Composition for treating seeds of field crops
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to crop production, and can be used for pre-sowing treatment of seeds. The treatment seed is carried out with an aqueous solution of 1% extrasol and 1% starch. At that 100-110 ml of extrasol and 100 ml of starch is taken per 10-11 litres of water for treatment of 1 ton of seeds. After the treatment, the seeds are dried for 2 hours and planted.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the productivity of field crops at minimum cost to its use.
The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the crop, and can be used for presowing treatment of seeds.
The known method of presowing treatment of seeds with a solution of bischofite with a concentration of 5-100 wt. % of the original brine and flow rate 10-15 l/t of seed. When used for seed treatment, a solution of bischofite activate the magnetic field (Patent RU №2224399, C2, AS 1/00, publication date 27.02.2004).
In the known method uses a magnetic field, which changes the structure of the solution that leads to a change in its properties in the future.
The closest technical solution is a Method for improving mountain meadows and pastures", which consists in the simultaneous sowing of grasses in turf and removing rocks and bumps. Grass seeds before sowing processed drug Extresol-55". When sowing seeds mixed with alanita, wood ash and urea in the ratio 1:3:1:1 (Patent RU №2431248).
This method has the following disadvantages: during sowing gradual dripping of the solution from the surface of the seeds, which entails a reduction in the efficiency of seed treatment and crop yields.
A common feature of the prototype and the claimed composition for seed treatment of field crops is the use of Extrasolar 55 as the main component of the composition.�and seeds.
Object of the invention - improving the viability of seeds, plant resistance to pests, diseases and yield of field crops with minimum expenses.
The claimed invention differs from the prototype in that in the solution for seed treatment is injected with 1% starch.
In the claimed object mentioned disadvantages of the prototype are eliminated as follows: in the solution composition additionally introduced a 1% starch.
The invention consists in that the processing of seeds with an aqueous solution of 1% extrasolar and 1% starch. While taking extresol - 100-110 ml and 100 ml starch 10-11 liters of water to process 1 ton of seeds. After treatment, the seeds are dried for 2 hours and produce the planting.
The claimed invention is as follows. The treatment of seeds produced by a composition that consists of 10-11 liters of water per treatment of 1 ton of seeds, a 1% "Extrasolar-55 and a 1% aqueous solution of starch, which contributes to the creation of protective film on the surface of seeds, enveloping the seed. The composition is prepared immediately before sowing with subsequent two-hour drying of seeds.
The preparation of the composition includes the following operations.
Prepare a 1% aqueous solution of extrasolar-55 (1 ml extresol-55 add 100 ml of water).
Prepare a 1% aqueous starch solution (1 ml conc�terouanne starch ows 100 ml of water).
Then take one third from the norm of water (3 liters), which consistently poured aqueous solutions of 1% "Extresol-55 and 1% starch. The liquid made up to volume 10-11 liters.
Seed treatment is prepared with the composition produced immediately before planting.
Pre-sowing seed treatment composition for seed treatment of field crops is as follows. To three liters of water add 1% "Extresol-55" (100 ml) there is added a previously prepared aqueous solution of 1% starch (100 ml), stirring well until smooth, and adding water up to the standard required to process 1 ton of seeds - 10-11 liters. In a container topped with seeds prepared with the composition and thoroughly mixed. Drying of seeds for 2 hours is necessary for the formation of a solid film and prevent dripping of the composition with the surface of the seeds and drying them.
Due to the fact that "Extresol-55" is a biological preparation, solution preparation and processing is done in one day for the purpose of maintaining the manufacturer of the effectiveness of the drug.
Extrasol-55 - drug rhizosphere, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, designed to improve the nutrition of field crops, increase the yield, improves the flow of nutrients in plants, increases WCC�tin seeds accelerates the development of plants, reduces the severity of phytopathogenic microorganisms, thereby increasing the productivity of plants.
Starch contributes to the creation of a film on the surface of seeds, which contributes to a longer contact Extrasol-55" with the seed and prevents the draining of the solution from the surface of the seed.
The effectiveness of Extrasolar-55" 0.5% higher efficiency of the prototype, but inferior to the recommended option. The increase in the concentration is impractical because it leads to lower field germination of seeds and, ultimately, crop yield.
