of arrangement and orientation relative to the direction of movement of the fabric in a machine and a cross direction. The shape of the fastening point reflects the shape of the corresponding fastening protrusion on a fastening roller.

EFFECT: shape, density and orientation of fastening protrusions influence the flow of air through the fastening gap, and said flow can be used to improve elevation of fibres of the obtained fastened nonwoven fabric.

18 cl, 1 tbl, 14 dwg

 

The level of technology

The production of disposable absorbent products, hygienic products (such as disposable diapers, "educational" panties, underwear for adults suffering from incontinence, feminine hygiene products, breast swabs, sanitary napkins, baby bibs, bandages and the like) is relatively capital intensive, and their marketing is very competitive. To maintain or increase their share in the market of manufacturers of such products need to constantly enhance their products so that it is differentiated from similar products of competitors, and at the same time to prevent the growth of its costs to ensure competitiveness of prices of finished products, and offer goods on the market with an attractive ratio of quality and price.

One way that some manufacturers are trying to increase the attractiveness of its products, is to enhance the softness of the products. Parents or other persons providing care, have a natural desire to provide maximum comfort to your little ones, and therefore, the use of the diaper, relatively soft to the touch, gives them confidence that they are doing everything possible to ensure the maximum comfort for your child. As with other absorbent products, are design�uchennyh for application to the skin and/or wear close to the skin, the softness of this product also gives wearing or entity that provides care, a sense of confidence in the comfort of the product.

From this point of view, manufacturers are developing in the direction of increasing the softness of different materials used in such products, in particular, to enhance the softness of the various paintings which form the product, including nonwoven fabrics, formed from polymer fibers, and laminates of them. Such laminates may include, for example, laminates of polymer films and nonwoven fabrics, which are often made back the leaves of such products.

It is considered that a persons perception of the softness of a nonwoven fabric can affect tangible, audible and visible signals.

Tangible signals of the softness may come from different elements and properties of the material, affecting not his tactile perception and including, but not limited to, the elevation of the fibers, the shape of the fibers, the thickness and density of the material, the weight per unit area, pliability and flexibility at the micro level (individual fibers), the malleability and flexibility at the macro level (nonwoven fabrics in General, formed from these fibers, friction characteristics superficiality, the number of loose fibers or free ends of fibers, and other characteristics.

The feeling of softness can also be affected hear�values from the signals, for example, rustle, rustling, or other noises, and the sound of crumpling at the touch of the material or during operations with him.

The feeling of softness can also affect the visible signals, i.e. the appearance of the material. It is believed that if a nonwoven material seems relatively soft, it is more likely to expect that tactile person is also likely to perceive it as relatively soft. The visual impression of softness can influence various elements and material properties, including, but not limited to, color, transparency, reflectance, refraction or absorption of light, the visible thickness, the size of the fibers and the density and physical properties of the surface at the macro level.

Due to this complex combination of characteristics described above, it is impossible to accurately measure and quantify the softness of the material of non-woven fabric. And although a number of methods of measurement and evaluation of material properties, which are believed to form signals of softness, there is no standard, universally recognized units of softness or methods of its measurement. This characteristic is relative, since the very concept of subjective softness. For the same reason, namely, because the softness is so hard to describe, it is also difficult and predictably affect our policies.�ive for example, by changing the material properties or parameters of the production process.

Efforts to measure and improve the softness makes it difficult is the fact that different people have different physiologically founded and formed by the experience of the scale of softness, and different views about what kind of properties and items of material more or less soft one and the same material, or the material compared to other materials.

An important property of nonwovens is their elation fibers, for a variety of reasons in addition to creating a feeling of softness. For example, in some applications, a nonwoven fabric can be used as a cleaning product, such as wipers. Raising the elevation of the fibers of these nonwoven fabrics can improve the effectiveness of their work, as cleaning elements. In another application, a nonwoven fabric may be used as a component with eyelets for fasteners such as "Velcro". Raising the elevation of the fiber material can increase its lifespan for this purpose.

Different ways of increasing the elevation of the fibers of the canvas and/or strengthen the feeling of the softness of the consumer, which consists in the presence or change of those or other features of the blade. The proposed methods include the selection and/or modification of chemical fibers, �good weight of fabric per unit area, embossed fibers, the density of the fibers, their configuration and size, colour and/or transparency, execution, stamping or bonding in the form of various configurations of ground bond and others.

For example, one approach to increasing the sensation of the softness of a nonwoven fabric consists simply in increasing the proportion of cloth produced in the process of stretching, stacking, and bonding fibers (spunbond), which includes the production of blanks from not bonded to each other elongated fibers with subsequent consolidation, calendering and bond in the form of a specific configuration of seats fastening. Ceteris paribus, the increase of specific weight per unit area means increasing the number of fibers per unit area, and thus an increase of the apparent thickness, density, fiber, and/or embossed fibers. This approach would be successful if the only aim was to strengthen signals of depth and/or elevation of fibers, affecting the feeling of softness, as the increase of the specific weight of the fabric spunbond material really is one way of increasing the depth or elevation of the fibers. However, note that a significant component of the costs that affect the cost of materials in the form of nonwoven webs of polymeric materials, assetcategory one or more polymer resins, of which is the stretching of the fibers. For the manufacture of nonwoven materials having a higher specific weight, require more resin, and therefore, the cost of raw materials per unit area will be higher. Therefore, this approach of increasing the elevation of the fibers and/or sensation of softness by increasing the specific weight of the nonwoven fabric per unit area associated with the ever present problem of maintaining or reducing the cost of the product.

Another approach is the formation of nonwoven webs of bicomponent polymer fibers, stretching of these fibers, their styling and shaping of the workpiece with subsequent consolidation, calendering and bond in the form of configuration of the locations of the fasteners that provide the desired visible effect. Such two-component polymeric fibers may be formed by using mouthpieces that have two adjacent to each other sections, one of which is squeezed out of the first polymer; the second, the second polymer, thereby forming the fiber in cross section which includes a first polymer (the first part of the section) and the second polymer (the second part of the section), why such fibers and are referred to as two-component. Its constituent polymers can be selected so that they will have different themes�of oratory melting and/or different coefficients of tension-compression. Different properties of the two polymers connected to each other side by side, or in the form configuration "core-core" cause twisting of the bicomponent fibers in the process of spinning, that is, upon cooling and stretching from the mouthpiece. Thus obtained twisted fiber can be laid in the form of billets and calendered with the formation of a specific configuration of seats fastening. We can expect that such twisting of the fibers increases the elevation of the fibers and vzbitoy" paintings, reinforcing visual and tactile perceivable signals soft.

Another approach involves the use of the back sheet in the form of a laminate of the film and nonwoven fabric, in which the film prior to lamination with the nonwoven fabric, with high gradation of tones is printed the picture that after laminating film with a nonwoven fabric becomes visible through the canvas and simulates shadows that would have occurred on the nonwoven fabric in different lighting conditions, if the canvas had on its surface configuration of three-dimensional elements. As a result, amplified visually perceptible signals soft.

Another approach involves the use of a process hydrosurvey in the formation of a cloth, followed by calendering with pinning, resulting in fiber vspuchivajutsja, and HC�lacivita thickness and elevation of the fibers of the canvas. We can expect that the process of hydrosurvey increases the elevation of the fibers and the thickness of the blade so that the enhanced visual and tactile perceivable signals soft.

The above-mentioned and other approaches, have been in various degrees of success, but given the soil for further research in the field of increasing the elevation of the fibers and visual and/or tactile perceivable signals soft. In addition, it should be noted that many currently used methods of signal amplification softness in the nonwoven fabric have an unwanted side effect in the form of weakening of the mechanical characteristics of the blade below the required level, such as, for example, tensile strength, and they may also increase the cost of production of the fabric due to the use of additional materials, equipment and/or energy resources at appropriate stages in the processing of the canvas.

The task of enhancing the dignity of the fibers and/or softness is even more complicated as you reduce the weight of nonwoven fabric per unit area, since decreasing specific gravity becomes less fibres per unit area, which could increase the elevation of the fibers and/or opacity of the canvas.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig.1A. Axonometric view of odnorazovogo, laid on a horizontal surface, in a free state, the side facing the bearing, upwards.

Fig.1B. Top view of the disposable diaper, laid on a horizontal surface, straightened flat (overcoming the elastic force from the elastic element), side facing the bearing, upwards.

Fig.2A. The cross section of the diaper of Fig.1A and 1B, along the plane 2-2 indicated in Fig.1A and 1B.

Fig.2B. A schematic cross section of a fragment of a laminate of plastic film and nonwoven fabric plane passing through the configuration of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric.

Fig.3. A simplified view of the workpiece moving through the gap between kalenderwoche platens in forming nonwoven fabric with calendering and binding.

Fig.4A. A view of the configuration of the figures, the shape of which have fastening surface of the fastening protrusions that can be performed on the surface kalenderwoche roller for formation of a corresponding configuration of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric having the form of these figures.

Fig.4B. View of another embodiment of the configuration of the figures, the shape of which have fastening surface of the fastening protrusions that can be performed on the surface kalenderwoche cushion for the respective alternative�th configuration of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric, having the form of these figures.

Fig.4C. Enlarged view of the configuration of the figures, the shape of which have fastening surface of the fastening protrusions or impressions of bonding in the nonwoven fabric shown in Fig.4B.

Fig.5A. View of another embodiment of the configuration of the figures, the shape of which have fastening surface of the fastening protrusions that can be performed on the surface kalenderwoche cushion for the respective alternative configuration of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric having the form of these figures.

Fig.5B. Enlarged view of the configuration of the figures, the shape of which have fastening surface of the fastening protrusions or impressions of bonding in the nonwoven fabric shown in Fig.5A.

Fig.5C. Enlarged view of the configuration of the figures, the shape of which have fastening surface of the fastening protrusions or impressions of bonding in the nonwoven fabric shown in Fig.5A.

Fig.6A. View of another embodiment of the configuration of the figures, the shape of which have fastening surface of the fastening protrusions that can be performed on the surface kalenderwoche cushion for the respective alternative configuration of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric having the form of these figures.

Fig.6B. Enlarged view of the configuration of the figures, the shape of which have�rapsodie surface fastening protrusions or impressions of bonding in the nonwoven fabric, shown in Fig.6A.

Fig.7. View of another embodiment of the configuration of the figures, the shape of which have fastening surface of the fastening protrusions that can be performed on the surface kalenderwoche cushion for the respective alternative configuration of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric having the form of these figures.

Detailed description of the invention

Definition

"Absorbent product" means the device for absorbing and retaining body fluids, and more specifically, the device can be mounted next to or in close proximity to the user's body to absorb and retain various body secretions. Absorbent articles may include diapers, training pants, underwear for adults suffering from incontinence, feminine hygiene products, breast swabs, sanitary napkins, baby bibs, bandages and the like. In the context of the present description, the term "body fluids" includes, but is not limited to, urine, blood, vaginal secretions, breast milk, sweat and fecal matter.

"Absorbent core" means a structure, usually located between the top sheet and back sheet of the absorbent product intended for the absorption and retention of fluid, adopted absorbers�m product. The absorbent core may also include a cover layer (envelope). Cover layer (envelope) may contain non-woven fabric. In some embodiments, the absorbent core may include one or more bases, absorbent polymer material and thermoplastic adhesive material, the composition having adhesion to the absorbent polymer material and immobilizerpower relative to the base, and in some embodiments, relative to the covering layer or envelope.

The terms "absorbent polymer", "absorbent gel material", "AGM", "superabsorbent" and "superabsorbent material" in the context of the present description are used as mutually substitute each other and mean the materials from cross-linked polymers that can absorb a 0.9% aqueous solution of a salt in an amount of at least 5 times their own weight, based on the measurement results according to method of determining holding capacity by centrifugation (Edana 441.2-01).

The term "absorbent polymer material in the form of particles" in the context of the present description means of absorbent polymer material in the form of particles, which in the dry state is loose.

"The area of the absorbent polymer material in the form of particles" in the context of the present description means about�region of the core, in which the first base and second base are separated from each other by many Central antimicrobial highly absorbent particles. Some accidentally freed of particles of the superabsorbent polymer can be outside of this area between the first and second bases.

"Pulp" in the context of the present description means shredded wood pulp, which is a form of cellulose fibers.

In the context of the present description, the term "workpiece" means fibrous materials prior to their bonding with each other, which occurs at the stage of final calandrinia, as will be described below. "Blank" contains the individual fibers, which are usually not bonded with each other, although some preliminary bond fibers can be performed, for example, in the process of stretching and laying of fibers or after a short time after, or during the pre-calandrinia. However, after this preliminary bonding is still quite a large number of fibers which have complete freedom of movement, so that their position can be changed. A "blank" can contain multiple layers that can be formed from overlap with each other fibers, extruded through a multiple series of mouthpieces.

"Bicomponent fiber" means a fiber having a p�pepper section contains two separate components corresponding to the different polymers, two different mixtures of polymers, or one polymer and one mixture of polymers. A bicomponent fiber is a special case of multicomponent fibers. Two-component fiber may have a cross section comprising two or more regions corresponding to various components and which can take various forms and arrangement, including, for example, the coaxial arrangement, the location of the "sheath-core" location "side by side, in the form of sectors of a circle, and others.

"The percentage of the area of the bonding in the nonwoven fabric means the ratio of the area occupied by the prints of bonds to the total area of the leaf, expressed as a percentage and measured according to the method of determining area percentage of the bond given in this application.

The terms "bonding roller", "Kalinkavichy cushion" and "roller" are as mutually substitute each other.

"Print bonding in the nonwoven fabric is an education on its surface, formed by pressing a bonding ledge kalenderwoche cushion in non-woven fabric. The imprint bond represents the location of the strain included in engagement with each other or tangled, fused or thermally bonded materials ox�con, superimposed upon each other and compressed in the z-direction under a bonding protrusion, and thus forming a bonding place. Individual bonds can be linked free fibers in the nonwoven fabric structure. The shape and dimensions of the imprint bond roughly correspond to the shape and size of the fastening surface of the fastening protrusion kalenderwoche roller.

"Column" from bonding to the nonwoven fabric means a group of neighboring with each other places of fastening of a similar shape and angular orientation along the line, the long, mostly in the direction of movement in the car.

“Cross direction” (CD) - in relation to the process of manufacturing a material in the form of a nonwoven fabric means a direction parallel to the surface and essentially perpendicular to the direction of feed of cloth in a production line, on which the manufactured cloth. In relation to the workpiece passing through the gap between the pair kalenderwoche rollers forming a bonded fabric, a transverse direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of the fabric through the gap and parallel to the gap.

The term "disposable" is used in its ordinary sense and refers to the product that is removed as waste after a limited number of times of its use that can�have different time periods, for example, after less than 20 times of usage, less than 10 times, less than 5 times of usage, or even less than 2 times of use.

The term "diaper" refers to an absorbent product, usually worn by small children and persons suffering from incontinence, lower body, around the legs and waist, and specially intended to receive and retain urine and fecal secretions. In the context of the present description, the term "diaper" also includes the term "panties", which will be defined below.

The terms "fiber" and "filament" are used as mutually substitute each other.

"Fiber diameter" is expressed in micrometers. The terms "denier", or "den" (grams of fiber for 9000 m) and "dTex" (grams of fiber per 10,000 m) are used to describe fibres, coarse or fine, and on relevant indicators can be defined fiber diameter (assuming it is circular), if you know the density of the material (materials) fiber.

