Porous rubber shock-absorber with set stiffness, method of stiffness adjustment of porous rubber shock-absorbers, and method of manufacturing of porous rubber shock-absorbers with set stiffness
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices and method of the vibration protection of vehicles, in particular to shock-absorbing gaskets under bases of rails or bars of the pointworks, as well as for vibration protection of the construction structures and industrial equipment. Method of shock-absorber stiffness regulation includes addition of the synthetic polypropylene fibre from 0.1 to 12 wt % to wet porous rubber mixture based on unsaturated rubber or mixture of rubbers, as calculated to weight of the rubber mixture with further creation and vulcanisation of the produced products. At that amount of the polypropylene fibre is calculated as per the preliminary obtained by tests relationship between the shock-absorber stiffness and content of fibre within the specified range and ensuring the required stiffness.
EFFECT: method produces the porous shock-absorber with set Young's modulus characterised, in principle, by the linear relationship of the Young's modulus and content of the specified polypropylene fibre.
18 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl
Area of technology
The invention relates to means and methods for vibration protection of buildings in various areas of technology and can be used in particular for the manufacture of damping pads under the sole of the sleepers or rails turnouts, as well as for vibration protection of building structures and industrial equipment.
More specifically, the invention relates to porous rubber absorber of a given hardness, the method of regulating the stiffness of the porous rubber shock absorbers and method of manufacturing porous rubber absorber of a given hardness. In many areas of technology reliability and durability of technical means is closely linked with the quality of their vibration protection. Most of the defects of parts and components arising from vibration, can be successfully eliminated at the design stage due to the damping of oscillations with the help of special devices, vibration isolators and dampers. However, practice shows that the traditional means of vibration protection - rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers are often do not provide the required settings for reducing vibrations and shocks. The rubber is noticeably changes its elastic damping characteristics when the temperature is prone to accelerated aging under the influence of radiation.
Known attempts zmodeler�AMB properties of rubber and create a means of protection against vibration on the basis of pressed non-woven wire material, the so-called "metal rubber analog". Vibration isolators of such material have a relatively high damping characteristics, but their creation requires the use of complex computational models, and in addition, over time they may change considerably under high specific pressure of the contacting pairs of spiral turns and small areas of frictional contact pairs.
The known method of regulating the rigidity of the vibration-insulating supports, whereby depending on the location of the center of mass is protected from the vibration of the unit change amount of the elastic support elements, creating conditions of plane-parallel movement of the protected unit on the resonance of mechanical influences, as well as the possibility of providing the desired frequency of oscillations at the minimum coefficient of dynamic (application RU 2004130523). This method requires accurate calculation of the dependence of the coordinates of the center of mass is protected from the vibration unit from the number of elastic elements of the support, and therefore difficult to implement and, in the case of erroneous calculation unit would not be protected from vibration.
Known absorber (patent RU 2032119), which comprises a housing, coaxially mounted therein vibrationproof plate and sleeve. The case of the known shock absorber made in the form of a ring, and VIBROCONTROL�the first plate is made of plastic, inside it are pre-stretched in the radial direction of the string frame, the strings of which is fixed respectively on the housing and the bushing. The disadvantage of this device is limited in scope, and the dependence of the stiffness from the complex structure of the shock absorber. Thus, to date, the most economical and simple means of vibroprotection remain a variety of rubber products, the stiffness of which regulate a number of ways. For example, to create a porous rubber products given hardness, you can change its dimensions (especially thickness), the design, or to choose a compounding raw rubber mixture, which after curing has a predetermined rigidity. For example, regulation of stiffness could be a "chemical process" by changing the content of the ingredients of rubber compounds, such as filler (technical carbon), or a different combination of rubbers, however, due to the mutual chemical dependency components of the mixture, the range of such regulation is too small, and the accuracy is insufficient.
Thus, the disadvantages of the known methods of regulating the hardness of rubber products is the dependence of stiffness on their size, construction or chemical composition of the rubber mixture, which significantly reduces overall �efficiency regulation.
Reinforcement of polymer mixtures in order to give them increased strength using different fillers are widely known, for example, known reinforcing fiber, such as glass, carbon, organic, boron, ceramic, metal, the most common types of fibers used as a reinforcing component for the manufacture of technical rubber products are polyester and polyamide fiber.