The technical solution is that in contrast to the prior art processing of seeds with an aqueous solution of 1% "of Extrasolar-55 and 1% starch. While taking Extresol-55" - 100-110 ml and 100 ml starch 10-11 liters of water to process 1 ton of seeds. After treatment, the seeds are dried for 2 hours and produce the planting.
|The effectiveness of pre-sowing seed treatment of corn|
|Options||Seed germination, %||The period of sowing-sprouting, days||Yield, t/ha||Increase UB�th, %|
|Extrasol 0,5 %||87||11-12||7,3||107,3|
|Extrasol 1 %||92||8-10||7,6||111,7|
|Extrasol 1,5 %||85||12-13||7,0||102,9|
|Extrasol + starch||97||6-7||7,9||116,1|
As the table shows, the proposed structure allows to increase the yield of field crops 1% "Extrasolar-55" on 116,1% at minimum cost, which is shown in the table.
Example. Solution for seed treatment were prepared on the day of sowing. The water has added 100 ml of extrasolar, 100 ml of an aqueous solution of starch, mixed, d�of bawley to normal water (10 liters). Processed 1 t corn seed, dried for 2 hours and carried out the planting. Germination was 97%, the period from sowing to emergence 6-7 days, the yield of 7.9 t/ha.
The composition for seed treatment of field crops, including 1% aqueous solution of starch and 1% aqueous solution of Extrasolar-55", and from the calculation of the total volume of the mixture 10-11 liters for processing 1 ton of seeds have:
|the aqueous solution of starch||1%|
|the aqueous solution of Extrasolar-55"||1%|
SUBSTANCE: silo with agitating rod with inertia drive for grasses seeder with non-running and low running seeds contains silo with agitating rod. The silo bottom is made as a truncated cone. On the silo lid the agitating rod in installed. Spring is connected to the agitating rod by means of washer and nut. Spring under the agitating rod weight in quiescent state is compressed.
EFFECT: prevention of dome creation, and continuous feeding of low running and non-running seeds to the seeding zone.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of management of common vetch for seeds consists in the common planting of vetch with reference cultures to form three-component mixtures. The reference cultures are used simultaneously as oats and white mustard, the seeding rate of each of which is reduced to 1.0 million pcs./Ha of germinating seeds, which constitutes, respectively, 22-27% and 44-67% of the recommended norm for two-component crops.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables to increase the amount of harvested vetch seeds in mixed crops.
3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: loader of seeders based on car-dump truck with double-sided loading comprises the chassis with dumping body, a screw feeder, and an unloading rotary transporter. The unloading transporter is made in the form of a screw in a cylindrical housing and connected to the rear wall of the body by means of 4-link parallelogram mechanism with moving links in a vertical plane. Coupling is formed as two-armed lever which is mounted on a horizontal axis. One end of the lever through the driven link is pivotally connected to the vehicle chassis and on the other - by means of a vertical axis is pivotally connected to an additional lever rotary in a horizontal plane. The free end of the lever is provided with U-shaped fork. The ends of the U-shaped fork are pivotally connected to the housing of the unloading screw in its centre of gravity with the possibility of rotational movement of the screw in the vertical plane.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of the loader of seeders.
4 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The method comprises application of material in the field by the machine having a plurality of devices for dispensing the material. The dispensers of material are arranged to form rows when the machine moves along the field. The machine has a control system for selective stopping for dispensing the material by one or more dispensers while continuing to dispense the material by remaining dispensers. The machine has the means of translational motion and the means of automated determining of position and direction. The method comprises determining the perimeter of the field, identifying the areas of passage of headlands, determining the remaining central region of the field inside the passages of the headlands, the choice of a starting place to begin application of the material. The method also comprises determining a travel route for application of the material starting from the passages in both sides in the central area and turning the machine in the areas, and determining a route plan for the subsequent application of the material in the areas of the headlands. Each headland created around the field is equal to the full width of the machine. The area of passage of the first headland in the perimeter is adjacent to the outer edge of the field. All areas of the passages of the additional headlands are created inside the area of passage of the headland around the perimeter. According to the second embodiment, the method also comprises the use seeds as the material.