"Film" means a material type of membrane formed from one or more polymers, and having a shape in the form of webs of bonded together by a polymer and/or other fibers.

The term "length" and its derivatives, against the diaper or training pants, in addition, indicate the size, measured in the direction perpendicular to the edges, primehouse� to the waist, and/or parallel to the longitudinal axis.

"The direction of motion in the machine (MD)" is used to refer to the process of manufacturing nonwoven fabrics and to a nonwoven web means a direction essentially parallel to the direction of flow on the production line, on which the sheet is produced. With respect to the workpiece passed through the gap between the pair kalenderwoche rollers, the direction of movement in the car parallel to the direction of movement of the fabric through the gap and perpendicular to the gap.

"One component" means the fiber formed from a single polymer component or a mixture of polymeric components, in contrast to two-component or multicomponent fibers.

"Multi-component" means a fiber having a cross-section containing more than one polymer component, more than one a mixture of polymeric components, or at least one polymer component and at least one polymer blend components. Multicomponent fibers include, but are not limited to, bicomponent fiber. Multi-component fiber may have a cross section that contains the image area corresponding to the various components and which can take various forms and arrangement, including, for example, coaxially location, location "Obol�ish-core", the location of "side by side", in the form of sectors of a circle, "Islands in the sea" and others.

"Nonwoven web" means a sheet or canvas industrial manufacture of directionally or randomly oriented fibers, of which the first is formed from the blank, and then they are consolidated and are fastened to each other by friction, cohesion, adhesion or through one or more configurations of the locations of bonding and prints bond formed by localized compression and/or application of pressure, heat, ultrasonic or thermal energy or combinations thereof. The term does not include fabrics that are woven, knitted, or quilted yarn or fibers. The fibers may be of natural or synthetic origin, and may be staple or continuous fibers, formed on the spot. Commercially available fibers have a diameter of from less than about 0.001 mm to more than about 0.2 mm, and they are offered in several different forms: short fibers (also referred to as staple, or chopped), continuous single fibers (filaments or monofilaments), non-twisted bundles of continuous fibers (tow), and twisted bundles of continuous filaments (yarn). Nonwoven fabrics can be manufactured using a variety of processes including, but not limited to: blowing fibers from the melt, with�unbond, traction with melting, spinning from solution, the electrospinning manufacturing, cardownie, fabriciana films, fabriciana molten films, air laying, dry laying, wet laying staple fibers, and combinations thereof, known to one versed in the art. The specific weight of nonwoven fabrics is usually expressed in grams per square meter (g/m2).

"Opacity" means a numerical value that reflects the ability of a fabric material transmitting light, measured according to the method of measurement of opacity described in this application.

The terms "panty" and "training panties" in the context of the present description means a disposable garments, in which there are openings for the waist and legs intended for children or adults. Panties can be worn on the user by threading his legs through the leg openings and the subsequent pulling panties to the appropriate position around the lower part of the housing. Panties can be pre-formed by any suitable method, including, but not limited to: connecting with each other parts of the product using the elements or methods of single or multiple bond (for example, stitching, welding, adhesive or cohesive bond, fastener, etc.). The fastening parts of panties for their forms�process may be performed in any place of the surface (for example, on the side areas or in the front area adjacent to the waist). And although later in the present description uses the term "panties", such products are offered for sale are also called "closed diapers", "training panties", "diaper-pants" and other. Examples of this type of products and elements of their construction are described in U.S. patents 5246433 (Hasse al, issued September 21, 1993); 5569234 (Buell with co-workers, issued October 29, 1996); U.S. patent 6120487 (author Ashton, issued September 19, 2000); U.S. patent 6120489 (Johnson al, issued September 19, 2000); U.S. patent 4940464 (Van Compel with co-workers, issued July 10, 1990; U.S. patent 5092861 (Nomura and co-authors, issued March 3, 1992); patent publication US 2003/0233082 A1 "anchorage Device having high flexibility and small elongation" (filed June 13, 2002); U.S. patent 5897545 (Kline al, issued April 27, 1999; U.S. patent 5957908 (Kline with co-workers, issued September 28, 1999).

The term "priority" used in the component material, means that this component is more than 50% of the weight of the material. The term "priority" used in relation to the direction or orientation of the physical item or its geometric parameter means that the projection of this element or parameter per line, extended along a specified direction�t, more than a projection on a line perpendicular to it. In another context, the term "preferential" may indicate a condition that has a significant effect on the property or element. For example, if the material contains mainly some component, giving it a certain property, this means that this component gives the material property, which is otherwise the material would not have. For example, if the material contains mainly thermally fusion-bonded fibers, the components of these fibers and their number should be sufficient to thermally bond the fibers.

"Binding overhang", or simply "the ledge" means a fastening element of a roller constituting a part of the cushion, the most remote in the radial direction from the axis of the roller and surrounded by recessed areas. In relation to the axis of rotation kalenderwoche the cushion, the fastening protrusion has the most outstanding in the radial direction of the fastening surface, the form of which forms a certain shape, and which has some area, and lying generally parallel to the outer cylindrical surface of the roller essentially constant radius from the axis of rotation of the crimping roller; thus, the dimensions of the projections forming a bonding surface in the form of the figures, as a rule, rather malipo comparison with the radius of the crimping roller, therefore, a bonding surface may be almost flat, and a figure on a bonding surface can be accurately approximated by a flat area having the same shape. The fastening protrusion may have a side face that is perpendicular to a bonding surface, although usually the side faces are arranged at a certain inclination to the perpendicular, so that the cross section of the fastening ledge at its base is bigger than the cementing surface. On kalenderwoche the cushion can be positioned multiple fastening protrusions in the form of a configuration. Multiple fastening protrusions characterized by a bonding area per unit area of the outer cylindrical surface of the roller, which can be expressed as a percentage and is equal to the sum of the areas of all bonding surfaces on the protrusions on this cushion, and total surface area of the roller.

"A number of places of bonding to the nonwoven fabric means a group-adjacent relation to each other places bond with similar shape and similar corner location and located along a line extended predominantly in the transverse direction.

The term "essentially not containing cellulose" in the context of the present application is used to describe a component of the product, such as absorber�embracing the core, containing less than 10% cellulose fibers by weight, less than 5% cellulosic fibers by weight, less than 1% cellulosic fibers by weight, not containing cellulose fibres, or containing not more than insignificant portion of the cellulose fibers. Under insignificant part of cellulose fibers, generally refers to the portion that is not reflected on the thickness, flexibility and absorptive capacity of the absorbent core.

The term "essentially continuously distributed" in the context of the present description means that within the field of absorbent polymer material in the form of particles of the first 64 and second base 72 separated by many Central antimicrobial highly absorbent particles. This implies that within the field of absorbent polymer material in the form of particles may be tiny places accidental contact between the first 64 and second base 72. The contact between the first 64 and second base 72 may be intentional or unintentional (manufacturing artifacts), but they do not have a clear geometry (for example, in the form of pillows, tubes, pockets, quilted structures, and other forms).

"Tensile strength" means the maximum stretching force (also referred to as peak power) that can be stretched the material until it breaks, measured with the appropriate �Yoda determine tensile strength, which will be described below.

"Total hardness" means the measured and calculated values for the material, in accordance with the method of measurement of hardness, which is described below.

"Bulk density" is the ratio of specific weight of the material (per unit area) to its thickness, and reflects the elevation of the fibers, or "depth" of the product, which is an important indicator in the context of the present invention, the smaller this ratio, the more "volume" is the painting.

Bulk density [kg/m3] = specific weight [g/m2] / thickness [mm].

The term "width" and its derivatives against the diaper or "educational" underpants means a dimension measured in a direction parallel to the edges adjacent to the waist, and/or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.

The Z-direction relative to the canvas refers to the direction generally perpendicular to the plane approximating the canvas, and determine the direction of motion in the machine and transverse direction.

Embodiments of the present invention include disposable absorbent articles having improved softness.

Fig.1A shows an axonometric view of the diaper 10 in free, unfolded state, in which he would lay on the horizontal plane. Fig.1B shows a top view of the diaper 10 in p�OSK, not tightened condition (i.e., in the absence tightening effort on the part of the elastic elements), with the cutaway to better see the internal structure of the diaper. Fig.1B shows the longitudinal axis 36 and the transverse axis 38 of the diaper 10. Part of the diaper 10 which are in contact with the user, Fig.1A positioned above and in Fig.1B is addressed to the person looking at the drawing. Fig.2A shows a cross-section of the diaper along the plane 2-2, marked in Fig.1B.

The diaper 10 generally includes a base portion 12 and located inside the absorbent core 14. The base part 12 may be a main Cabinet portion of the diaper 10.

The base part 12 may include a top sheet 18, which may be permeable to liquids, and/or the backing sheet 20, which may be impervious to liquids. Absorbent core 14 may be enclosed between the top sheet 18 and back sheet 20. The base portion 12 may also include side panels 22, tied up cuff 24 foot and the elastic element 26 in the area adjacent to the waist. The base portion 12 may also include a fastening system, which may include at least one fastening element 46 and at least one attachment zone 48. One or more layers of the top sheet and/or the back sheet may be formed from no�anyh paintings as will be described below.

The cuff 24 to the legs and the elastic element 26 in the area adjacent to the waist, may contain elastic elements 28. One of the end parts of the diaper 10 may be formed adjacent to both the first waist region 30 of the diaper 10. The opposite end portion of the diaper 10 can be made adjacent to the second waist region 32 of the diaper 10. Located between the portion of the diaper 10 may be formed as a region 34 adjacent to the perineum, extended in a longitudinal direction between first and second adjacent to the waist regions 30 and 32. Region 34 adjacent to the perineum, can take from 33.3% to 50% of the length of the diaper 10, and each of the regions 30, 32 adjacent to the waist, may take from 25% to 33.3% of the length of the diaper 10.

Adjacent to the waist region 30 and 32 may include elastic elements (for example, the elastic member 26) which, gathering around the waist of the user, provide the best fit of the product and its hold on the body of the user. Region 34 adjacent to the perineum, is that part of the diaper 10 which, when worn, it is the user is in General between his legs.

The diaper 10 may also contain other elements, for example, front and rear lugs, valves at the waist, additional elastic elements and other, pre�appointed for a better fit, retention to the user's body and improving the aesthetic appearance of the product. These additional elements are described, for example, in U.S. patents 3860003 and 5151092.

For installation and retention of the diaper 10 to the user's body adjacent to the second waist region 32 may be attached by item 46 of attachment to adjacent to the first waist region 30, thereby forming the openings for the legs and an opening for the waist. With the bond these elements together attachment system carries a tensile load is applied around the waist of the user.

In some embodiments, the diaper 10 may have a system of reusable fastening, or, alternatively, may be in the form of panties. If the absorbent product is a traditional diaper, it may contain reusable system mounts attached to the base part, for fastening the diaper on the body of the user. If the absorbent product is a diaper in the form of panties, it can contain at least two side panels is attached to the base portion and interconnected, resulting in formation of cowards. The fastening system and any component can include any suitable material, including, but not limited to: plastics, films, foams, nonwoven materials, woven materials, �the Umag laminates, flexible laminates, stretch-activated laminates, plastics, reinforced fibres, other materials and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the materials of the mounting device, can be flexible. In some embodiments, the fastening device may contain vatu whether similar materials, to provide additional softness or increasing feeling the softness of the products. The flexibility may allow the fastening system to better adapt to the user's body shape, thereby reducing the likelihood of irritation or injury to the skin of the user.

The base part 12 and the absorbent core may form the basis for the design of the diaper 10, which is attached to other elements of its design. And although the top sheet 18, the backing sheet 20 and the absorbent core 14 may be assembled with each other in the form of various structures, known versed in the art, some preferred designs of diapers are described in U.S. patents 5554145 ("Absorbent article with multiple zone structural elastic-like stretchable element on the waist of film", Roe al, issued September 10, 1996), 5569234 ("Disposable panties" Buell with co-workers, issued October 29, 1996) and 6004306 ("Absorbent article with stretchable in many areas�the s side panels", Robles with co-workers, issued 21 December 1999).

The top sheet 18 may be wholly or partially assembled on a piece of thin rubber and/or shortened on one side to form an empty space between the upper layer 18 and the absorbent core 14. Examples of designs incorporating collected on a piece of thin rubber or otherwise assembled with one side of the upper leaves, are described in more detail in U.S. patents 5037416 ("Disposable absorbent article with elastically stretchable top sheet, Allen al, issued August 6, 1991) and 5269775 ("Triple top sheets for disposable absorbent articles and disposable absorbent articles such three top sheets", Freeland with co-workers, issued December 14, 1993).

With a top plate 18 may be bonded to the backing sheet 20. The backing sheet 20 prevents contamination of the external items (such as underwear or bed linen), which can be in contact with the diaper 10, secretions of the body, absorbed in the absorbent core 14 and hold the diaper 10. As shown in Fig.2B, the back sheet 20 may be essentially impermeable to liquids (e.g., urine) and may be formed from a laminate of nonwoven material 21 and a thin polymer film 23, for example, a thermoplastic film having a thickness of from about 0.012 mm (0.5 millenuim to about 0.051 mm (2.0 millenuim). Nonwoven fabric 21 can be a nonwoven fabric in accordance with the present invention. Suitable films for the manufacture of the back sheets include, for example, film production Tredegar Industries Inc. (Ter -, Indiana, USA) available under the trade names X15306, X10962 and X10964. Other suitable material for the back sheet may include breathable materials that permit vapors to come out of the diaper 10, not missing out the liquid secretions of the body through the backing sheet 20. Examples of "breathable" materials include materials such as nonwoven fabrics and microporous films, such as, for example, the production of Mitsui Toatsu Co. (Japan), offered under the trade designation ESPOIR NO and production EXXON Chemical Co. (Bay city, Texas), offered under the trade designation EXXAIRE. Suitable breathable composite materials comprising a polymeric mixture, offers Clopay Corporation (Cincinnati, Ohio) under the trade name HYTREL, blend P18-3097. Other suitable breathable composite materials are described in detail in patent application WO 95/16746, published June 22, 1995, on behalf of E. I. DuPont. Other suitable breathable back sheets containing nonwovens and molded perforated film described in U.S. patent 5571096 (Dobrin al, issued November 5, 1996.

In some embodiments of the present �of subramania the backing sheet may be characterized by the rate of passage of water vapor, component of more than about 2000 g/24 hours/m2more than about 3000 g/24 hours/m2more than about 5000 g/24 hours/m2more than about 6000 g/24 hours/m2more than about 7000 g/24 hours/m2more than about 8000 g/24 hours/m2more than about 9000 g/24 hours/m2more than approximately 10000 g/24 hours/m2more than about 11000 g/24 hours/m2, more than about 12000 g/24 hours/m2more than about 15000 g/24 hours/m2measured by the method WSP 70.5 (08) at a temperature of 37.8°C and a relative humidity of 60%.