Closest to the invention are a method of producing rubber gaskets-absorbers, disclosed in the patent RU 2241718, according to which in the process of obtaining rubber gaskets-rubber shock absorbers in the mass add glass or mineral fiber lengths from 0.5 to 300 mm. While in the known method in the rubber mass is added, the glass or mineral fiber is characterized by a wide interval of the length of the fibers is from 0.5 to 300 mm, it is obvious that the task of regulating the stiffness by changing the content of the fibrous filler in the famous invention was not made. As testify is given in the patent data, a significant change in fiber content in the range of 5 to 50 wt.h. on 100 parts by weight.h. the mixture of rubber and reclaimed almost did not lead to any significant change in the hardness, which is drawing up�La from 70 to 76 shore. In addition, in the known method, there are no indications of the possibility of regulating the hardness of the obtained rubber products by varying the number of input fibers.
Also known composite material based on rubber compounds for the manufacture nachalnik and rail gaskets-absorbers rail journey described in the application EN 2007126996, and having a composition closest to the claimed, in which the rubber mixture on the basis metilstirolny and divinely injected rubber shredded rubber nylon cord with the length of the fibers is from 10 to 15 mm in 17-18,5 wt.%. Known material characterized by a high coefficient of friction, but in the application there is no indication of the ability to control the stiffness of the rubber products obtained by varying the number of input fibers. The literature also contains no information about the possibility of obtaining porous rubber grommets adjustable stiffness for applications such as these, which have a small specific load per unit area of the support and, accordingly, require materials with small values of the stiffness of the strip or of the modulus of elasticity of the material. The object of the invention is the development of porous rubber shock absorber of a given stiffness, as well as simple and inexpensive�about ways to alter the stiffness of the porous rubber damper and method of making porous rubber absorber of a given hardness, through which you can obtain the shock given hardness.
The object of the invention is the obtaining of such a porous absorber with the required values of stiffness or material with a given modulus of elasticity, which could be used in areas exposed to low specific loads per unit area of the support.
A further object is to provide a method of regulating the hardness of the rubber isolator, without having to change vulcanizing system and the chemical composition of the rubber, i.e. the control must be with the help of additives, inert to chemical processes during vulcanization of the mixture.
To solve this problem a method is proposed for regulating the hardness of the shock absorber, comprising administering to porous raw rubber mixture based on butadiene, or butadiene, or isoprene, or chlorphenesin, or isobutylene, or nitrilotriacetic rubbers, or a combination of synthetic fibers with subsequent molding and vulcanization of the resulting products, characterized in that the raw rubber mixture was added to the polypropylene fiber in an amount of 0.1-12 wt.%.
According to the invention, a method of controlling the stiffness of the shock absorbing product includes an introduction to raw porous rubber compound based on unsaturated rubber or a mixture �of autocom synthetic polypropylene fibers in an amount of from 0.1 to 12 wt.%, counting on the weight of the rubber mixture, followed by molding and vulcanization of the resulting products, raw rubber compound is administered such amount of the polypropylene fiber in the specified range that provides the desired amount of rigidity and which is determined depending on the stiffness of the shock absorber from the fiber content in the specified range that is defined based on experimentally obtained calibration curve.
As synthetic fibers, as a rule, use a polypropylene fiber with a diameter of 10 to 75 μm and a length of 6-70 mm. Preferably, as synthetic fibers using a polypropylene fiber with a diameter of 15-40 mm and a length of 15-25 mm. Preferably, as a synthetic fiber is used polypropylene fiber Fibercast® 500 length 6.35 mm-50 mm or PB Eurofiber® long (2.2-20 mm and a diameter of 17-124 μm. It is possible to use polypropylene fiber Fibermesh®, Novomesh®, Novocon®, Enduro® and Fibercast®, as well as the brand of the CSM produced by the Alliance (Mosk. Region), THE 2272-006-1342-9727-2007, length 6 mm, 12 mm, 18 mm, polypropylene fiber with a diameter of 20-50 μm, length 3-18 mm produced by "C-Airlaid" (Chelyabinsk) and other types of polypropylene microfibers.
Preferably, according to the invention in a porous raw rubber mixture is injected polypropylene fiber having a tensile stre�Linux 170-260 MPa. Synthetic fiber has a melting point more than 160°C.