EFFECT: technology enables to minimise or eliminate compacting the areas with sown seeds due to exclusion of double passing of the machine on areas with sown seeds.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: planting unit can be used in sowing cultivated and other crops. The planting unit comprises a housing, in which lower part a horizontal sowing disc is mounted. In the sowing disc the conical through holes are made, arranged radially in three rows, directed with the smaller base down. Over the sowing disc an L-shaped partition is mounted, separating the inter-housing space into two zones: a zone of loading and a zone of actuating bodies. In the zone of loading in the upper lid of the housing a loading window charging hole is made. In the zone of actuating bodies a window for seed outlet is made and in it parallel to the L-shaped partition above the horizontal sowing disc a unit of sensors for control of seeds presence is mounted. Under the unit of sensors a unit of pneumatic valves is mounted, which are controlled by an electronic control device. The outlet nozzles of the pneumatic valves are mounted coaxially to the conical openings of the sowing disc.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase the efficiency of precision planting seeds with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizers and to extend the functional capabilities.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: unit for sowing seed material in tape comprises soil rippers 2, coils 7 with seed tapes and a compacting roller 10 mounted on the frame 1. The unit 3 is provided with a seed-bed-generator 3 made in the form of a flat disc 4 with an axis and a bearing assembly mounted at an angle of attack to the direction of movement, and two vertically placed sides - the outer 5 and inner 6 located on both sides of the flat disc 4 and behind it. The outer side 5 with the front edge is adjacent to the surface of the disc 4 at a level close to its vertical diameter at an angle α equal to or smaller than the angle of friction of the soil. The front part of the inner side 6 is placed in the space between the outer side 5 and the disc 4 and fixed to the outer side 5. The soil ripper is made in the form of two needle discs 2 sequentially located in adjacent rows with discretely variable angles of attack with the distance between the centres of the discs 2 along the motion, not exceeding their radius. The distance between the discs 2 is at least twice the distance between the sides 5 and 6 of the seed-bed-generator 3. The coil 7 with the seed tape has a guide roller and mounted on the frame behind the seed-bed-generator 3. The embedding roller 10 is mounted symmetrically behind the coil 7 and is made cylindrical in the middle part and in the form of truncated cones on the sides.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the quality of sowing seeds at lower energy consumption and to reduce soil over-compaction.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises planting grass mixtures of legume crops. The tillage to a depth of 20-25 cm, surface levelling and sowing seeds is carried out with inter-row spacing of 15 cm under the scheme leban-alfalfa-alfalfa-leban. In the first year of life in May, in the budding phase - the beginning of flowering, the alfalfa is harvested together with leban for hay. On the second year in spring leban is used for hay, and in winter it is grazed off by sheep or cattle. In other years leban is grazed off at the grassroots alternatively - in summer and in winter, with seeding rate of leban of 5 kg/ha, alfalfa - 6 kg/ha of seeds. Two-component mixtures of leban and alfalfa are sown in winter. For self-sowing of leban every two years grazing of leban is alternated in summer and the following year in winter.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the productivity of grassland crops and to improve soil nutrient content.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural engineering, in particular to devices for planting grain crops with simultaneous local application of mineral fertilisers, and can be used on seed-fertiliser seeders. The disc sowing section comprises the L-shaped rack (1) and the central circular blade (4) consequently fixed to its lower rear part, the A-hoe (5) with a fertiliser tube (6), the disc sowing blades (14) with fertiliser-seed tubes (16), the drawbar (18), the roller (17). The rear lower part of the L-shaped rack (1) on its both sides the sleeves with through holes of square cross section are rigidly secured offset relative to each other. Inside the sleeves the brackets are mounted. The brackets are provided with screws (9) with annular grooves near the heads. The stops (10) are mounted in the annular grooves. The stops (10) are rigidly fixed to the L-shaped rack (1). The opposite ends of the brackets in the vertical direction the spline bushings are rigidly fixed. In the spline bushings the pins with splined ends are inserted. The pins with splined ends are secured in the perpendicular direction by axes with the disc sowing blades mounted on them.
EFFECT: constructive solution is aimed at ensuring adjustment of the inter-row spacing width and angles of attack of the sowing disc blades.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: seeding unit comprises a device for furrow breakdown made in the form of at least one disc of coulter, a device for feeding the seeds into the furrow, a device for feeding the fertilizer into the furrow, a device for closing the furrow, a device for embedding the seeds, and a device for controlling the sowing depth. The device for controlling the sowing depth is made in the form of at least one wheel of embedding control. The wheel of control has an embedding control mechanism located on the balancing beam. The pivotally connected end of the embedding control mechanism acts on a lever attached to the arm of the corresponding wheel of embedding control to ensure the free and independent movement of the said wheel. The arm of the wheel of embedding control is attached to the movable plate of the corresponding hinge mechanism with providing the possibility of rocking movement of the said wheel and the said movable plate relative to the disc in its open position. The arm is also attached with providing the possibility of fixing the said wheel, preventing rocking movement relative to the disc in its closed position. The other plate of the hinge mechanism is attached to the balancing beam.
EFFECT: invention enables to simplify the process of removal of crop residues, dust, damp soil, to increase cleaning efficiency and to speed up the cleaning process, reducing the machine downtime.