Suitable nonwoven fabrics that can be used to implement the present invention, may include, but are not limited to, paintings, produced through processes like blowing fibers from the melt, spunbond, exhaust melting, spinning from solution, the electrospinning manufacturing, cardownie, fabriciana films, fabriciana molten films, air laying, dry laying, wet laying staple fibers, and nonwoven fabrics, partially or completely formed from polymer fibers, known versed in the art. Suitable nonwoven webs may also be a multilayer material type "SMS", where "S" denotes a layer of spunbond material, and "M" refers to the layer of fibers blown from the melt, i.e. R�alausi a layer of spunbond covered a layer of fibers blown from the melt, and then another layer of spunbond. You can also use the web in any other combination of layers of spunbond and melt blown, for example, "SMMS", "SSMMS" and other. In some embodiments the composition of the fabric can be included one or more layers of fibers with a diameter less than 1 micron so-called nanofibers). Examples of relevant paintings are paintings such as SMNS, SSMNS or SMNMS, where "N" means the layer of nanofibers. In some embodiments, may be desirable permanently hydrophilic non-woven fabric, and in particular, a nonwoven fabric with a stable hydrophilic coatings. Nonwoven fabric, as a rule, should be breathable, but by the selection of size, density and hydrophobicity of the fibers it can also be made waterproof. If you must have fabric, permeable to water or other liquids, it can be obtained by special treatment of the fibers, making them hydrophilic, as will be described below.

Nonwoven fabric can be advantageously formed from polymer fibers. For example, suitable polymeric fibers may include, but are not limited to, fibers made of polyolefins, polymers of esters, polyamides, in particular of polypropylene, polyethylene, polylactic acid, polietilen�of retaliate and/or their mixtures. Fiber nonwoven webs can be formed of components such as aliphatic polymers of esters, thermoplastic polysaccharides or other biopolymers (including from renewable or biological sources), or may include such components as additives or modifiers.

The individual fibers may be single component or multicomponent. Multicomponent fibers include bicomponent, for example, having the configuration of the type "core-shell" or with the location of components side by side. Individual components often contain aliphatic polyolefins, such as polypropylene, polyethylene or their copolymers, aliphatic polymers of esters, thermoplastic polysaccharides, or other biopolymers.

Other suitable types of nonwoven materials, configurations of fibers, fiber compositions, and corresponding methods for their manufacture are described in U.S. patents 6645569 (Cramer and co-authors), 6 863 933 (Cramer and co-authors), 7112621 (Rohrbaugh with co-workers); United States patent application 10/338 603 and 10/338 610 (Cramer and co-authors) and 13/005 237 (Lu and co-authors), the contents of which are incorporated in this application by reference.

Some of the polymers used for the manufacture of fibers, nonwoven fabrics, may have an inherent hydrophobicity, and some applications require and� surface treatment or the application of coatings of various active substances, to make them hydrophilic. The coating may include coating of a surfactant. One of suitable surfactants for application as a coating is Silastol PHP 90 production Schill & Silacher GmbH (Germany).

Another method of making nonwoven fabrics with sustainable hydrophilic coatings is the coating on a nonwoven fabric with a hydrophilic monomer and a radical polymerization initiator with subsequent activation of the polymerization reaction by ultraviolet light resulting in monomer chemically bound to the surface of a nonwoven fabric, as described in patent publication U.S. 2005/0159720.

Another method of making a hydrophilic nonwoven fabrics mainly from hydrophobic polymers such as polyolefins, is the introduction of hydrophilic additives in the melt prior to extrusion.

Another method of making a hydrophilic nonwoven fabrics with sustainable hydrophilic coatings is the coating on a nonwoven fabric hydrophilic nanoparticles as described in the patent application U.S. 7112621 (Rohrbaugh with co-authors) and the publication WO 02/064877.

The nanoparticles typically have a size in greatest dimension to 750 nm. Economically feasible is obtaining nanoparticles ranging in size from 2 mm to 750 nm. The advantage of nanoparticles is h�about the majority of them can be easily dispersed in aqueous solution for subsequent application in the form of a coating on a nonwoven fabric. Such coatings are typically transparent and despite their deposition from water solution that is stable to subsequent exposure to water. The nanoparticles may be organic or inorganic, synthetic or natural. Inorganic nanoparticles generally exist as oxides, silicates and/or carbonates. Typical examples of suitable nanoparticles are layered clay minerals, such as LAPONITE™ production Southern Clay Products, Inc. (USA) and basicaly alumina Disperal P2™ production North American Sasol. Inc. In one of the embodiments as non-woven fabric with a coating of nanoparticles used nonwoven fabric described in patent application 10/758 066 "Disposable absorbent article containing a permanent hydrophilic shell of the core" (authors Ponomarenko and Schmidt).

In some cases, the surface of the nonwoven fabric prior to applying the coating of the nanoparticles may be pre-processed by the discharge of high energy (corona, plasma). Treatment discharge high energy temporarily increases the surface energy of the fibers, which in itself is sufficiently low (for example, polypropylene fibers), which improves the wetting of a nonwoven fabric with an aqueous dispersion of nanoparticles.

It is noteworthy that such a hydrophilic nonwoven fabric can also be used successfully in other parts of �barbarouses products. For example, it was determined that a well-functioning upper leaves and the layers of absorbent core containing a permanently hydrophilic non-woven fabric described above.

On the surface of the nonwoven fabric may be applied and other types of coatings. In one of the embodiments of the surface coating may be formed from a substance-modifier of the surface of the fibers that reduces friction on the surface of the fiber and reinforcing the feeling of grease. Preferred substances modifying the surface of the fibers described in U.S. patents 6632385 and 6803103, and also in the patent application U.S. 2006/0057921.

In one of the embodiments of the nonwoven fabric may contain a material characterized by good recovery of shape after application and removal of external pressure. In addition, in one of the embodiments of the nonwoven fabric may contain a mixture of different fibers selected from, for example, polymer fibers described above. In some embodiments at least a portion of the fibers can be coiled. In one of the embodiments the fibers may include bicomponent fibers, each of which contains a variety of materials, typically, the first and second polymeric materials. We can expect that the presence in the fiber of the two components in the configuration "side by side" will give the fibers a spiral twist.

For amplification of�of osenia soft absorbent products, nonwoven fabrics, forming the backing sheet may be subjected to a process of "hydrosurvey". Hydrosphere nonwoven fabrics are described in U.S. patents 6632385 and 6803103, and also in the patent application U.S. 2006/0057921, the contents of which are incorporated in this application for reference.

Non-woven fabric may also be treated by the method of the fleece. Under the "fleece" refers to a method in which the nonwoven fabric may be formed from a large number of loops (more than 150 per inch2), protruding from the base nonwoven fabric. Such loops are as small flexible bristles, and create additional elastic and the raised layer, which can enhance the feeling of softness. Nonwoven fabric treated by the method of the fleece, described in the patent application U.S. 2004/0131820.

Described in the present application is a non-woven cloths can be used to manufacture top of the sheet, the outer layer of the rear sheet, a component of the "loop" type fastener "Velcro" absorbent articles, or in any other part of mass produced products, such as sanitary napkins and other personal care products, wipes and rags for wiping dust and cleaning, bags for dirty clothes, packs to of dryers and sheets comprising a layer made of non-woven fabric.

Absorbent core 14 may be located between �higher sheet 18 and back sheet 20. It may include one or more layers, such as first absorbent layer 60 and a second absorbent layer 62.

Absorbent layers 60, 62 may include relevant bases 64, 72, absorbent polymer material 66 and 74 in the form of particles, located at the bases 64, 72, and a thermoplastic adhesive material 68 and 76, located on and/or within the absorbent polymer material 66 and 74 in the form of particles and at least parts of the bases 64, 72, as an adhesive for immobilizing the absorbent polymer material 66 and 74 in the form of particles on the bases 64, 65.

The base 64 of the first absorbent layer 60 is sometimes also referred to as a coating, a powder and has a first surface facing to the backing sheet 20 and a second surface facing the absorbent polymer material 66 in the form of particles. Similarly, the base 72 of the second absorbent layer 62 also sometimes referred to as the covering layer of the core and has a first surface facing the upper sheet 18 and a second surface facing the absorbent polymer material 74 in the form of particles.

The first and second bases 64 and 72 can be adhered to each other using the adhesive on the periphery, forming an envelope around the absorbent polymer material 66 and 74 in the form of particles, which keeps the absorbent polymer material 66 and 74 in the form of particles inside absorber�ing core 14.

Bases 64 and 72 may be made of one or more nonwoven materials and can be permeable to liquid.

As shown in Fig.2A, the absorbent polymer material 66 and 74 in the form of particles can be stacked on the respective bases 64 and 72 in the form of clusters 90 of particles, forming a design in the form of a lattice containing islets located between 94 and Islands region 94 96 compounds. Under the islets 94 refers to the area in which thermoplastic adhesive material is in direct contact with the nonwoven base or auxiliary adhesive; and the field of 96 compounds are used in which a thermoplastic adhesive material is in direct contact with the nonwoven base or auxiliary adhesive. The field of 96 compounds may contain a small amount of particles of absorbent polymer material 66 and 74, or does not contain. Islets 94 and region 96 compounds can be in various forms, including, but not limited to: round, oval, square, rectangular, triangular and the like. The first and second layers 60, 62 may be connected to each other, forming the absorbent core 14. Preferred types of absorbent articles and cores are described in United States patent application 12/141 122, 2004/0167486 A1 and 2004/0162536; and in the publication WO 2009/060384.

p> In one or more of the components in absorbent products can be included signaling the ingredients. Signaling the ingredients may include, but are not limited to, vitamins A, E, D and C, panthenol, Niacin, Ω3 fatty acids, cocoa butter, beeswax, Kashmir, sweet almond oil, extracts of jojoba, oats, aloe, cotton, honey and silk. These signal components can be added to the absorbent product, as the signals are additional health benefits to the user. For example, one or more of these signaling ingredients may be added to the lotion that can be applied to any component of the absorbent product. The signal ingredient in itself, or as part of a lotion, may be deposited on the top sheet, back sheet, or any other component of the absorbent product. The lotion may contain a signal component in an amount less than about 0.1% by weight, less than about 0.01% by weight, less than about 0,006% by weight, less than about 0,005% by weight, less than about 0,004% by weight, less than about 0.003 per cent by weight, less than about 0.002 percent by weight and less than about 0,001% by weight.

Signaling the ingredients together other elements or distinctive features of the absorbent articles can provide an unexpected synergistic effect on the consumer informing him of the �if any other use. For example, buyers can much more favorably respond to an absorbent product, which is thin, soft to the touch and provides a signal about the presence of a lotion with vitamin E, than they responded to any of these factors separately.

Lotion diaper containing vitamin E as a warning ingredient, may have the following composition: blend of PET/StOH (in respect of 1.41) - 94,0% to 99.8% by weight, aloe - from 0.1% to 3.0% by weight, vitamin E is from 0.001% to 0.1% (by weight). In addition, vitamin E can be used in their natural form or in the form of esters of natural vitamin E (for example, in the acetate form of vitamin E). In United States patent application 2002/0143304; 2004/0175343; 2003/0077307; U.S. patents 5643588; 5635191; 5607760; 6861571; and publications WO 00/69481 and WO 98/24391 describes the various lotions for absorbent products that can be added to signal the ingredients.

The following is a description of additional components of absorbent products, any combination of which can be used to enhance the feeling of softness of the product by the consumer. In addition, it can be expected that the manufacture of a nonwoven fabric and use it as a component of absorbent products including, for example, the top sheet 18 and/or the backing sheet 20 (see Fig.2A, 2B), in accordance with the present invention, provides �improve search the embossed fibers component and gives a different synergistic effects with other factors, reinforcing the feeling of softness of the product as a whole. At the same time, quite unexpectedly, the following elements or distinctive features can improve the tensile strength of a nonwoven fabric in tension, and accordingly made him a top sheet, a back sheet or other component. The fact is that when you try to amplify signals soft absorbent articles preferably, at least two reasons, to maintain or enhance the tensile strength of a nonwoven fabric. First, the nonwoven fabric has to withstand some minimum tensile forces and thus to undergo a fairly small changes sizes so that you can effectively handle during subsequent manufacturing operations. Secondly, a nonwoven fabric, as a rule, makes a significant contribution to the structural integrity of a disposable diaper as a finished product, whereby the backing sheet must withstand the forces encountered when applying/putting it on wearing (for example, a buckle fastening elements during donning of the diaper), the movements of the wearer, as well as the weight and volume held back by the sheet when the diaper is filled with body fluids wearing.

As noted above, and as shown in Fig.2B, the back sheet 20 may be formed of a laminate containing a nonwoven floor�IDT 21 and the thin polymer film 23. Nonwoven fabric and the film can be laminated to each other using adhesive or any other appropriate means. In some embodiments the polymer film may have a thickness of from about 0.012 mm (0.5 millenuim) to about 0.051 mm (2.0 millenuim). To achieve the required overall appearance, transparency and whiteness, laminate rear sheet, namely, in the film during its formation may be added, for example, calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The inclusion of small particles of CaCO3causes the formation of micropores around such particles during stretching of the film in one or two directions on further processing, which allows to obtain the air - and vapor-permeable film (i.e., "breathable", which reduces the likelihood of waterlogging of the skin and the occurrence of disease States, for example, irritation from the diaper). Particles of CaCO3and emerging micropores also increase the opacity of the film. Examples of suitable films include microporous films and MICROPRO film BR137P and BR137U production Clopay Corporation, Mason, Ohio, USA). In some embodiments, a polymer film can be formed from multiple components, and, as described, for example, in the patent application U.S. 2008/0306463, may include some or all of the features and/or components in accordance with the present invention that the mind�ishut the exposure of the film "burn-through glue".

Nonwoven fabric 21 may be formed from one or more polymeric resins of polyolefins, polymers of esters, polyamides, including, but not limited to: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polylactic acid and mixtures thereof. Resins, including polypropylene, may be particularly appropriate due to the relatively low cost of polypropylene and a good surface friction characteristics formed from fibers (i.e. fibers are relatively smooth and slippery to the touch).

Resins, including polyethylene, can also be quite preferred due to the relative softness and flexibility of polyethylene, and even more smooth and slippery surface for even less friction. Compared them to each other can be noted that polypropylene is currently cheaper, and formed from fibers have higher tensile strength, while the polyethylene is currently more expensive, and the fibers have a lower tensile strength, but have more flexibility and more smooth and slippery to the touch. Accordingly, it can be worthwhile making fibers for nonwoven fabrics from a mixture of polypropylene and polyethylene resins, picking up their weight ratio so that the maximum of sbalansirovat� their advantages and disadvantages. In some embodiments the fibers may be formed from a mixture of polypropylene/polyethylene, as described in U.S. patent 5266392. Fiber for nonwoven fabrics can be made of components such as aliphatic polymers of esters, thermoplastic polysaccharides, or other biopolymers, or may include such components as additives or modifiers.

The individual fibers may be single component or multicomponent. Multicomponent fibers include bicomponent, for example, having the configuration of the type "core-shell" or with the location of components side by side. Individual components often contain aliphatic polyolefins, such as polypropylene, polyethylene or their copolymers, aliphatic polymers of esters, thermoplastic polysaccharides, or other biopolymers.

From any of the above-mentioned resins conventional means, such as cardownie blowing from the melt, traction with the laying, air laying, wet laying and other, can be formed in the workpiece. The preferred method is the spunbond process in which the resin (resin) is heated and under pressure is extruded through the mouthpiece. From cigarette holders out of polymer fibers that fall on the moving belt theoretically in random orientation, but actually u�obladaushiy orientation in the direction of travel in a car, thereby forming the workpiece. The workpiece can then be subjected to calendering to bond, thereby forming a nonwoven fabric.