In addition, a method of producing products of a given absorber stiffness, according to which the raw porous rubber compound is administered synthetic fiber in an amount of 0.1-12 wt.%.
According to the invention a method of producing a cushioning product given hardness comprises the steps according to which:
- get the number of samples of porous rubber raw rubber compound based on unsaturated rubber with a gradient of the content of polypropylene synthetic fibers in the range from 0.1 to 12 wt.% the method according to any one of claims. 1-7,
- measure the value of the stiffness for each sample and construct a calibration curve of stiffness from the contents of the specified fiber,
- calculate the fiber content in the specified range required to achieve the desired stiffness, based on the obtained calibration curve,
- made the shock a given rigidity by introducing into the raw rubber mixture of the calculated amount of fiber and subsequent vulcanization of the mixture.
In addition, a shock absorber of a given stiffness, obtained by vulcanization of porous rubber mixture based on butadiene, or butadiene, or isoprene, or chlorphenesin, or isobutylene, or nitrilotriacetic rubbers�s or combinations thereof, reinforced synthetic fiber in an amount of 0.1-12 wt.% to the weight of the original rubber mixture.
According to the invention the proposed absorber is a porous rubber material with a given modulus of elasticity, based on unsaturated rubber or mixture of rubbers and synthetic polypropylene fibers, when the ratio of initial components: a rubber mixture of 100 parts by weight.h., the fiber is from 0.1 to 12 wt.h., wherein said porous rubber material is characterized by the essentially linear dependence of the modulus of elasticity from the contents of the specified polypropylene fiber.
A porous rubber material for use as the absorber, based on unsaturated rubber or mixture of rubbers and synthetic polypropylene fibers, when the ratio of initial components: a rubber mixture of 100 parts by weight.h., the fiber is from 0.1 to 12 wt.h., characterized by the dependence of the modulus of elasticity of the material from the contents of the specified polypropylene fibers, shown in Fig. 1.
Through the use of the inventive porous rubber absorber of a given hardness and ways of regulating the stiffness of the porous rubber shock absorber and the manufacture of porous rubber absorber of a given hardness there is no need for time-consuming and quite friendly staff.�delitelna stages of development the design of the absorber, related calculations and modeling. In addition, the methods are carried out according to the invention by adding calculated amounts of fiber in raw rubber mixture, allow to exclude a complex process of selection of the formulation of the rubber mixture corresponding to the desired hardness of the finished absorber, and avoid the use of expensive special curing systems for rubber compounds, as well as carefully checking the ingredients of the rubber composition during its manufacture.
The main advantage of using a porous rubber grommets given hardness is that such shock convenient and economicheski appropriate to use in those cases when it is required to absorb different frequencies of different amplitudes, for example, for multiple units to be connected by a clutch and vibrating with different frequencies, but the space for placement of dampers for these units have the same limitations in size. In this case, the dampers have the same dimensions, but different stiffness, wherein the stiffness of each shock corresponds to the frequency at which to vibrate the corresponding unit. An additional advantage is that the invention makes it possible to attach the damper to the desired rigidity with a simple R�account the number of synthetic fibers, based on the graph proportional to the stiffness of the finished absorber from the number of synthetic fibers.
The invention consists in that the porous raw rubber mixture is introduced special additive in the form of synthetic fibers made of polymeric materials such as polypropylene, so that in the process of vulcanization obtained porous rubber compound followed by obtaining the finished absorber is its spatial reinforcement to a predetermined rigidity. Thus, the stiffness damping products to regulate in the manufacturing process by adding synthetic fibers in an amount which provides the desired rigidity.
In the proposed method as a raw rubber mixture used vulcanizate rubber mixture based on rubber, preferably unsaturated rubbers sulfuric vulcanization containing blowing agents, or mechanically foamed latex to obtain a foam. The pore size in the resulting product ranges from 0.4 mm (foam rubber) to 0.2-0.4 mm. the Obtained products are filled with porous rubber, has good sound and thermal insulation properties, capable of absorbing vibration, and can be applied in manufacturing various gaskets, seats for AB�of omobile, the soles of shoes, etc.