6 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of cultivation of high-protein fodder crops in small areas consists in that the preparing, processing, levelling of soil, strip sowing, post-sowing compacting is carried out. Soil preparation is carried out in a single pass as paring. Before sowing the seed disinfection is carried out by wetting them with anode water with acidity of 2-4 pH. Then the seeds are dried in a stream of air to the normal amount of moisture for 10-12 hours. Sowing is carried out on stubble pre-loosened to mulch, with irrigation seeds with catholyte with pH 9-11. The grains of corn or sunflower for grain-haylage are seeded with row spacing of 90-120 cm to form a corridor, in which the seeds of two varieties of high-protein crops are simultaneously seeded with alternation of strips, with a width of rows up to 15 cm. In subsequent years the cross alternation of crops is carried out. The method is carried out using the device which comprises a power unit, a rotary cultivator, a compacting roller, seed hoppers, a drill tube and an opener. The device is also equipped with a hoe blade placed in front of the opener, and a valve mechanism for opening and closing the seed channel located at the end of the opener. The ripper is made in the form of a rotary grinder with knives of mowing type attached perpendicular to its teeth, and is placed over the runner boot. In addition, the device is equipped with a tank for catholyte, mounted on the frame in front of the power unit, and dispensers with nozzles mounted under the sub-frame and connected to the tank by pipelines.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce energy consumption and to increase productivity of crops sown together.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing sorts of soya with different ripening time; simultaneously sowing sorts of soya of at least four different ripening time in adjacent rows, with early ripening sorts being combined with late ripening sorts; setting seeding norm for early ripening sorts of soya in the range of 600,000-650,000 pieces/hectare and for late ripening sorts of soya in the range of 400,000-450,000 pieces/hectare.
EFFECT: improved quality of seeds and reduced seed losses.
FIELD: agriculture and agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for seeding of grass, brush and subbrush on non-tilled lands, such as pastures with natural herbage, including meadow grass seeds, legimunous seeds and mixtures thereof.
SUBSTANCE: combined apparatus has tractor, hopper adapted for seeds and fertilizers and equipped with seeding units, seed guides, shanks, covering device and covering roller. Apparatus is further equipped with rollers arranged in succession and kinematically connected with one another. Shanks are made in the form of soil deforming devices pivotally fixed on roller surface in staggered arrangement. Each of soil deforming devices is made in the form of rod mounted in receptacle. One end of rod has thickened portion formed as truncated cone joined with rod through spherical layer on larger base of truncated cone. Other end of rod is equipped with threaded shank and receptacle belt, onto which fastening members and seat are mounted. Fastening members and seat are joined with compression spring located in receptacle of soil deforming device, which is made in the form of hollow cylinder with bottom. Axis of symmetry of receptacle is deviated by angle of 20-35 deg from roller radius in direction opposite to rolling direction of roller. Bottom part of receptacle made in the form of hollow cylinder extends above roller hosing surface. Roller has guides made in the form of pipes arranged in equally spaced relation in mounting disks of roller housing. At least one point on surface of each guide is aligned with point lying on inner surface of disk. Outer mounting disks of roller housing are joined with mounting rings of ballast cylinders by means of fastening devices and dismantling devices. One end of cylinder has pin. Covering devices are fixed on roller second with respect to course of advancement of apparatus.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by creating stable and high-productive agrocenosis on degraded and tumbledown pastures.
3 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sowing machinery used mainly for sowing seeds of grass, shrubs and sushrubs on noncultivated land areas, for instance, on devastated pastures and meadows with native grass stand, i.e. pod-bearing plants, (including common licorice), meadow grasses, their mixtures, shrubs and subshrubs. Proposed sowing unit contains tractor, hopper for seeds and fertilizers with seed-sowing mechanisms, seed tubes, colters, closers and covering roll. Unit is furnished with tandem-mounted and mechanically connected rolls. Front roll in direction of movement of sowing unit plays the part of colter group. Colters are made in form of soil cutting tool secured on surface of front roll in direction of movement and installed over perimeter of roll at equal angular pitch, being displaced through half of pitch in adjacent rows. Each soil cutting tool is placed in socket for re-adjustment and demounting. Socket is made in form of hollow cylinder. Axis of symmetry of each socket is displaced from radial direction of its rolling through angle of 15-35o. Soil cutting tool is locked in socket by dowel installed in coaxial holes of socket and soil cutting tool. Holes in socket are made parallel to roll generating surface. Each soil cutting tool is essentially stepped trunnion. Group of holes for re-setting in socket is made in trunnion of smaller diameter in soil cutting tool. End face of detachable trunnion is provided with ring cutting edge and conical cavity. Seed tubes in seed and fertilizer hopper are located in section line of soil cutting tool on surface of front roll. Closers are secured on second roll in direction of movement.
EFFECT: provision of sowing of seeds of grass, shrubs and subshrubs on devastated pastures, floodplain meadows and firths, possibility of creating new grasslands.