In the present invention may be used nonwoven fabrics with any specific weight. However, as noted in the section "prior art", non-woven fabric with a relatively high specific gravity, despite the relatively greater apparent thickness and elevation of the fibers, have a higher cost. On the other hand, a nonwoven fabric with a relatively low specific weight, despite the lower cost, much of the back sheet, which was still good enough 3-dimensional appearance after its compression in the package, and have acceptable mechanical characteristics. We can expect that the combination of the characteristics of paintings in accordance with the present invention provides an extremely good combination of cost of material, visual 3-dimensional effect and mechanical properties. You can also expect that the shape and configuration of seats fastening fabric according to the present invention may be particularly useful in applications that use non-woven fabric with a relatively low specific gravity, in the sense that it can be expected that these elements can increase the elevation salokorpi reduction, or at least no increase, in specific weight. Accordingly, for such applications can be used nonwoven fabric having a specific weight of from 6.0 to 50 g/m2, more preferably from 8.0 to 35 g/m2even more preferably from 9.0 to 25 g/m2and even more preferably from 10 to 20 g/m2. When used as a component of an absorbent product, such as top sheet, a nonwoven fabric with a low specific gravity may the rate of passage of fluid through it, superior to the corresponding figure of the nonwoven fabric with the higher specific weight. Non-woven fabric with a lower specific gravity may be preferable to the canvas with a higher specific gravity, when it is used, for example, as a component of stretchable without the efforts of the laminate, as it better allows for the activation process/step-by-step stretching. In other applications, for example, in which a nonwoven fabric is used for the manufacture of disposable clothes or wiping materials, it may be desirable to its higher specific weight, up to 100 g/m2or even up to 150 g/m2. We can expect that proposed in the present invention the distinctive features fastening protrusions, surfaces, and their configurations will have a favourable effect on elevated ox�con and/or feeling the softness of the product, even when using nonwoven fabrics with such a higher specific gravity. The optimal value of the specific weight is determined by the specific requirements of the product in a particular application, as well as by considerations of price.

We can expect that the overall visual signals to the softness of the back sheet will be stronger if the laminate is made of the backing sheet has an essentially white color and the indicator opacity of at least 45%, more preferably at least 70%, even more preferably at least 73%, and even more preferably at least 75%, the results of the measurements of opacity by using the method described below. Accordingly, it may be appropriate to add substances that increase the whiteness and opacity, to one or more polymers forming the polymer film, and accordingly, in one or more of the polymers fed into mouthpieces for the formation of fibers of a nonwoven fabric.

In some cases it may be appropriate to add substances that increase the whiteness and opacity to the polymer resin from which you are spinning fibers of a nonwoven fabric. Increasing the opacity of the nonwoven fabric may be desirable to the extent that the nonwoven fabric had the indicator opacity of at least 10%, more preferably at least 18%, and even more preferably at least 40%.

Despite the fact that things�meets many substances, increasing the whiteness and opacity, can be expected, which is especially effective in this case is titanium dioxide (TiO2), thanks to its brightness and relatively high reflectance. You can expect to achieve the desired result, it is appropriate to introduce into the polymer (polymers) from which fibers are formed, TiO2in the amount of up to 5.0% by weight of the weight of the nonwoven fabric. In this case, since TiO2is a fairly solid abrasive material, its introduction into the canvas in the amount of more than 5.0% by weight may give undesirable effects, such as, for example, wear and/or clogging of mouthpieces, tears and weakening of the fiber structure and/or their bond, and will cause an unwanted increase in surface friction characteristics of the fibers (i.e. worse feeling smooth canvas), as well as accelerated wear of equipment components used for further processing of the fabric. We can expect that the increased opacity provided by bleach enhance the visual feeling of softness of a nonwoven fabric. You can also expect that in some applications it may be advisable to introduce one or more polymer resins, of which is the spinning of fibers of a nonwoven fabric, the color or tint of the dye.

The opacity can be�ü also enhanced by the use of fibers, having not round and not a solid cross-section shape, in particular, fibers with a trilobal, busy or hollow cross-section or cross-section, representing combinations of the listed forms. A non-circular cross-sections also provide additional benefits in the form of increased elevation of fibers and a greater resistance to compression.

Is the process "spunbond" includes a stage of calandrinia-bond the workpiece from the extended and stowed fibers to consolidate and bond with each other, resulting in a fabric, a design that is somewhat reminiscent of the fabric, and enhanced mechanical characteristics, particularly tensile strength, which can be very desirable, in particular, to ensure that the material can keep structural integrity and size at subsequent stages of manufacture of the product, and if you use the finished product. As shown in Fig.3, calendering-the bond may be executed by passing the workpiece 21A through the gap between a pair of rotating kalenderwoche rollers 50, 51, resulting in the consolidation and bond the fibers, and form a non-woven fabric 21. One or both of the platen can be heated, which increases the heat, getting engaged and/or heat the fastener�tion superimposed on each other fibers compressed in the gap between the rollers. Cushions can represent the working components of the fastening mechanism in which they are pressed against each other with a controlled and constant force, resulting in the gap are provided with the required compressive force. In some processes in the fastening mechanism may include a source of ultrasonic energy that tells the fibers vibrate at an ultrasonic frequency, resulting in the fibers occurs, thermal energy, and strengthens their bond.

On the lateral surface of one or both rollers may be carved, engraved, etched, or otherwise formed configuration of the fastening protrusions and recessed areas so that the workpiece in the gap will be fastening the pressure is concentrated on the fastening surfaces of the fastening projections, and in-depth areas, it will be smaller or even absent. Fastening surfaces have the form of some figures. As a result, the nonwoven fabric is formed by an embossed configuration of the locations of the bonding between the fibers forming the fabric, the corresponding configuration and forms a bonding of the bonding surfaces of the projections on the platen. One roller, e.g., roller 51, can have smooth, without texture cylindrical surface, performing the role of supporting VA�ICA, while the second platen 50 may have the configuration described above, acting as a roller with fastening elements. This combination of rollers ensures the formation on the blade configuration from bond, reflecting the configuration of the fastening protrusions of the roller. In some embodiments both of the rollers may have a configuration of elements, in particular, the rollers may have different configurations of protrusions and recesses, whereby upon the canvas to form a complex configuration of places of fastening, as described, for example, in U.S. patent 5370764.

On a bonding roller 50 (Fig.3) can be formed by repeating the configuration of fastening protrusions and recessed areas, such as shown in Fig.4A. Figure 100 in the form of sticks shown in Fig.4A, displays elevated surface fastening protrusions on the cushion, while the area between them represent depth of field 101. Figure 100, the shape of which have fastening surface of the fastening projections, squeeze similar prints bond on the canvas in the process of calandrinia.

The fastening protrusions on the cushion has a height that can be defined as the difference between the radius of the roller at the most protruding parts of the surface (a bonding surface of the fastening projections), and a radius �Alika in recessed areas 101. This height may be selected in such a way as to minimize the amount of material that must be removed from the roller surface machining or etching to create the desired configuration of the fastening protrusions and shapes, while leaving the necessary gap between the bonding roller and the opposite roller in areas of in-depth areas 101 to secure the passage of the workpiece through the gap in places where there is a bond (i.e. in-depth areas 101), without significant compression of the workpiece, to in turn keep her elation fibers and/or thickness. For types of paintings and unit weight parameters contemplated by the present invention, it may be appropriate to the height of the protrusions from 0.3 mm to 1.0 mm, more preferably from 0.5 mm to 0.8 mm, or even more preferably from 0.6 to 0.7 mm. the Surface bonding bonding protrusions can have an average size from 0.3 mm2up to 10 mm2. The fastening protrusions typically have sloping faces, that is, the inclined side in the cross section plane passing through their height.

Nonwoven fabrics of the types contemplated in the present invention can be subjected to calendering with pinning if the speed of the line is more than 300 m/min, or 600 m/min, or even 800 m/min, or even more, depending on �remain non-woven cloth, its specific gravity, the configuration of the ground bonding, as well as the operating parameters of the equipment used and the production process. Turning again to Fig.3, note that at these speeds, the line of the workpiece 21 and the surface of the rollers 50, 51 will capture the surrounding air and feeding it into the side of the gap 52, as shown by the arrows. The presence of fasteners at the fastening surface of the roller 50, as described above, will strengthen this effect. We can expect that air trapped in the gap, as it approaches the area of the smallest distance between the rollers, will create a higher pressure in front of the gap 52. Due to this increased pressure of the air will arrive at the gap and will further compressed, namely, the inside depth of the fastening areas of the platen and in the spaces between the fibers passing through the gap. You can also expect, at the output of the non-woven fabric 21 out of the gap 52, the compressed air held between the fibers will be in the area of relatively lower pressure and acceleration to fly from clearance in all available directions. So we can expect that this process calandrinia - bonding in and around the workpiece 21 and the nonwoven fabric 21 will have a significant air entrapment, compression, and complex motion p�currents of air with great speed, caused by movement of the workpiece and rotation kalenderwoche rollers.

We can expect that these air flows are affected by the characteristics of the fastening surface of the roller, in particular, fastening protrusions. At the narrowest point of the gap for fastening the tabs represent obstacles to the air flow, while the depth region between the fastening projections are channels for the passage of air currents. So you can expect that you can pick up a duplicate configuration of fastening protrusions that form fastening surfaces, and the angled positioning of the fastening projections (which will be reflected in the prints of bond formed in the canvas), in the aggregate, it will have a beneficial effect on these flows of air. In addition, we can expect that by proper selection of the configurations of fastening protrusions, namely, form fastening surfaces of the fastening sections of the projections of the plane that is essentially parallel to the surface bond, the angular arrangement of fastening protrusions relative to the plane, locally approximating the surface of a cloth, and also the gaps between the fastening projections - you can direct the airflow in such a way that they will cause misalignment of fibers in the process of calandrinia with pinning, spesiva� fiber, that ceteris paribus, will allow to obtain a nonwoven fabric with a greater elevation of fibers and thickness than that of similar non-woven cloths with other shapes and configurations of the binding.

Fig.5A, 5B and 5C shows one example of the configuration of the fastening protrusions and shapes, the form of which have fastening surface of the fastening protrusions that allow you to get prints of fastening of a corresponding form in the nonwoven fabric. Fastening surface of the fastening projections may have the form 100, the projections of this form can be completed on a bonding platen etching, cutting and other means. Such fastening tabs for fastening the cushion allow to obtain reprints bond on the canvas similar shape and arranged in the form similar to the configuration of seats fastening. Although theoretically this is not necessary, you can expect some of the distinctive features of this configuration can provide the advantages described above.

As shown in Fig.5B, the figure of 100, which has a bonding surface that has the greatest measurable length L, which is defined as the length along the line 104 passing through two points of the perimeter of the shape, the form of which has a fastening surface, the most remote from each other. In addition, the figure 100 has a greatest measurable width, W, to�which can be measured, as the distance between the lines 105a, 105b, parallel lines of length 104, tangent to the perimeter of the shape, the form of which has a fastening surface, and positioned on both sides of the line 104, as shown in this drawing. This implies that for some shapes, the shape of which has a bonding surface (e.g., a semicircle), one of the lines 105A, 105b, between which is measured the width, may coincide with the line 104 of the length of the pattern. The shape, the shape of which has a bonding surface in accordance with the present invention, have the largest ratio of maximum measurable length L to the greatest measurable width W of at least 2.5, more preferably at least 2.7, and even more preferably at least a 2.8. The shape and size of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric will conform to the forms of fastening of the fastening surfaces of the roller and their size.

In addition, as shown in Fig.5B, the figure of 100, which has a bonding surface, may have a perimeter that contains the convex part 102, lying on one side of the line 104, the length of the pattern. As can be seen from this drawing, the convex portion may have a variable radius of curvature. The presence of variable radius of curvature of the convex part 102 may indicate that the figure 100 may be similar to the profile of an airplane wing. Under the wing profile plane� refers to the profile with the curved part and asymmetrical with respect to any line or axis through the profile. The convex portion 102 may have a height HF, measured as the distance between the center line 104 of length and line 105b, the tangent to the convex part 102 (which is determined by the width of the shape). You can expect to achieve optimal air flow advantageously, the ratio between the height CH of the rise and maximum of the measured length L was not more than 0.30, more preferably not more than 0.25 but greater than zero. We can expect that the fastening protrusions having a section plane parallel to the bonding surface, as described above, and arranged in the form of a certain repetitive configuration, will have optimal impact on the acceleration and deceleration of air passing through the gap, around the gap and through the fibers of a nonwoven fabric. This again implies that the shape and size of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric to fit the shape and size of the fastening projections of the roller, actually being their mirror reflection.

In some embodiments the perimeter of the shape formed by a bonding surface may have a convex part of the constant or variable radius of curvature on both sides of the line 104 length, i.e. the figure may be in the form of a wing profile with SIM�etnicznym elevation relative to the line length. In another embodiment the perimeter of the shape may have a curved portion on one side of the line 104 length and a straight bit line length, or on the other side of the line length, and the figure will be in the form of the profile of the wing of the plane with asymmetric rise relative to the line length. In another embodiment the perimeter of the shape may be a convex portion 102 on one side of the line 104, the length of the pattern and the concave portion 103 on the other side of the line 104 length, located essentially opposite the convex part 102. This is the shape shown in Fig.5B, and it conforms to the shape of an airplane wing with an asymmetrical instep and provides sufficient elevation of the fibers during low-speed line.

The degree of concavity portion 103 can be characterized by the depth of its trough against the greatest measurable length. The depth D of the deflection can be measured by determining the line 106, the parallel lines 104 length and tangent to the concave part 103 at the point of greatest deflection. In this case, the depth D is defined as the linear distance between 105A determine the thickness on the side of the concave part 103 and the line 106. The degree of deflection of the concave part 103 can be expressed as a ratio of the depth D of the deflection to the length L of the figure. And while you can use forms a bonding surface having no concave parts 103, however, it may be appropriate�depended, to figure, the form of which has a bonding surface that has a concave portion with a depth of deflection to length from 0.00 to 0.30, more preferably from 0.00 to 0.25, and more preferably from 0.00 to 0.20. Again it is understood that the shape and size of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric will conform to the shape and size of fastening protrusions cushion, actually being their mirror reflection.

And although the above described receiving configuration from bonding to the nonwoven fabric by using a bonding protrusions, perimeters fastening surfaces which are "convex" and "concave" sections in the form of smooth curves, it is understood that essentially the same effect can be achieved if the perimeter of the shape, the form of which has a fastening surface, consists of short line segments collectively approximating smooth curves described above. The terms "convex" and "concave" in this context will refer to parts of the perimeter of the shape formed by a continuous broken lines of 5 or more line segments located on one side of the line length and no zigzags.

Although theoretically this is not necessary, it can be expected that the fastening protrusions kalenderwoche cushions, fastening surfaces which have one or more distinctive features, op�above toboggan, will provide aerodynamic effects on air flows in the gap and around him in the form of the optimal acceleration and deceleration of air passing through the gap, around the gap and through the fibers of a nonwoven fabric, which in turn will cause misalignment of the fibers, fluffing them and increase the elevation of the fibers and/or thickness.