Preferred rubber compound based on unsaturated rubbers with foaming systems on the basis of chemical blowing agents. Recipes porous rubber compounds are well known in the art skilled in the art, see, for example, Methods of making foam latex, M., Tsniiteneftehim, 1974; Gruszecka N. In., Simonova M., Mazin G. R., D. P. Trofimovich, Ways to improve the properties of rubber, M., Tsniiteneftehim, 1976; Ryzhkov, V. P., V. I. Klochkov, Voskresensky A. M., Production of porous rubber products, M., Tsniiteneftehim, 1979; Klochkov, V. I., Ryzhkov V. P., Production of porous articles made of elastomers, L., 1984, M. S. Simonova.
For example, according to the invention as raw rubber mixtures fit the following brands of rubbers production of the Volga scientific-technical complex (hstc of VSTU), are presented in tables 1-4.
Particularly preferred for the manufacture of vibration-insulating porous products according to the invention the rubber mixture based on rubber SKI-3, caoutchouc ckmc-30, for example, a mixture of production of LLC "Production-commercial firm "RTD", as presented in table 5.
Porofor ADC/M-C1, ADC/L-C2, ADC/S-C2, ADC/F-C2, Genitron SCE, Unifoam AZ-VI25, Azobul B, Azoul F1, Hydrocerol, Naftofoam, Unicell, etc.
As plasticizers according to the invention using DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DBS (dibutylsebacate), DBAA (deburocratisation), chloroparaffin CP-1100 and other.
As the vulcanizing agents according to the invention can be used as follows: burnt magnesia technical (magnesium oxide), thiuram d ground (tetramethylthiuram disulfide), thiuram TIR granulated paraffin, altax (2-thiazol IBS granulated), captax (2-mercaptobenzothiazol), cimat (dimethyldithiocarbamate zinc), eTicket (diethyldithiocarbamate zinc), Boutilimit (dibutyldithiocarbamate zinc), diphenylguanidine (DPG), 4,4'-dithiodimorpholine (dtdm) and others.
As an antioxidant according to the invention can be applied, but without limitation only by them, naphthas (neoson d), Agidol-1 (stabilizer) and Agidol-2 (2,2-methylene-bis(4-methyl-6-tretbutilfenol), and as the moderator of podocarpaceae - phthalic anhydride (technical) and nitrosodiphenylamine.
As a softener according to the invention can be used as follows: stearin (stearic acid technical), glycerin, oleic acid, paraffin and others.
Method of controlling the stiffness of the porous rubber damping products as follows. Prepare raw porous rubber compound and injected into her synthetic fibers,preferably polypropylene fibromyoma, in an amount which provides the desired rigidity of the finished absorber. The required amount is calculated according to a previously constructed calibration curve (the nomogram) for the grade of rubber compound and vulcanizing system. Then, the resulting rubber compound is vulcanized to the press.
According to the invention the preferred range of temperature of vulcanization is 150-165°C cure time from 10 to 23 min.
Thus, the proposed method allows to adjust the stiffness (modulus) of a cushioning product by varying the amount of injected polypropylene synthetic fibers at a constant composition of the rubber compound and vulcanizing system.
Static or dynamic stiffness of the finished samples to determine the appropriate stand by special techniques depending on the application data buffers.
The invention is illustrated by the following experiments.
Example 1. Prepare a 6 kg wet porous rubber compound No. 4 in table 5, divide it into 6 equal parts by weight of 1 kg each, in every part of injected polypropylene multifilament fibromalagia Fibercast 500 on the basis of polyolefin in the amount of 0,1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 wt.% each part of the crude mixture in accordance with table 6. Each part is divided into four parts and vulcanizing at a temperature of 10°C for 23 min with a production of four finished products in the form of plates with a thickness of 20 mm and a size of 70×90 mm.