4 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: agricultural production, in particular, drills and combined units for drilling grass seeds onto sod.
SUBSTANCE: sod drill has frame bearing rotavator section with disks, on which working tools configured as knives are secured. Rotavator section has sod tillage depth adjusting mechanism and is covered with housing. Said parts are mounted on frame in succession. Seed and fertilizer guides, seed and fertilizer boxes with seeding units and covering rollers are positioned in rear part of housing. Slitters-stone deflectors made in the form of knife colters are mounted on frame. Resilient members-stone deflectors are positioned on knife colters at an angle with respect to direction of advancement, said angle not exceeding friction angle between surfaces of resilient members and stones. Resilient members-stone deflectors are made in the form of continuous or rod-type moldboards, with height of arrangement of moldboards in vertical plane being adjustable. Rotavator section disks project beyond cutting edges of knifes and follow with their projecting part tracks of slitters-stone deflectors.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation, improved quality of sod tillage and seeding grass seeds by means of sod drill.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of cereal crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing in-crop sowing under autumn cereal crop; providing care of young crops and harvesting. In-crop sowing of winter wheat is carried out simultaneously with sowing of autumn wheat in single row. In order to provide it, half the seeding norm of winter wheat seeds is mixed with half the seeding norm of autumn wheat seeds in the ratio of 1:1. After harvesting of cover autumn wheat crop, winter wheat plants are fed with phosphate-potassium fertilizer.
EFFECT: increased frost resistance of plants, increased crop yield and reduced costs for cultivation of winter wheat.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing presowing soil cultivation; applying fertilizer such as compost; sowing seeds; providing care of young crops. Fertilizer application and seeding procedures are provided simultaneously, with preliminarily prepared multipurpose seed and compost mixture being introduced into soil at weight ratio of components of 1:20, respectively. Multipurpose seed and compost mixture is prepared by mixing components with following holding of seeds at room temperature for 24 hours.
EFFECT: increased yield of cereal crops due to effective utilization of fertilizers by plants.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for tilling and sowing. Proposed unit has frame, wheels, rotary tool and openers. Working elements of rotary tool are made with displacement of center of their masses to end of working elements. Thanks to it impulse action onto upper plane of soil layer is provided at frequency multiple of standing wave frequency in point of contact with soil layer. Tips with cheeks are fastened on openers to travel in vertical plane.
EFFECT: improved quality of sowing and capacity.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, sowing in erosion dangerous zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing furrows and sowing seeds therein, with following embedding of sown seeds by transferring soil from adjacent intermittent furrows; providing sowing transverse to slope so as to form soil roll above sown ridge, with intermittent furrows being also formed transverse to slope; simultaneously providing slots arranged vertically and axially of adjacent furrows along the entire length of furrow and in spacings intermediate thereof, with slot pitch being equal in size to that of spacing so that total volume of furrows and slots be equal to average month precipitation in the given region minus average infiltration for the same period.
EFFECT: increased erosion resistance of soil on slopes.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, joint sowing of soya in alternation with other crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves joint sowing of soya in alternation with other crops, with spacing between rows making 45, 60, 70 cm; using herbicides; providing interrow cultivation and harvesting yield by means of combines; providing soya crop rows in alternation with yellow lupine crop, with seeds of said crops being used in the ratio of 1:1.
EFFECT: increased yield of soya grains and provision for eliminating disadvantages of sowing joint crops.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: feed production in irrigated agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing, before ameliorative soil cultivation, technological irrigation, stubble shelling, mellowing, moldboard plowing by means of skim colters, early spring harrowing, presowing cultivation to predetermined depth, covering before and after sowing. Leguminous and bluegrass mixtures are sown by coverless sowing method in parallel alternating rows with 0.12-0.15 m spacings. Optimal ratio of leguminous grass and bluegrass crops is 60% and 55%, respectively, relative to predetermined sowing norms of single-type crops and depending on sowing depth. Mineral feeding mode is kept by applying into plow layer of phosphate-potassium fertilizers at design doses providing three-year usage of herbage, and nitrogenous fertilizer at fractional differentiated doses depending on mowing state. Irrigation mode is supported by irrigation at the end of September and at the beginning of October at irrigation norm of 600-700 m3/hectare. Plant care on sown grass mixtures is provided by harrowing after each mowing procedure and by slitting to 0.4-05 m depth in autumn each year. Green mass is harvested during heading phase of bluegrass and during budding-flowering phase of leguminous grasses.
EFFECT: stabilized yield of high-quality feed produced from leguminous-bluegrass mixtures and reduced cost of product.
3 cl, 13 dwg, 54 tbl