In addition, the angular location of the projections on the platen affect the position of the fastening projections in the gap, and has a certain effect on the formation of the bond. Figure 100 is formed by a bonding surfaces, respectively and bearing their fastening protrusions are located at right angles relative to the direction of movement in the machine and transverse directions. Although theoretically this is not necessary, you can expect to achieve efficient airflow, the angle of deviation of the shape from the corresponding direction must not exceed a certain maximum value. Again, as shown in Fig.5B, the angle αTcan be defined as the smaller of the angles formed at the intersection of the axis 108, corresponding to the direction of movement in the car, with the axis 104 of the length of the pattern. We can expect that the shape of the surface bonding and angular location in the aggregate affect the air flow. In the case of asymmetric foryourhome bond, such as described above, the shape of the profile of an airplane wing, it can be expected that such an asymmetric form sufficient for the optimal direction of air flow. However, the location of the projections with an angle of αTmore 0 may reinforce this effect. When the symmetric form of the bonding surfaces, the angle of deviation it is highly desirable to achieve the desired effect, and the angle αTshall not be less than 1°, but should not exceed 40°, more preferably should not exceed 30°, and more preferably should not exceed 20°. We can expect that the deflection angle in the specified range ensures effective flow of air through the gap, and thus gives the vector of the air flow component in the transverse direction. Conversely, the deflection angle more than 40° may create too strong an obstacle to the flow of air through the gap. A large deflection angle in conjunction with a high density of crimping protrusions on the platen can create such obstacles to the air flow that it will not pass through the gap, and in fact will be heading to parties, and beneficial effects of the air on the fibers of the web will decrease. This implies that the shape and size of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric to fit the shape and RA�measures fastening protrusions of the roller, actually being their mirror reflection.

We can expect that the currents of air passing through the workpiece/canvas and inside them, and having a component in the transverse direction will displace the fibers in the transverse direction, increasing the elevation of the fibers of the fabric, its thickness and/or its tensile strength in the transverse direction. This implies that in most cases fiber preforms nonwoven fabrics due to the nature of their manufacturing processes, laid with a predominant direction coinciding with the direction of movement in the car, and therefore the finished cloth has a relatively high tensile strength in the direction of movement in the car than in the transverse direction. Therefore, any technology that gives the additional orientation of the fibers in the transverse direction before they bond, may be useful to increase the strength of the fabric in tension in the transverse direction of improve the ratio between the tensile strength in longitudinal and transverse directions, and increasing the elevation of the fibers of the fabric during subsequent displacement of the fibers in the z direction. We can expect that for best results, the angle αTdeviations should be from 5° to 15°, more preferably from 8° to 12°, and even more preferably from 9° to 11° to �alocit the greatest effect on air flow at line speeds, under the present invention. This implies that the shape and size of the prints bonding in the nonwoven fabric will conform to the shape and size of fastening protrusions cushion, actually being their mirror reflection.

As mentioned above, to obtain maximum benefit from the energy of the air mass passing through the gap, it is desirable that the configuration of the fastening projections are not too obstruct the flow of air through the gap, and didn't take too much energy from the air flow, slowing it down and absorbing the component of the momentum flux directed forward (in the direction of movement in the car). As shown in Fig.5C, in the field of fastening configuration of the projections to draw a line 107a, extended in the transverse direction along which the fastening protrusions obstruct most of the length of the roller. On this line 107a fastening protrusions cause the greatest obstacles to the airflow through the gap in the bonding process, for this configuration, fastening protrusions. For any configuration, you can define a set of duplicate shapes. So, for this configuration, this set is the set of four figures: 100a, 100b, 100c and 100d. Width w1, w2, w3and w4duplicate shapes 100A, 100b, 100c, 100d is an obstacle to the passage of air �Erez line 107a. Width wpis the width of the recurring set, and also the width of the figures includes distances between shapes. The ratio of the total width of the obstacles to the length of the gap can for any configuration to be calculated as (w1+w2+w3+w4+...+wn)/wpand referred to in the context of the present description coefficient of obstacles to air flow (here “wi” is the width of the shape in the transverse direction on the line 107a of the gap, a “n” is the number of shapes on the line 107a of the gap, forming an allover). The configuration of the fastening protrusions provided an efficient flow of air through the gap, and therefore to extract maximum benefit from the energy of flowing air, it may be appropriate to factor block the air was not more than 0.40, more preferably not more than 0.30, and more preferably not more than 0.25. Form prints bonding, their angular location and density (number per unit area of leaf) correspond to the shape of the fastening projections, their angular location and density (number per unit area of the roller), and respectively, also reflect the relative width of the obstructions to air flow.

Fig.6A and 6B shows an alternative embodiment of the configuration of the fastening protrusions. It contains a repeating figure of 100, and �sootvetstvujushij fastening protrusion consists of two generally convexo-concave shape, connected to each other or even overlapping each other at the ends and extended from the junction in opposite directions, resulting in a figure S-shape with rotational symmetry of its components about the point of junction, which forms the middle point of inflection. This implies that such a figure S-shape may have certain distinctive features described above for the surface shape of the fastening shown in Fig.5A and 5B, and such features will give similar benefits. Figure 100, as form a bonding surface, shown in Fig.6A and 6B, has the greatest measurable length L and a greatest measurable width W, measured along the line 104 of the length of the pattern and between the lines 105A, 105b width of the shape, respectively, defined manner similar to the embodiment described above. As mentioned above, figure 100, the shape of which has a fastening surface, for the purposes of the present invention preferably has a ratio of the greatest measurable length L to the greatest measurable width W, preferably constituting at least 2.5, more preferably at least 2.7, and even more preferably at least 2.8 or better.

Figure as form a bonding surface, shown in Fig.6A and 6B, also has convex portions 102A, 102b along its PERIMET�and. One or both of the convex portions 102A, 102b may have a variable radius of curvature, and can have a maximum rise of CHAand CHB. You can expect to ensure optimal impact on the flow of air may be preferred that the ratio between the height CH and a greatest measurable length L was not more than 0.30, more preferably not more than 0.25 but greater than 0.

Depicts the shape of the surface bonding is also of concave portions 103a and 103b along its perimeter. The depth of the deflection of the Darepresents the distance between the line 105A, which is used to define the width and facing to the concave section 103a, and the line 106a is tangent to the concave area at the point of greatest deflection. Similarly, the depth of the deflection of the Dbrepresents the distance between the line 105b, which is used to define the width and facing to the concave section 103b, and the line 106b is tangent to the concave area at the point of greatest deflection. Although embodiments are anticipated forms a bonding surface with no concave sections 103A, 103b of the perimeter, preferably along the perimeter of the shape, the form of which has a fastening surface, had one or more concave sections 103a, 103b, with the proportion of the height,

D/(L×nc)<to 0.30, more preferably less than 0.25, and even more preferred�Stateline 0,20, where nc is the number of completely bounded components of the figure, forming part of the perimeter of the shape, the form of which has a bonding surface, an extended along with a total line length of the pattern and having the concave portions. For example, for the shape S-shape shown in Fig.6B, nc=2 because it has 2 fully restricted component 124A and 124b.

Figure 100 shown in Fig.6A and 6B, can also have an angle of inclination αTdetermined as described above and are in the ranges shown above. The geometric shape and size of the prints bonding, and formed by them the configuration of the ground bonding to the nonwoven fabric corresponding to the shape 100 fastening protrusions, their size, angular orientation, density and General location on the surface of the roller.

You can also expect that the location of the fastening protrusions in the form of a configuration in which there is a relatively direct and easy passage between the projections on extended areas 101 of the gap, extended at least partially in the direction of movement in the car, can give a positive effect. Fig.5A and 6A it can be seen that in both these examples can be found line 109, which is not crossed by any fastening protrusions, and is located at some angle to the transverse axis 107 and to the direction of movement in the car. And names�about, line 109 passing an air stream through the gap, forms a transverse direction 107, the angle βAhereinafter, as the angle of the airflow through the gap. We can expect that the angle βApreferably should be greater than 45°, more preferably from 50° to 90°, and even more preferably from 60° to 90°. We can also assume that the line 109 air flow through the gap should preferably be infinitely extended, do not intersect any of the figures 100, formed by the surfaces of the bond, or at least passing through the 8 rows of fastening protrusions without crossing them. Again, the geometric shape and size of the prints bonding, as well as configuration formed by them from bonding to the nonwoven fabric corresponding to the shape 100 fastening protrusions, their size, angular orientation, density and General location on the surface of the roller.

In the fastening surface and formed by them configurations, such as shown in Fig.5A-6B, it should be noted that they can represent any combination of shapes with any of the above proportions of length and width, convexity or concavity, relative width of obstacles to air flow (but not more than 0.40), the symmetry or asymmetry of the shape, angles, location and other characteristics�the ICA. It is also possible for the fastening location adjacent pairs of projections forming the air passages, which then dilate, constrict, that is, when the protrusions come together and apart, reminding the diffusers. For example, in Fig.5A fastening protrusions 100a, 100b can be considered adjacent. In the context of the present description "adjacent" means that at least part of the perimeters of this pair of figures facing each other, and between them there are other figures; and the figures of the couple are overlapped with each other in the direction of movement in the car. The "overlap one another in the direction of movement in the car" means that for a given pair of figures can be found transverse line 107 relating to the perimeters of each shape and/or crossing them. For such a pair of figures can be also defined line MS the smallest clearance between places perimeters of shapes 100a, 100b, the distance between which is minimal. This line MS lowest lumen intersects the perimeter of each shape along the normal to it and determines the place that creates the greatest obstacle to the passage of air between the two figures (that is, between the respective fastening protrusions) within the gap and in its surroundings. There may be also defined line PL of the air passage perpendicular Lee�AI MS of the smallest lumen and located between shapes 100a, 100b.

Line MS lowest lumen intersects and defines a diffuser passage between two adjacent pieces, if the perimeter of each of their neighboring shapes 100a, 100b is moving away from the line PL to the passage of air in both sides of the line MS is the smallest of the lumen. As can be seen in Fig.5A and 6A, this property have a couple of pieces 100a, 100b.

Although theoretically this is not necessary, we can assume that such diffuser passages create a local acceleration and deceleration of the air flow, respectively, the local increase and decrease of pressure, and turbulence of air passing through the gap. We can also assume that these effects will contribute to necesitaria and/or fluffing of the fibers of the workpiece and the blade in the vicinity of the gap.

In order to ensure good workability nonwoven fabric for subsequent manufacturing operations or processes may be appropriate, to the canvas there was not a single line in the direction of travel in a car that didn't cross a single imprint bond. The existence of such a line of infinite length would mean that a subsequent operation of the cutting blade in the longitudinal direction could get the fiber of infinite length, not bonded with each other. Such fibers have a tendency to withdraw from the knife when cutting Polo�on, and the edge of the blade appears fuzzy. In addition, such loosed fiber can further be separated from the cut edge of the fabric (edge obtrepalas) that can cause problems in subsequent manufacturing operations. To avoid this problem, it may be desirable to make the configuration of the ground bond angle γPthe location of its elements. As shown in Fig.6A, the angle γPthe location of the configuration items can be defined as an acute intersection angle of a line 111 connecting similar points repetitive and equally oriented in columns 112 of the figures, and the direction of movement in the car. To avoid the above mentioned problems, it is desirable that the angle γPthe location of the configuration items was greater than 0°. The angle γPthe location of the configuration items, greater than 0°, ensures no endless strips of cloth in the direction of travel in the car with loosed edges. However, to avoid excessive difficulties to the passage of air through the gap and blurring the positive effects associated with it may be advisable to limit the angle γPin the layout configuration value not more than 4°, more preferably not more than 3°, and even more preferably not more than 2.5°. Again, the elements and characteristics of the configuration of the bonded places�I non-woven cloth, including angle γPthe location of the configuration items reflect the relevant features of the configuration of the fastening elements on the cushion, including the angle γPthe location of the configuration elements.

Described above distinctive features are related to shapes, the form of which have fastening surface of the fastening of the fastening projections on the platen, and it is clear that these elements and features opechatyvaya roller on the workpiece, resulting in the calendering of the workpiece are formed reprints bond the fibers. The fastening protrusions of the roller are imprinted in the form of reprints of bonding to the nonwoven fabric having the shape of a fastening. So the above configuration parameters fastening protrusions of the roller can be detected and measured on the canvas, laminates, including such cloth, as well as in composite products, comprising such a fabric and/or laminates.

An important parameter in light of the present invention is a bonding area of the roller which is transformed into the bonding area on the canvas. Because of the shape formed by the impressions of the bond on the canvas, are a reflection of the fastening surfaces on the platen shown in Fig.5A and 6A, the fastening area on the platen and the bonding area on the canvas may be seen, kaklamani fastening surfaces on the platen, and square shapes formed by the impressions of the bond on the canvas accordingly. In the production of nonwovens bonding area is often expressed as a percentage and is calculated as:

Fastening area can also be calculated as the number of fastening protrusions per unit area, multiplied by the average area of figures formed by a bonding surfaces in the area of the platen. Therefore, when increasing the number of holds, ledges, and/or by increasing the area of the figures 100, formed by a bonding surfaces, the bonding area increases, and Vice versa. We can expect that a bonding area affects air entrainment, and in particular, on the percentage of air that will be fed into the gap and pass through the gap. If the bonding area is relatively large, this means that in the gap at any time there is a greater number of fastening protrusions, and/or their area more, and they create more obstacles to the passage of air through the gap; conversely, if the bonding area is relatively small, this means that in the gap at any time there is a smaller number of fastening protrusions, and/or their size smaller, and they create fewer obstacles to the passage of air through the gap. A bonding area also has its effects on the accuracy�of view and paper characteristics. So, by increasing the bonding area increases, the number and percentage of fibers in the nonwoven fabric, bonded with each other, and Vice versa. Within a certain range, increasing the bonding area can enhance the strength of the nonwoven fabric in tension in the direction of movement in the machine and/or transverse direction of him. However, it can simultaneously increase the rigidity of the nonwoven fabric bending and accordingly to decrease the elevation of the fibers of the fabric, i.e. the elevation of the fibers and/or appearance of cloth will deteriorate. To maximize the benets of air flow, namely, the movement of air through the channels and its compression through the use of forms of fastening protrusions in accordance with the present invention, which allows to increase the elevation of the fibers of the canvas, while ensuring sufficient tensile properties of fabrics, we can expect that the glue area must be in the range of 4.0% to 18%, more preferably from 6% to 16%, and even more preferably from 8% to 14%. At line speeds contemplated by the present invention and at the same a bonding area the average area of a bonding surface will determine the required number of fastening protrusions per unit area. The most preferred R�ulation average area of a bonding surfaces 100, within the range of from 0.3 mm2up to 10 mm2.

Accordingly, it is anticipated that the preferred number of fastening projections (and thus prints bonding on canvas) per unit area shall be 0.4 fastening protrusions/cm2when the square fastening surfaces/imprint bond 10 mm2bonding and a square 4%, and 60 fastening protrusions/cm2with an area of a bonding surface/print bonding 0.3 mm2and a bonding area of 18%. Using similar calculations can be selected and the number of fastening protrusions per unit area and the average area of the imprint bond, providing the area values of the bond in the above range. The number of copies of the bond on the canvas and the square formed by them figures reflect the number of fastening protrusions on the cushion and the size of their bonding surfaces, and accordingly, the bonding area of the canvas corresponds to a bonding area of the roller.

You can also expect great importance is the feed speed of the workpiece in the clamping gap (the speed of movement of the workpiece on the production line. We can assume that at too low workpiece speed air mass captured by the workpiece on the approach to the gap, will not be sufficient and�pulse, and will not be provided with a sufficiently large area of increased air pressure on the side of the entrance of the workpiece into the gap, which in turn would provide sufficient amount of air pushed through the gap, and the air will look for easier ways of passing, namely, on the sides of the gap and around the rollers. So we can expect that the feed speed of the workpiece in the gap should be not less than 300 m/min, more preferably not less than 600 m/min, and still more preferably not less than 800 m/min.