The finished products tested on the stand, determining the static stiffness in compression, with limits of loading of 0.1 kN/mm2up to 1.5 kN/mm2. To calculate hardness using the hysteresis loop obtained for loading and disarmament of the finished product. The stiffness results are shown in table 7, in which the stiffness at the maximum loading of the finished absorber marked with Cmaxand is calculated by the formula Cmax=Fmax/Imaxwhere Fmax- maximum loading strength of the finished absorber, a Imax- maximum elongation (or compression) of the finished absorber; static tangential stiffness at the point the branches of the load corresponding to 50% loading of the finished absorber marked WithCPcalculated by the formula Ccp=F50%/I50%where F50%-the value of the loading strength of the finished absorber in the middle of the loading curve, and I50%- the deformation value at the midpoint of the curve of loading; static secant stiffness of the finished absorber marked With20-80calculated by the formula C20-80=(F80-F20)/(I80-I20), where F20and F80- this forces the loading of the finished absorber at points of a curve of loads corresponding to 20 and 80% of maximum effort Nagraj�of; I80- deformation of the sample, the corresponding force loading F80and I20- deformation of the sample, the corresponding force loading F20.
Thus, from the test results of the samples shows that there is a relationship between the content wt.% of fibre in wet porous rubber compound and hardness of the finished absorber, manufactured by vulcanization of the wet porous mixture with incorporated fibromalagia. In addition, the test results show that the increase in stiffness with increasing content of fibre in the finished absorber occurs when both static and dynamic loading.
Fig. 1 shows the experimentally obtained dependence of the static stiffness of the finished porous absorber content wt.% of fibre Fibercast 500 in a porous rubber compound.
Thus, as can be seen from the data, shocks, obtained according to the experiment, have a stiffness that increases with the addition of fiber.
Example 2. Prepare a 6 kg wet porous rubber compound No. 12 in table 1, divide it into 6 equal parts by weight of 1 kg each, in every part of injected polypropylene multifilament fiber PB Eurofiber when the content 0,1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 wt.% each part of the crude mixture in accordance with the�Lyceum 8. Each part is divided into four parts and vulcanizing at 160°C for 23 min with a production of four finished products in the form of plates with a thickness of 20 mm and a size of 70×90 mm.
The finished products tested on the stand, determining the stiffness of the loading limits from 0.1 kN/mm2up to 1.5 kN/mm2. To determine the stiffness of the use of the hysteresis loops obtained during loading and unloading of the finished product.
Based on the obtained experimentally the stiffness characteristics of the samples of absorbers, it is possible to calculate the corresponding dependence of the modulus of elasticity of the material (porous rubber-reinforced fibromyoma) from the fiber content in it. These dependencies are the nomogram in the calculation and production of shock absorbers of other sizes with a given stiffness. In this case the calculated value of the rigidity of such a shock absorber is provided with high accuracy.
1. Method of controlling the stiffness of the shock absorber, comprising administering to the raw porous rubber compound based on unsaturated rubber or mixture of rubbers synthetic polypropylene fibers in an amount of from 0.1 to 12 wt %, based on the weight of the rubber mixture, followed by molding and vulcanization of the resulting products, wherein the amount of polypropylene fibers, the input syrou rubber compound providing the required stiffness,
rely on previously obtained experimentally depending on the stiffness of the shock absorber from the fiber content in the specified interval,
where the receipt of this dependence and the calculation of the amount of polypropylene fibers include the following steps:
- getting the number of samples of porous rubber raw porous rubber compound based on unsaturated rubber or mixture of rubbers with a gradient of the content of synthetic polypropylene fibers in the range from 0.1 to 12 wt.% by weight of the rubber blend,
- measurement of the stiffness value for each sample,
- the calibration curve of the dependence of stiffness on the content of the specified fiber and
- calculation of fiber content in the specified range required to achieve the required stiffness, based on the obtained calibration curve.
2. Method of controlling the stiffness of the shock absorber according to claim 1, according to which the quality of raw rubber compound based on unsaturated rubbers, a mixture based on butadiene, styrene, isoprene, chloroprene, isobutylene, nitrilotriacetic rubbers, or any combination thereof.
3. Method of controlling the stiffness of the shock absorber according to claim 1, whereby as a synthetic fiber is used polypropylene fiber with a diameter of 10 to 75 μm and a length of 6-70 mm.
5. Method of controlling the stiffness of the shock absorber according to claim 1, whereby as a synthetic fiber is used polypropylene fiber Fibercast 500 or PB Eurofiber.
6. Method of controlling the stiffness of the shock absorber according to claim 1, whereby in wet porous rubber compound is injected polypropylene fiber having a tensile strength 170-260 MPa.
7. Method of controlling the stiffness of the shock absorber according to claim 1, whereby the synthetic fiber has a melting point more than 160°C.