It is assumed that the use of kalenderwoche cushion having a fastening surface and their configuration, as described above, provides for maximum advantages from the air flow that occurs due to trapping air moving the workpiece and kalenderwoche rollers, and compression of air, which occurs during calandrinia and bonding, which provides greater elevation of fibers and softness of the resulting nonwoven fabric. This assumes that all bonding surfaces must have the same shape or orientation, but rather can be any suitable combination of various forms of fastening surfaces containing elements and having characteristics in accordance with the present invention, and it is also possible, in combination with ins�and forms. The use of the above-mentioned advantages of the invention may reduce or completely eliminate the need for other technologies to improve emboss fibers, such as hydrospatial and hydrosurvey that will help reduce the cost of additional equipment and additional manufacturing operations.

Examples

In the examples below, the manufacture of nonwoven materials, unless explicitly stated otherwise, the workpiece produced in three rows of mouthpieces technology "spunbond" REICOFIL 4. Using the four configurations of the bonding fibers.

The configuration of the Wing (as in Fig.5)

- Fastening area ( % ) = 12.4% of the

- The number of fastening protrusions on 1 cm2= 3,1

- Angle of αT=10°

- Angle of βA=90°

- The angle γP=1°

- L=6.2 mm

- W=1.7 mm

- D=0.9 mm

- SN=1.4 mm

- The distance between the beginnings of the duplicate sets of figures in the column = 8 mm

- The distance between the beginnings of the duplicate sets of figures in a row = 8 mm

- The height of the fastening projections = 0.65 mm

Configuration "S-shaped" (Fig.6)

- Fastening area ( % ) = 12.9% of

- The number of fastening protrusions per 1 cm or 1.5

- Angle of ατ=10°

- Angle of βA=60°

- The angle γP=1°

- L=12.2 mm

- W=4.0 mm

- DA=3.1 mm

- DB=3.1 mm

- CHAnd=1.9 mm

- CHB=2.1 mm

- Distance�e between recurring basis sets of figures in the column = 11,4 mm

- The distance between the beginnings of the duplicate sets of figures in the series = 6.0 mm

- The height of the fastening projections = 0.65 mm

Configuration "S-shaped, option 2" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.7)

- Fastening area (in %) = 13%

- The number of fastening protrusions on 1 cm2= 2.4 GHz

- Angle of αT=10°

- Angle of βA=63°

- The angle γP=1°

- L=9.2 mm

- W=3.0 mm

- DA=2.3 mm

- DB=2.3 mm

- CHA=1.3 mm

- CHB=1.6 mm

- The distance between the beginnings of the duplicate sets of figures in column (DRC) = 8.8 mm

- The distance between the beginnings of the duplicate sets of figures in the series (DRR) = 4,65 mm

- The height of the fastening projections = 0.75 mm

Comparative configuration "Standard volume" (described in patent application WO 2009/021473 shown in Fig.4A).

- Fastening area ( % ) = 14,0%

- The number of fastening protrusions on 1 cm2= 9

- Angle of αT=0°

- Angle of βA1=90°

- Angle of βA2=55°

- The angle γP=0°

- L=3.4 mm

- W=0.4 mm

- D=0 mm

- CH=0.2 mm

- The distance between the beginnings of the duplicate sets of figures in the column = 5.6 mm

- The distance between the beginnings of the duplicate sets of figures in row = 2.0 mm

- The height of the fastening projections = 0.7 mm

Comparative configuration "Standard" - (the ovals shown in Fig.4B, 4C)

- Fastening area ( % ) = 18,1%

- Quantities� fastening protrusions on 1 cm 2= 49,9

- Angle of αT=60°

- Angle of βA- missing

- The angle γP=0°

- L=0.9 mm

- W=0.5 mm

- D - is absent

- CH=0.3 mm

- The distance between the beginnings of the duplicate sets of figures in column a = 1.5 mm

- The distance between the beginnings of the duplicate sets of figures in row = 2.6 mm

- The height of the fastening projections = 0.6 mm

The main parameters of the paintings and the results of their tests are shown in Table 1 below.

Example 1 - comparative configuration "standard volume"

Made of non-woven preform density of 12 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18-30 microns (1.5 to 2.5 denier), which were collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "standard volume" (Fig 4A). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 165°C and 168°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 2 - comparative configuration "standard volume"

Made of non-woven preform density of 14 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber diameter� 18-30 µm, collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "standard volume" (Fig 4A). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 165°C and 168°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 3 - comparative configuration "standard volume"

Made of non-woven preform density of 15 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "standard volume" (Fig 4A). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 168°C and 171°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 4 - comparative configuration "standard volume"

Made of non-woven preform a density of 17 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase PR�knosti paintings used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "standard volume" (Fig 4A). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 168°C and 171°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 5 - comparative configuration "standard"

Made of non-woven preform density of 15 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "standard" (Fig 4B). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 170°C and 173°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 95 N/mm.

Example 6 - comparative configuration "standard"

Made of non-woven preform a density of 17 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. On the line was formed one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed confit�oracea from ledges "standard" (Fig 4B). Temperature, kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 170°C and 173°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 95 N/mm.

Example 7 - comparative configuration "standard"

Made of non-woven preform density of 15 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene NN 450 FB production Borelais and polylactic acid Ingeo 6202D production Nature Works on technology REICOFIL 3 with a single row of mouthpieces. Installation possible to obtain a two-component fiber of type "core-shell", in which the core of polylactic acid was 80% fiber, and the shell was made of polypropylene. The resulting individual fibers with a diameter of 18-40 μm were collected on a moving belt.

To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "standard" (Fig.4B). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) amounted to 140°C and 140°C respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 8 - comparative configuration "standard"

Made of non-woven preform density of 15 g/m2in a continuous process technology REICOFIL 3 with two rows of mouthpieces from a mixture of polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production of the copolymer (Vistamaxx 6102 Exxon production in the weight ratio of 81:1. The resulting one-component fiber with a diameter of 20-40 μm were collected on a moving belt.

To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "standard" (Fig 4B). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 145°C and 145°C respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 9 - configuration "S-shaped"

Made of non-woven preform density of 12 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. On the line was formed one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "S-shaped" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.6). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 165°C and 168°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 10 - configuration "S-shaped"

Made of non-woven preform density of 14 g/m2in a continuous process from a mixture of polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production of the masterbatch (Sanylene white PPRC 70 production Clariant) in a weight ratio of 99.5:0.5 in. Ve�s one-component polypropylene fibers with a diameter of 18-30 microns were collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "S-shaped" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.6). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 165°C and 168°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 11 - configuration "S-shaped"

Made of non-woven preform density of 15 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "S-shaped" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.6). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 168°C and 171°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 12 - configuration "S-shaped"

Made of non-woven preform a density of 17 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used ka�Algeria, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "S-shaped" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.6). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 168°C and 171°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Thereafter bonded nonwoven fabric impregnated with a hydrophilic surface-active substance Silastol PHP 90 production Schill and Seilacher, which was applied using a roller, and dried. After drying due to the surfactant, the weight of the fabric was increased by about 0.4%.

Example 13 - configuration "S-shaped"

Made of non-woven preform a density of 17 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "S-shaped" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.6). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 168°C and 171°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Examples 14 - configuration "wing"

Made of non-woven preform density of 12 g/m2� continuous process of polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "wing" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.5). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 165°C and 168°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 15 - configure "wing"

Made of non-woven preform density of 14 g/m2in a continuous process from a mixture of polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production of the masterbatch (CC10031739BG green production PolyOne) in a weight ratio to 99.3:0.7 to. The resulting one-component polypropylene fibers with a diameter of 18-30 microns were collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "wing" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.6). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 165°C and 168°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 16 - configure "wing"

Made of non-woven preform density of 15 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Moste NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the wing in accordance with the present invention (Fig.5). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 168°C and 171°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 17 - configure "wing"

Made of non-woven preform a density of 17 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the wing in accordance with the present invention (Fig.5). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 168°C and 171°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Thereafter bonded nonwoven fabric impregnated with a hydrophilic surface-active substance Silastol PHP 90 production Schill and Seilacher, which was applied using a roller, and dried. After drying due to the surfactant, the weight of the fabric increased�alsya by about 0.4%.

Example 18 - configuration "wing"

Made of non-woven preform a density of 17 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 18 to 30 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt. To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the wing in accordance with the present invention (Fig.5). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 168°C and 171°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Examples 19 - configuration "wing"

Made of non-woven preform density of 15 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 production Unipetrol and polyethylene Liten LS87 Unipetrol production. First obtain a two-component fiber of type "core-shell", in which the core is made of polypropylene was 50% fibre, and the rest was polyethylene. The resulting individual fibers with a diameter of 18-40 μm were collected on a moving belt.

To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "wing" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.5). Temperature to�Lantronix rollers (smooth and embossed) was 154°C and 154°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 75 N/mm.

Example 20 - configuration "S-shaped option 2"

Made of non-woven preform density of 25 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 production Unipetrol and polyethylene Liten LS87 Unipetrol production technology REICOFIL 3 with two rows of mouthpieces. First obtain a two-component fiber type "side by side", in which 50% of one side of polypropylene and the remainder constituted the second side of the polyethylene.

To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "S-shaped variant 2" (Fig.7). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) to 152°C and 142°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 60 N/mm.

Example 21 - configuration "S-shaped option 2"

Made of non-woven preform density of 15 g/m2in a continuous process from polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production technology REICOFIL 3 with two rows of mouthpieces. The line formed a one-component fiber with a diameter of 15-25 μm, which had been collected on a moving belt.

To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "S-obra�Naya option 2" in accordance with the present invention (Fig.7). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 150°C and 145°C respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 70 N/mm.

Examples 22 - configuration "S-shaped option 2"

Made of non-woven preform density of 25 g/m2in a continuous process technology REICOFIL 3 with two rows of mouthpieces from a mixture of polypropylene Mosten NB425 Unipetrol production of the copolymer (Vistamaxx 6202 Exxon production in the weight ratio of 84:16. The resulting one-component fiber with a diameter of 15-25 µm were collected on a moving belt.

To increase the strength of the fabric used the calender, consisting of a pair of heated platens, one of which was formed by the configuration of the protrusions "S-shaped variant 2" (Fig.7). Temperature kalenderwoche rollers (smooth and embossed) was 158°C and 155°C, respectively, and the force of compression in the gap was 70 N/mm.

Example 12
Table 1
The bonding configurationNonwoven clothModified thicknessBulk densitySoftnessTensile�agenie (MD/CD) The transit time
Unit of measuremmkg/m3mn-
Example 112 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2157,136,0Of 3.07>20
Example 2Comparative standard-volume14 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2360,940,02,64>20
Example 315 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2462,546,6 2,50>20
Example 417 g/m2PP-3 rows0,26For 65.461,02,51>20
Example 515 g/m2PP-3 rows0,1788,248,02,0>20
Example 617 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2085,0Of 64.02,0>20
Example 7Comparative standard15 g/m2PLA/PP 2-component row 10,1979,061,0>20
Example 815 g/m2PP + copolymer 1-component 2 rows0,2075,0Of 21.22,3>20
Example 912 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2352,233,82,40>20
Example 1014 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2653,836,52,14>20
Example 1115 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2755,641,92,08>20
S-shaped17 g/m2PP-3 number of hydrophilic processing0,2958,653,91,993,3
Example 1317 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2958,653,91,99>20
Example 14Wing12 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2254,530,42,76>20
Example 1514 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2556,034,6At 2.26>20
Example 1615 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2657,741,62,21>20
Example 1717 g/m2PP-3 number of hydrophilic processing0,2958,646,02,213,2
Example 1815 g/m2PP-3 rows0,2958,646,72,21>20
Example 19Wing15 g/m2PP/PE 2-component 3 rows0,2853,630,22,11 >20
Example 20S-shaped variant 225 g/m2PP/P 2-component "side by side" 2 rows0,3969,453,01,90>20
Example 2115 g/m2PP 2 rows0,2953,644.1 kHz1,81>20
Example 2225 g/m2PP + Eva 2 rows0,3774,056,31,93>20
Note:
Denote materials: PP polypropylene, PLA - polylactic acid, PE - polyethylene.

Methods of measurement and methods of tests

I�individual weight

The specific weight of the nonwoven fabric was measured according to the procedure of European standard EN ISO 9073-1:1989 (consistent with WSP 130.1). To measure the specific gravity used 10 layers of nonwoven fabric. The size of each sample was 10×10 cm2.

Thickness

The thickness of the nonwoven fabric was measured according to the procedure of European standard EN ISO 9073-2:1996 (consistent with WSP 120.6) with the following modifications: the total weight of the top lever of the device with incremental load was 130.

The ratio of tensile strength in the directions of MD and CD

The ratio of material strength on the tension in the directions of MD and CD means the ratio of the peak values of the tensile forces, respectively, with the direction of movement in the machine and transverse directions. Both values of peak power were measured by a standard EDANA method WSP 110.4-2005. Sample width was 50 mm, the distance between clamps was 100 mm, the speed was 100 mm/min, and the pretension was 0.1 N.

The ratio of the tensile strengths in the directions of MD and CD = peak power stretching in the MD direction[H/5 cm] / peak power stretching in the direction of CD[N/5cm]

Softness

The softness of a nonwoven fabric was measured according to the test INDA IST 90.3-01. The lower the number the softer the sheet.

Bulk density

Bulk density in the context of the present description represents the ratio unit�wow weight to thickness and is characterized by the elevation of the fibers of the product what is an important characteristic of nonwoven fabric in the light of the present invention. The lower the bulk density, the more air the canvas.

Bulk density [kg/m3] = specific weight [g/m2] / thickness [mm].

The hydrophilic

The hydrophilic fabric may be determined according to the test of "Time passing" - EDANA standard test WSP70.3-2005. The lower the number, the more hydrophilic is the painting.

Opacity

Under the opacity of the material refers to the degree to which a material retains light. The higher the opacity, the greater part of the light is delayed material. Opacity can be measured under the illumination angle of 0° and a detection angle of 45°, the circular geometry of the optical system, using a spectrophotometer with an interface for the computer, for example, with the help of the device HunterLab LabScan XE software Universal Software production Hunter Associates Laboratory Inc. (Reston, Virginia, USA). Instrument calibration and measurements using standard black and white plates, supplied by the equipment manufacturer. All measurements were performed in the room in which the temperature was maintained at 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2%.

The measurement was performed by the following procedure. To adjust the spectrophotometer for colour scale XYZ D65 illuminator standard detector 10°. UV filter� set at the nominal value. To calibrate the instrument according to the manufacturer's instructions, using an aperture of 1.20 inches and a field of view of 1.00 inch. After calibration of the device to adjust the program on the measurement of opacity Y.

To properly prepare the sample, you need to lay the unit on a flat surface, the side facing the body, down, and measure the total length of the product. To celebrate the first point of 33% of the length from the front edge of the product (on the longitudinal axis) and a second point located on 33% of the length from the front edge of the product (on the longitudinal axis). Carefully separate the laminate rear sheet consisting of a film and a nonwoven fabric, from the side of the product facing to the garment. To separate the laminate from products can take advantage of a cryogenic aerosol, for example, Cyto-Freeze manufactured by Control Company (Houston, Texas, USA). Cut a piece the size of 50.8 mm × 50.8 mm centered at each defined as above, points. Prior to testing, to withstand the samples at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2% within two hours.

To install the sample across the measurement window. The sample must completely cover the window, and the surface corresponding to the facing to the garment surface, facing the window. Close the sample standard white plate. To remove the device, remove the white layer�well and replace it with the standard black plate, without moving the sample. To remove the second reading and calculate the opacity as follows:

Opacity = value Y (white background) / Y value (black background) × 100

The test should be held for five identical products and record the results of the measurement of opacity. Calculate the average opacity and standard deviation for 10 measurements for samples of the laminate rear sheet to the nearest 0.01%.

Using the same samples, to separate the nonwoven fabric layer film. To do this, you can also use a cryogenic spray. Prior to testing, to withstand the samples at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2% within two hours. To measure for the layer of nonwoven fabric by the same procedure as described above. Calculate the average opacity and standard deviation for 10 measurements for samples of a nonwoven fabric with a precision of 0.01%.

Measurement of geometrical parameters of the prints bonding

The size of the prints bonding, the distance between them and their angular arrangement was performed on images obtained using a scanner with a flat platform in the resolution of at least 4800 dpi in the reflection mode (appropriate is scanner Epson Perfection V750 Pro production Epson (USA). Measurements were performed using the software both�cookie ImageJ (Version 1.43 is u, National Institute of health, USA). Calibration was performed according to the ruler, certified by the National Institute of Standards.

For tests used scraps investigated nonwovens size 80 mm × 80 mm. Prior to testing, kept the samples at a temperature of 23±2°C and relative humidity 50±2% within two hours. The samples were determined direction of movement in the car. Each of them drew a thin line in this direction for the correct orientation of the sample in the scanner.

The investigated sample was placed on the scanner platform, the surface on which there was prints bonding, down. In close proximity to the sample was placed calibration line. The sample was placed so that the line on it corresponding to the direction of movement of the nonwoven fabric in the machine, parallel to the line. The sample was putting a black background surface and close the scanner cover. Got the image of a nonwoven fabric and a ruler with a resolution of 4800 dpi in the reflection mode at 8-bit grayscale and saved the resulting file. The file opened in the ImageJ program and perform the calibration of the linear dimensions of the canvas on the image of the ruler.

Unless explicitly stated otherwise, dimensions and area was carried out in three repetitions for three similar prints binding on each�th sample of the six similar specimens. Received 18 values were averaged and recorded.

Below is the measurement procedure is described in more detail by the example of the samples shown in Fig.5A-6B, although it should not be considered as limited only by the type specimens. The methods of measurements equally suitable for other forms of prints bonding configurations and recurring seats fastening.

The greatest measurable length (L)

The figure formed by the imprint bond, has a perimeter and a greatest measurable length. To do this, find the line length of the pattern (line 104), i.e. a line across the figure in the two most remote from each other points of the perimeter. Using two data points needed to draw a line. Using the appropriate tool needed to measure the length of a straight line between the data points to the nearest 0.001 mm. for example, in Fig.5B and 6B, the length of this line segment 104 of the length of the pattern is indicated as L.

The greatest measurable width (W)

To the greatest measurable length, the figure formed by the imprint bond, has the greatest measurable width, measured in the direction perpendicular to the line length of the pattern. To determine this width, there should be two lines parallel to the line length of the pattern and tangent to the perimeter of a figure in one or more points, the most �remote from the line length of the pattern. These lines can be considered as the line width of the shape. Using the appropriate tool needed to measure the distance between the line width in the direction perpendicular to the line length of the pattern, to the nearest 0.001 mm. for example, the greatest measurable width for shapes in Fig.5B and 6B is designated as W, and accordingly measured as the distance between the lines 105a and 105b in the direction perpendicular to the line 104 of the length of the pattern.

The smallest clearance

Any two pieces are characterized by the least gleam, that is, the smallest distance that can be measured between them. To measure the clearance you need to define two parallel lines, one of which is tangent to the perimeter of the first shape and is visually closest to the second figure, and the second is tangent to the perimeter of the second figure and is visually closest to the first figure. The data line should be closer to each other than any other two such parallel lines. Minimum clearance is the distance between defined, as indicated above, parallel lines, measured perpendicularly to the data lines.

Lifting height (CH)

If the figure formed by the imprint bond, has a perimeter with a convex part, the convex part is characterized by �naibolshim removing it from the line length of the pattern, and such a distance in the context of the present invention is called the height. For measurement of this parameter is necessary to draw a line that is tangent to the convex part and the parallel line length of the pattern. Using the appropriate tool needed to measure the distance between this tangent and the line length of the pattern in the direction perpendicular to the line length of the pattern, to the nearest 0.001 mm. for example, the lifting height of the convex parts of the figures Fig.5B is denoted as SN, and Fig.6B - as CHaand CHbrespectively.

The depth of the trough (D)

If the figure formed by the imprint bond, has a perimeter with a concave part, the concave part is characterized by its greatest distance from the line width of the shape to which facing this concave part. To determine the depth of deflection necessary to conduct a tangent to this concave part of the perimeter that is parallel to a specified line width and the point farthest from the line width. Using the appropriate tool needed to measure the distance between this tangent and the line length of the pattern in the direction perpendicular to the line length of the pattern, to the nearest 0.001 mm. for example, the depth of the deflection of the concave parts of the figures Fig.5B is designated as D, and Fig.6B - Daand Dbrespectively.

the Angle of deviation of the shape (α T)

The figure formed by the imprint bond, oriented relative to the direction of movement in the car at a certain angle of deflection αT. To determine this angle you need to draw a line in the transverse direction, as a line intersecting the length of the figure, and the line of the transverse direction. Using the measure tool angles, it is necessary to measure the acute angle between the direction of movement in the car and the line length of the pattern with an accuracy of 0.1°. For example, in Fig.5B indicated the deflection angle αTbetween lines 108 and 104.

The deflection angle configuration (γP)

Prints bonding can form a configuration that is inclined from the direction of movement in the car at an angle of γP. To measure this angle it is necessary to identify the set of repeating shapes formed by the impressions of binding and located in the column. You must then make a line that is tangent to two other similar figures with the same angular position in the column located on one side of the figures and passing through the same point shapes. If such a line is available, once it is defined, it is necessary to draw a line in the direction of movement in the car that intersect with this line. Using the measure tool angles, it is necessary to measure the acute angle between definitely� above line the tangent to the column, and the direction of movement in the car, with an accuracy of 0.1°.

The coefficient of obstacles to air flow

Reprints bond form a configuration that matches the configuration of the fastening of the fastening projections on the platen, which in turn creates obstacles to the flow of air through the gap. To determine the coefficient of obstacles to air flow necessary to identify a set of duplicate shapes in a series configuration. Next, you need to draw a line in the transverse direction intersecting the shape data in the position, relative to the direction of movement in the car, in which the shape data cover the largest percentage of this line. Using the appropriate tool needed to measure the distance from the beginning of a recurring set of figures to its end (including the spaces between the shapes formed by prints bonding) to the nearest 0.001 mm. This segment can be considered as the length of the period configuration in the transverse direction. Then with the same tool, it is necessary to measure the lengths of all segments in a given transverse line intercept it figures, educated prints bonding, to the nearest 0.001 mm. Next, you need to fold the length of the obtained segments on the same period configuration and share them on the length of the period. The result is not�bhodemon record to the nearest 0.001. The resulting value represents the ratio of impediments to airflow. For example, in Fig.5C marked the period length wPmeasured on a transverse line 107a. The shapes formed by impressions fastening, cut it stretches w1-w4. The coefficient of obstacles to the passage of the air flow equal to the sum of the lengths of the segments from w1to w4divided by the length of the period wP.

The angle of the air passage through the gap (βA)

The configuration of the ground bonding can provide the path of the air passage, which may have a component in the direction of movement in the car. To determine such a path is necessary to draw a line in the transverse direction. Then you need to find a line which passes at least through the eight rows of figures, impressions formed by bonding without crossing shapes. If such a line exists, it can be considered as the route of the air flow through the gap. This line should continue to the intersection with previously conducted cross-line. With a tool for determining angles it is necessary to measure the acute angle between the line of passage of the air flow line and transverse directions, and record the value to the nearest 0.1°. For example, in Fig.5A and 6A the marked line 109 passing air�about flow, crossing the line 107 transverse direction at the angle of air flow βA.

Percentage of the square bonding

To determine the area percentage of the bond it is necessary to identify a set of duplicate shapes and the spaces between them, and to enhance the image so that this set filled the entire field of view. In the program ImageJ, you need to draw a rectangle that describes a recurring set of figures. You must calculate the area of this rectangle and record it to the nearest 0.001 mm2. Then use the measure tool to measure the area of each of the figures or parts of figures included in the duplicate set (or rectangle) and put them together. The result must be represented with a precision of 0.001 mm2. Next, you need to calculate:

The bonding area ( % ) = (the sum of the areas of the shapes within a repetitive set of configuration binding) / (total area of repetitive configuration set) × 100%

This test must be done for three randomly selected sample plots. The results of the calculations must be recorded with a precision of 0.01%. For each blade to examine only six samples. To determine the mean value and standard deviation for all 18 measurements of area percentage of bond, and �awrite them with a precision of 0.01%.

The average size of individual print bonding

It is necessary to increase the image area of the canvas so that you can accurately track the edges of the figure formed by a reprint binding. In the tool area determination manually outline the perimeter of the shape. To calculate its area and record the value to the nearest 0.001 mm2. The calculation is repeated for five figures, not the next, and randomly scattered by the sample. For each blade to examine only six samples. To determine the mean and standard deviation thus obtained 30 values of the area of bonding areas, and record them to the nearest 0.001 mm2.

The dimensions and their values contained in this document should not be construed as strictly limited to the accuracy of the given values. On the contrary, unless otherwise requested, under the given value refers to the value in the accuracy and all the values that are functionally equivalent in its surroundings. For example, the value indicated as 40 mm, should be considered as "about 40 mm".

All documents referred to in the present description, including references to other patents and applications cited as a whole, unless explicitly stated that they are quoted in part or with limitations. The citation of any d�of the document does not mean the recognition of what the cited document should be included in the prior art relative to the invention described in the present application, or that the cited invention by itself or in combination with another document, or other documents, explains, suggests or describes the idea of the present invention. In addition, if any meaning or definition of the present document does not match the value or definition of this concept in the document to which reference is made, should be guided by the meaning or definition of the concepts contained in this document.

Although in this document are illustrated and described specific embodiments of the present invention, one versed in the art it will be obvious that it's possible to make other changes and modifications that do not violate the idea and the purpose of the invention. To this end he had in mind in the appended claims to represent all possible such changes and modifications within the scope of the present invention.

1. The product industrial manufacture, comprising, as component a segment of a nonwoven fabric having a macroscopic surface, close to the plane, the direction of movement in the machine and transverse direction, a nonwoven fabric formed mainly of polymeric fiber�n and contains a set of one or more consolidating cloth seats fastening, printing on its surface, wherein said one or more consolidating cloth seats fasteners are in the form of at least one shape, wherein said set is repeated, forming the configuration of consolidating cloth seats fasteners, wherein said set is repeated in at least four rows, extended mainly in the transverse direction and in at least four columns, extended mainly in the direction of movement in the car, and in this figure, a form which is binding, has a perimeter having a greatest measurable length and a greatest measurable width, wherein the perimeter includes a convex part, characterized by the ratio of the greatest measurable length to the greatest measurable width, comprising at least a 2.5, and is oriented such that a line intersecting the perimeter, and along which the greatest measurable length, intersects an axis lying on the surface and extended in the direction of movement in the car, so that the smaller angles at their point of intersection is from 1° to 40°.

2. The product according to claim 1, wherein the configuration is such that on the surface may be defined by the line of air flow at least through the eight rows of consolidating cloth seats fastening, pérez�th any of the figures, the form which have a place of bonding and intersects an axis lying on the said surface and extended in the transverse direction so that the smaller angles at their point of intersection is greater than 45°.

3. The product according to claim 1, in which the mentioned convex portion has a variable radius of curvature.

4. The product according to claim 1, wherein the nonwoven fabric has a specific weight of from 6.0 to 50 g/m2, more preferably from 8.0 to 35 g/m2, more preferably from 9.0 to 25 g/m2and even more preferably from 10 to 20 g/m2.

5. The product according to claim 1, wherein the perimeter further has a concave part located essentially opposite the convex part.

6. The product according to claim 1, in which the place of bonding, having a repeating form, are located in the same angular orientation along a line lying on the surface and extended in the direction of movement in the car.

7. The product according to claim 1, in which the place of bonding, having a repeating form, are located in the same angular orientation as a column along the line on the surface that intersects an axis lying on the surface and extended in the direction of movement in the car so that the smaller angles at their intersection is from 0° to 4°, more preferably from 0° to 3° and even more preferably from 0° to 2.5°.

8. The product according to claim 1, in which the greatest measurable length n�status line, lying on the surface and intersecting the axis lying on the surface and extended in the direction of movement in the car, so that the smaller angles at their intersection is from 5° to 15°.

9. The product according to claim 5, in which the concave portion has a depth to the greatest measurable length, comprising from 0.00 to 0.30.

10. The product according to claim 1, wherein the convex portion has a height, and the ratio of the height to the greatest measurable length is 0.30 or less.

11. The product according to claim 1, wherein the perimeter has two concave parts.

12. The product according to claim 11, in which the perimeter has two concave parts that are located essentially opposite the two convex parts respectively.

13. The product industrial manufacture, having, as a component, a stretch nonwoven fabric having a macroscopic surface, close to the plane, the direction of movement in the machine and transverse direction, a nonwoven fabric formed primarily of polymeric fibers and contains a set of one or more consolidating cloth seats fastening, printed on its surface, wherein said one or more consolidating cloth seats fasteners have at least one form, wherein said set is repeated, creating a configuration from a consolidating cloth seats fastening, when this is mentioned�th set is repeated in at least four rows, extended predominantly in the transverse direction and in at least four columns, extended mainly in the direction of movement in the car, and thus the shape of the bond has a perimeter having a greatest measurable length and a greatest measurable width, wherein the perimeter has a convex portion, characterized by the ratio of the greatest measurable length to the greatest measurable width, comprising at least 2.5 and a figure, a form which is binding, asymmetrical with respect to any line intersecting the perimeter.

14. The product industrial manufacture, comprising, as component a segment of a nonwoven fabric having a macroscopic surface, close to the plane, the direction of movement in the machine and transverse direction, a nonwoven fabric formed primarily of polymeric fibers and contains a set of one or more consolidating cloth seats fastening, printed on its surface, wherein said one or more consolidating cloth seats fasteners have at least one form, wherein said set is repeated, creating a configuration from a consolidating cloth seats fastening; wherein said set is repeated in at least four rows, extended predominantly in the transverse direction and at IU�e in four columns, extended predominantly in the direction of movement in the car, and thus the shape of the bond has a perimeter having a greatest measurable length and a greatest measurable width, wherein the perimeter has a convex portion, characterized by the ratio of the greatest measurable length to the greatest measurable width, comprising at least 2.5, is oriented such that a line intersecting the perimeter along which the greatest measurable length, intersects an axis lying on the surface and extended in the direction of movement in the car, so that the smaller angles at their point of intersection is from 1° to 40°, and wherein said configuration provides the coefficient of obstacles to air flow through the clearance gap of 0.40 or less.