8. A method of producing a given absorber stiffness, according to which the raw porous rubber compound is administered synthetic fiber in an amount of 0.1-12 wt.% the method according to any one of claims. 1-7.
9. Porous rubber material with a given modulus of elasticity, based on unsaturated rubber or mixture of rubbers and synthetic polypropylene fibers, where the contents of the specified polypropylene fibers is from 0.1 to 12 wt.% by weight of the specified unsaturated rubber or mixture of rubbers, and the specified porous rubber material is characterized by the essentially linear dependence of the modulus of elasticity from the content of the uke�ƈ polypropylene fiber.
10. Porous rubber material according to claim 9, characterized in that it is characterized by the dependence of the modulus of elasticity of the material from the contents of the specified polypropylene fibers, shown in Fig. 1.
11. Porous rubber material according to claim 9, characterized in that the unsaturated rubber or mixture of rubbers used butadiene, styrene, isoprene, chloroprene, isobutylene, nitriloacetate rubbers, or any combination thereof.
12. Porous rubber material according to claim 9, characterized in that the synthetic fiber is used polypropylene fiber with a diameter of 10 to 75 μm and a length of 6-70 mm.
13. Porous rubber material according to claim 9, characterized in that the synthetic fiber is used polypropylene fiber with a diameter of 15-40 mm and a length of 15-25 mm.
14. Porous rubber material according to claim 9, characterized in that the synthetic fiber is used polypropylene fiber Fibercast 500 or PB Eurofiber.
15. Porous rubber material according to claim 9, characterized in that the polypropylene fiber has a tensile strength of 170-260 MPa.
16. Porous rubber material according to claim 9, characterized in that the synthetic fiber has a melting point more than 160°C.
17. Porous rubber material according to any one of claims. 9-16, characterized in that it is designed for and�use as an absorber for vibration protection of building structures and industrial equipment.
18. Porous rubber material according to any one of claims. 9-16, characterized in that it is designed for the manufacture of damping pads under the sole of the sleepers or rails turnouts.
SUBSTANCE: marker used is a soluble form of adhesion molecules of the family ICAM - sICAM-1, sICAM-2, sICAM-3. If observing sICAM-1 decrease from 29-37.2 to 23-24, sICAM-2 decrease from 19.1-21.1 to 13-14, sICAM-3 decrease from 23-30.7 to 14-17, the nutritional support is considered to be effective.
EFFECT: method enables increasing the assessment accuracy of the efficacy of the nutritional support accompanying ulcerative colitis.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analytical chemistry of food production facilities. The method to assess safety of packing polymer materials for thermal processing of vacuumised food products includes formation of a polymer material in the form of a packet, its vacuumising, sealing and thermal processing, after which the packet is thermostatted at room temperature, 5.0 cm3 of dried air is pierced into it with a syringe, and in 5 minutes, not taking the syringe out, they take 3.0 cm3 of air. The produced sample is introduced into a tight cell of detection in a "piezoelectronic nose" device, which comprises an array of seven mass-sensitive piezosensors. They record variation of signals of piezosensors in pairs of equilibrium gas phase of the sample for 60 s with the interval of 1 s, the highest responses of piezosensors are formed into a mass-aromogram of maxima, the area of the mass-aromogram is calculated. Under identical conditions they analyse the standard sample of the polymer material. Assessment of safety of the polymer material is carried out by comparison of the area of mass-aromograms of the analysed sample and the standard sample. Difference of the area of mass-aromograms by more than 30.0±1.0% certifies non-compliance of the sample with the standard of the polymer package.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to assess the level of possible emission of highly volatile compounds from polymer materials in process of thermal processing with increased accuracy and reduction of analysis time.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to material test methods. Essence of the invention: a sample is first strained to the maximum set deformation, held in this deformation for a given time, compressed to the initial unloaded state, left in it for a given time, with further cyclic deformation with delays in each deformation stage of compression and tension, where at each tension cycle the set deformation is less than at the previous cycle, and the set deformation at each unloading cycle is larger than in the previous cycle.
EFFECT: more information on material properties from a sample test, new information represented by equilibrium stress-strain curve, dissipation loss, material softening after each tension/compression cycle, and relaxation curves together with material structure recovery curves for various deformations.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, in particular, to devices for measurement of profile of surfaces of low-modular viscoelastic sheet materials of light industry, namely, man-made and natural leathers, etc. A device to detect profile of materials in deformed condition, comprising a base, a counting unit, a locating element, installed as capable of rotation around its axis, differing by the fact that the locating element is made in the form of a semi-cylinder with a hollow semi-cone and two limiting plates to fix a sample; the device comprises an additional counting unit fixed on the semi-cylinder, to detect bending radius of the investigated sample, arranged in parallel to the semi-cone guide, at the same time the main counting unit is made as combined, capable of displacement along the axis of rotation of the locating element and comprises a strain gauge motion sensor and a digital optical microscope.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to study hidden defects of natural leather and man-made materials, to determine variation of material relief under bending deformation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of determining the glass-transition point of tetrazole-based polymer composite materials based, according to which the glass-transition point is determined from the change of slope of a curve of temperature versus the inverse of dielectric constant 1/ε'=f(T).
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability of determining the glass-transition point of tetrazole-based polymer composite materials.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to oncology, and can be used for recognising synchronous multifocal colorectal carcinoma. Substance of the invention consists in measuring preoperative blood follicle-stimulating hormone both in male and female patients suffering from colorectal carcinoma. If its concentration falls within the range of 26.01 to 60.91 IU/l in the females and of 2.71 to 5.67 IU/ml in the males, a single tumour is diagnosed in the patients, and if the hormone concentration is from 2.70 to 5.50 IU/ml in the females and from 12.88 to 52.04 IU/l in the males, the presence of synchronous colorectal new growths are stated. The method can be implemented at the preoperative stage; it is easily reproducible in the oncology hospital environment.
EFFECT: stating the presence of synchronous multifocal colorectal carcinoma.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of producing carbon-carbon composite materials for various purposes, and is intended for comparative characteristic of impregnation of carbon fibre (CF) braids with melts of pitches, and can be used in improvement of technologies of producing carbon-carbon composite materials, possessing various properties, by modification or replacement of pitch binder and/or carbon fibre, for instance, in research laboratories, in particular, in carrying out laboratory work. To determine degree of impregnation of carbon fibre braids with pitches, carbon fibre braid is placed into glass tube in such a way that the end of braid protrudes from glass tube, and carbon fibres in braid are oriented along glass tube axis, with braid thickness being selected in such a way that it tightly fits glass tube, protruding end of carbon fibre braid is brought in contact with melted pitch and keep in such position, after which carbon fibre braid is extracted from tube and height of impregnation of carbon fibre braid with pitch is determined.
EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of determination are achieved.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting a sample for analysis and analysing its chemical composition, from which the rubber brand is determined. The sample is cut such that it has pre-decomposition zones. Chemical composition is analysed from a fracture in the sample by X-ray spectral technique on a scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The obtained data on chemical composition of the sample are compared with chemical composition of a known rubber brand or a rubber brand used as a reference.
EFFECT: high accuracy and objectivity of determining a rubber brand.
3 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves titration of a suspension with a solvent which is soluble in water and dissolves the suspended resin-like substance until reducing light scattering, which is determined either visually or using optical devices which enable to measure the amount of light passing through the liquid.
EFFECT: rapid estimation of the amount of resin-like substance suspended in water.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a clamp mechanism for holding material, an indenter for loading with possibility of measuring its displacement and recording information into a processor. A sensor is built into the indenter, said sensor being sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated by a sample upon change of deformation characteristics thereof. The clamp mechanism is in form of two coaxially placed cups with built-in heating elements with a controlled temperature range and a sensor for said temperature.