15. The product according to claim 1, further comprising a set of one or more pairs of adjacent consolidating cloth seats fastening, printed on its surface, with space bond in each pair have at least one form, wherein said set is repeated, creating a configuration from a consolidating cloth seats fastening; wherein said set is repeated in at least four rows, extended mainly in the transverse direction, and in at least four columns, extended mainly in the direction of travel in mA�ine, and the shape of the places bond in said one or more pairs forms a passage in the diffuser, and wherein each of the figures, the shape of which are binding in said one or more pairs has a perimeter having a greatest measurable length and a greatest measurable width, wherein the perimeter has a convex portion, characterized by the ratio of the greatest measurable length to the greatest measurable width, comprising at least 2.5, is oriented such that a line intersecting the perimeter, and along which the greatest measurable width, crosses the axis lying on the surface and extended in the direction of movement in the car so that the smaller angles at their point of intersection is from 1° to 40°, and wherein said configuration provides the coefficient of obstacles to air flow through the clearance gap of 0.40 or less.

16. The product according to claim 1, which is an absorbent product.

17. The product according to claim 13, which is an absorbent product.

18. The product according to claim 14, which is an absorbent product.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fixing and bearing device for disposable adsorbing sanitary towel used for incontinence. Device contains hip belt, fixed on itself in a detachable way by means of fixing elements, on which sanitary towel can be fastened in a detachable way. Hip belt includes anterior abdominal area, posterior back area and left and right side area, valve section, which on its body-facing side contains fastening elements, interacting with detachable meshing with respective fastening elements on facing away from the body side of sanitary towel. Hip belt is made openable and fixable only in one area. Secondary fastening elements, which can be used to adjust circumference length of hip joint in such a way that, at least, anterior valve section can be positioned symmetrically to user's perineum, are included. Some components of secondary fastening elements are located on section of material, fixed to hip belt, the other components are located on external side of hip belt. Respective valve section is made as one whole with abdominal area and/or with back area of hip joint.

EFFECT: simplification of device manufacturing, easiness of putting on and increased comfort in the process of wearing are provided.

16 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: individually packaged absorbent products comprise an absorbent product folded in three, having two end portions and a middle portion, as well as an envelope comprising the absorbent product. The absorbent product has a pair of wings projecting from the main portion; a surface of each wing facing the underwear is coated with an adhesive layer for attaching the wings to the underwear when in use; the absorbent product also has at least one slip of release paper above the adhesive layer to protest the same until the product is in use The envelope is configured and packed so that the user can open the envelope in such a manner that a surface of the middle portion facing the underwear opens before a surface of the first end portion facing the underwear and a surface of the second end portion facing the underwear A sheet material is connected to a slip of release paper than enables the user opening the envelope and removing the slip of release paper at the same time.

EFFECT: providing the correct attachment of the absorbent product to the underwear and eliminating the contamination of the adhesive layer attached to the underwear before the product is attached.

19 cl, 29 dwg

Absorbent core // 2541300

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: structure of an absorbent core for disposable absorbent products. The absorbent core for the absorbent product contains a first layer, which contains first and second surfaces of the first layer; an absorbent polymer layer, which comprises first and second absorbent polymer layers; an adhesive layer. The adhesive layer comprises first and second surfaces of the adhesive layer. The absorbent polymer layer is arranged between the adhesive layer and the first layer. The second surface of the absorbent polymer layer faces the first surface of the above first layer; and the first layer of the absorbent polymer layer faces the second surface of the above adhesive layer. The structure of the absorbent core comprises a second layer, having first and second surfaces respectively and arranged so that the second surface of the second layer faces the first surface of the adhesive layer. The first layer of the absorbent core is characterised by the thickness of 0.4 mm to 1.5 mm, while the second layer of the absorbent core is characterised by a permeability of at least 200 Darcy and a porosity of at least 0.85.

EFFECT: providing an increase of absorptive capacity, low re-soaking, fast fluid collection with a small thickness of the product.

24 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: paper sanitary and hygienic material in the form of toilet wipe, toilet paper and the tampon, is impregnated with a solution of a complex composition in an amount of 100-200% of the weight of the paper and dried to a dry state. The content of the active substances in the sanitary and hygienic material after impregnation and drying in one layer per 1 m2 in grams: anaesthesin 0.001-2.0, novocaine hydrochloride 0.001-2.0, menthol 0.001-3.0. Advantages: small amounts of the active ingredients facilitates production and avoids a phenomenon of polypharmacy, usability of dry sanitary and hygienic material, increase in the alcohol concentration and elimination of glycerol accelerates the drying process, a fast and effective anaesthetic effect, the ability to use by pregnant women, the ability to use in hypertension, the long term of storage.

EFFECT: improvement of properties of paper toilet wipes, toilet paper and tampons to enable their use as auxiliary sanitary and hygienic material for people suffering from various diseases of the anal region of rectum.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to liquid surface-active composition, suitable for application as sealing for control over movement of liquids in products, as means for hand washing as cleaning substance. Described is liquid surface-active composition, containing anionic surface-active substance, selected from the group of compounds, in amount from approximately 90 % to approximately 99.9 % of composition weight and cationic surface-active compound, selected from the group, in amount from approximately 0.1 % to approximately 10 % of composition weight, with composition swelling in presence of water and physiological fluids. Absorbing product for personal hygiene and protective product are also described.

EFFECT: provision of solution, which swells in contact with fluids, and reduction of liquid leak inside porous substrates.

13 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: patients keep a diet with reducing an amount of liquid taken up to 1.5l a day that is compensated by the intravenous administration of solutions an amount and composition of which depends on a degree of water-electrolyte disturbances. Additionally, after bandage removal, the wound and edges of the fistulous passage is 5% potassium permanganate, which is then washed with 3% hydrogen peroxide. A mouth of the fistula and the wound edges are dried. That is followed by an aeration of the mouth of the fistula with a cooled plasma flow of nitrogen monoxide at a depth of 0.5cm in the therapeutic mode of 2000 mg/m3 and exposition of 1.5min. The mouth of the fistula and the wound edges are treated with a plasma flow of nitrogen monoxide in the concentration within the contact area with the wound surface of 1500 mg/m3 and time of exposure of 20 seconds per each 1 cm2 of the surface. The mouth of the fistula and the wound edges are dried. The mouth is packed with the gauze swab. The fistulous wound is exposed to EHF waves with the pure noise spectrum and the provided integral power on the wound surface of 1.5 mcWt along the perimeter of the mouth at 15mm from the fistulous passage for 30 minutes. The swab is removed. The mouth and the surrounding skin is treated with zinc paste and covered with gauze swabs. The further bandages are performed in the similar way as the bandage wets with the intestinal contents, but no more than 2 times a day and at least once every 3 days.

EFFECT: safe and effective conservative treatment of the intestinal fistulas at any phase of the wound process that enables avoiding risks of surgical intervention and general anaesthesia by rapid reduction of skin maceration and perifocal inflammation surrounding the mouth and prevents them, stimulates the growths of granulocyte tissue and epithelisation of the fistuous wound.

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a disposable absorbent open-type diaper used for incontinence and having a main comprising a front portion with front side long edges, a back portion with back side long edges and a perineal portion with the main comprising and absorbent body. The back side portions are provided with first fasteners close to leg openings with auxiliary fasteners which can be detachably fixed on at least an outside of the front side portions, thereby the front and back portions can be attached together. A cross edge of the front side portion facing the perineal portion extends substantially in parallel with the transverse direction. The posterior regions of the leg openings are formed by presenting the back side portions on at least the side facing the perineal portion oblique to the longitudinal direction, or curved. The length to width relation R of the leg opening of the side portion of the back side portion makes 0.1 to 0.4; the longitudinal fracture strength Fm of the diaper makes at least 4.0 N, while the distance C from the fastener closest to the leg opening to the lower edge of the back side portion makes no more than 5 cm.

EFFECT: providing higher tensile strength of the side portions of the diaper.

15 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: an invention refers to an absorbent product used for incontinence and a method for making it. The product comprises a main portion consisting of front, back and perineal portions with the main portion containing an absorbent body with back side portions of a fabric connected to the back portion and with front side portions of the fabric connected to the front portion. The back and front portions of the fabric transversally projects over longitudinal side edges of the main portion and have inner and outer sides on the side facing a body when in use. The back portions of the fabric in the outer edge of the portions of the fabric are provided with fasteners comprising applying the fastener with a free finger pincer, which is folded back on the inner side of the portion of the fabric when in use. Before use, the portions of the fabric are folded to overlap each other and inside on the body-facing back portion of the main portion to form a folded configuration, wherein an overlying folded portion of the fabric comprises an edge, while its inner side is directed towards the inside of the back portion of the main portion.

EFFECT: provided less functional failures of the fasteners with a high production rate.

13 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to diapers, and in particular to disposable absorbent inserts applicable with re-useable external components. The disposable absorbent insert comprises an absorbent core enclosed into a structural element in the form of an envelope formed by the upper sheet and the back sheet of the absorbent insert. The absorbent core comprises a portion free from air felt between the upper sheet and the back sheet of the absorbent insert, and contains a layer formed by at least partially from a base, distributed absorbent particles of a superabsorbent polymer or an absorbent gelling material, and a thermoplastic adhesive composition binding the distributed absorbent particles and adhered to at least portions of the base, thereby immobilising the absorbent particles in relation to the base and holding these particles on the base or in an immediate proximity to the base. Absorbability of the insert makes at least 200 g, the specific absorbability of the insert makes at least 8 g/g, while the weight of the absorbent insert makes at least 50 g.

EFFECT: providing higher absorbent properties and comfort wearing.

15 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method and device for producing absorbent tampons with a reduced number of loose prominent fibres comprises a new needle-punched assembly. The method involves the stages of producing a continuous length of non-woven fibrous fabric; separating single portions of the non-woven fabric from the continuous non-woven fibrous fabric; forming sharp side edges of the single portions of the non-woven fabric; rolling the portion of the non-woven fabric to form a substantially cylindrical piece part of the tampon to form the absorbent tampon. The sharp side edges of each portion of the non-woven fabric are formed by a needle-punched method applied to long side edges of each single portion of the non-woven fabric directly by rolling both the long side edges inside to form the sharp side edges of the single portion of the non-woven fabric and needle punching of the rolled long side edges to fix the sharp side edges of the single portion of the non-woven fabric. The portion of the non-woven fabric is rolled along an axis of rotation substantially in parallel to the width to form the substantially cylindrical piece part of the tampon having an insert end and a removal end.

EFFECT: producing the absorbent tampons with the reduced number of loose prominent fibres.

13 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: medicine, hygiene.

SUBSTANCE: the suggested product contains the mixture out of thermoplastic hydrophobic and absorbing fibers. Absorbing fibers are present in the quantity being sufficient to efficiently absorb liquid from external surface of combined covering and transmitting layer at no competition with absorbing middle layer to provide quick penetration of liquid at minimal reverse wetting.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

19 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: medicine, pharmacy.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes absorbing articles for individual hygiene, such as diapers and articles for adults suffering with enuresis, and methods for applying including application of absorbing article on which effective amount of substances is applied for binding skin-irritating substances. The applied agent consists of the substance with non-modified particles binding skin-irritating substances and lipophilic and favorable for skin health agent. The non-modified agent consisting of particles and binding skin-irritating substances can be represented by clay, such as bentonite or laponite. The lipophilic and favorable for skin health agent can be represented by stearic acid, isoparaffin, vaseline and their combination. Absorption of indicated skin-irritating substances allows prophylaxis for their penetration in skin wherein they can cause damage and inflammation.

EFFECT: improved binding method, valuable hygienic properties of article.

20 cl, 7 dwg, 3 tbl, 7 ex

Medicinal bandage // 2245164

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dressing materials based on polymeric compositions and can be used in surgery and traumatology for closing wounds of different etiology. The polyol component-base medicinal bandage based on propylene oxide or ethylene oxide comprises water, catalyst for urethane formation and isocyanate complex consisting of isomers of diphenylmethane diisocyanate. High-molecular simple polyetherpolyol with molecular mass 3000-10000 Da is used, and isocyanate complex comprises additionally oligourethane isocyanate based on low-chain oligoetherpolyol with the content of isocyanate groups 26.0-29.5 wt.-%. Also, the bandage comprises activation additive consisting of polyurethane chain lengthener, foam-opening agent and foam-hardening agent. Bandage provides exclusion additional pain senses in the patient, enhancing absorption effect and provides absence of skin sticking.

EFFECT: valuable medicinal properties of bandage.

7 ex

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has flocculated fibers glued to one or several internal surfaces of absorbing article having coating layer, absorbing layer and lower sheet. Any surface taken from internal surface of coating, surfaces of central absorbing layer or internal surface of the lower sheet can be taken as the abovementioned internal surface.

EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.

13 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: flocked fibers are used for producing absorbing gas-permeable films and manufacturing absorbing articles, bandage materials and skin care plasters.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of skin care.

19 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device is thin (the thickness is less than 5 mm), highly absorbing, having transverse flexibility providing controllable deformation, when being used, with W-shaped relief being assumed. The device has zones of preferential bending arranged along longitudinal axis of the pad and two longitudinal sticking zones mounted on water-proof barrier layer of the hygienic pad. The zones overlap with zones of preferential bending. The longitudinal sticking zones join the hygienic pad to underwear article in places where the hygienic pad is thought to undergo lateral contraction.

EFFECT: provided bending in desired way; assuming required three-dimensional deformation pattern.

13 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has corrugations fittable in shape all over the whole structure to allow user to attach it to pants as needed.

EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.

6 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device shows resistance to deformation within the limits of 205-450 g with folds being formed. The device has absorbing core having at least two absorbing layers possessing different rigidity properties.

EFFECT: high quality of the article.

11 cl, 2 dwg, 8 tbl

FIELD: wound-healing materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention is first designed for disaster medicine, in particular for primary treatment of wounds and damaged zones. The task of invention is to develop therapeutical materials cutting short pain syndrome, accelerating healing processes, and reducing treatment time thanks to atraumatic change of treatment conditions without replacing bandages. Prolonged-effect layered material is made from hydrophilic textile material coated with at least two layers of biocompatible and biodegradable polymer with immobilized therapeutical substances. Inside layer, adjoining textile material, contains antimicrobial agent and wound-facing outside layer contains anesthetic and antimicrobial agents. Inside layer may further contain anesthetic agent and/or antioxidant, and/or an agent stimulating epithelization of sound tissues and outside layer may additionally contain hemostatic agent.

EFFECT: enhanced and prolonged therapeutical effect.

18 cl, 1 tbl, 19 ex

FIELD: medicine, hygiene.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an absorbing structure in absorbing article, such as swaddling cloth, diaper, preserving agent in enuresis, hygienic laying. Indicated absorbing structure comprises foam-structure with opened cells and pore walls of indicated structure comprise liquid-retaining material that is able to hold above 7% of synthetic urine as determined by CRC method. Absorbing porous structure comprises pores of foam-structure that comprise hydrophilic fibers wherein at least part of hydrophilic fibers is fixed tightly in pore walls of foam-structure, and the fiber amount is at least 10% by mass of the total foam mass with opened cells in dry state. Also, invention relates to an absorbing article comprising such absorbing structure. Absorbing structure has good capacity in retaining liquid and good distribution of liquid.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of structure and article.

15 cl, 8 dwg

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