EFFECT: broader technological capabilities of the apparatus and high measurement accuracy.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: package of belleville springs includes at least two pairs of belleville springs. Each pair contains opposite installed and free connected large bases of the cone disks. The belleville springs are located with clearance in the cylindrical casing. Bottom part of the casing is rigidly connected with the base. Lid is free located in top part of the casing with clearance. The base and lid have centring cylindrical shoulder, on it the small base of outermost pairs of the belleville springs is centred. On the cylindrical surface of the casing the groove can be made. The small bases of the cone disks of the adjacent pairs are connected with each other by damping element made in form of three-step disk. On the lid the mesh damper is installed, it contains base, resilient mesh element and washers interacting with bushings. Base of the damper is made in form of the plate with mounting holes. The resilient mesh element is secured in by top and bottom washers. Bottom washer is rigidly connected with the base. Top washer is connected with the central ring enclosed by coaxial ring rigidly secured to the base.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of vibration isolation in resonance mode.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: vibration isolator has two support crossbars and set of resilient ring springs with shoulders. Ring springs with shoulders are made out of pressed wire, and are secured with each other by securing elements in pairs, and are arranged diametrically at opposite surfaces with angular displacement. The support crossbars are made as rotation bodies with two sockolets, in one sockolet thread holes are made to secure to the base and protected object, in the another sockolet helical slots are made to screw-in the screw metal spring. The spring is installed inside a set of ring springs.
EFFECT: exclusion of resonances in work range of frequencies of the mechanical system, stability of elastic and dampening properties of the vibration isolator.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: vibration isolator comprises a circular mounting flange (1), a pair of cone-shaped resilient damping elements (2), bushes with dish flanges (3, 4), a stud (5) with threaded ends. The resilient damping elements are made from a coil (6) wound from springy metal wire with turn pitch being equal to the coil diameter, and pressed into a cone shape. The coil is made from a pair of interconnected links with different diameters of springy wire which are wound in coils of different diameter, and is laid with tension crosswise. The link with greater coil diameter is laid over the link with smaller diameter. The method to produce such a vibration isolator includes the following operations. Both coils are stretched up to the turn pitch equal to the diameter of the respective coil. The coil of smaller diameter is wound onto a mandrel, then the coil of greater diameter is wound over it crosswise to form a resilient barrel-like element with further moulding into a cone-shaped resilient damping element. The bigger and the smaller bases of the resilient damping elements are fixed to respectively the mounting circular flange and the inner surfaces of dish flanges which have been treated by sand, with the help of sound glue joint with pressing by the stud. The cone-shaped resilient damping elements are impregnated by lubricating mixture.
EFFECT: higher reliability, longer life of a vibration isolator, protection against vibration in cross directions.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: inventions group relates to machine building. The vibration isolator contains two elastohysteresic bell-shaped elements out of the wire material "Metal rubber", which central holes contain two fixed bolts secured using the limiting washers and nuts. Each elastohysteretic element is made in form of two cones with smooth transition to each other or in form of a cylinder and top cone glued with each other. The elastohysteretic elements are wrapped with the reinforcement cord or cord pieces, over it the tensioned spiral is wound. The vibration absorber production method consists in the following. Two bell-like elements are made by chill pressing, and bolts are installed in their central holes. The elastohysteretic elements are glued to each other by large foundations, then they are wrapped with the reinforcement cord, and over cord the tensioned spiral is wound. In one contact layer of the turns are in planes parallel to the shaped surface, and in the another layer - in planes parallel to the frontal plane. The made billet is pressed, and bolts are secured in it. The central zone of the billet is pressed in radial directions, and top and bottom parts in direction of the vertical axis.
EFFECT: improved elastohysteresis properties, simplified design and assemblage process of the vibration isolator.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: inventions group relates to machine building. The buffer contains a cylinder and installed in it one or two compression springs. The tail is made cone and is inserted in the cone counter-holes created by the pushers of the damping cartridges. The damping cartridges are installed in the buffer device back to back. Each damper cartridge contains body, cover screwed on the body and locked against loosening by the radially installed lock-screws. In the buffer under first option inside each cartridge body the multi-layer multispan corrugated ring packages are installed, they are made out of steel polished corrugated tapes "corrugation in corrugation". Between the packages the rings cut into sectors are installed, on them the multi-layer packages rest as "corrugation top to corrugation top". The pushers are also made in form of sectors. Butts between the ring sectors, pusher sectors are uniformly distributed over the circle and are located under peaks of corrugations cavities of the packages. In the buffer under the second option inside each cartridge body the elastohysteretic element is installed, it is made out of wire nonwoven fabric MR (metal rubber) made either in form of thick wall cylinder or separate sectors. On the elastohysteretic element the pusher-ring is installed, it is made out of sectors. In the elastohysteretic element is made in form of the separate sectors then the pusher sector is installed on the each element sector. Between the buffer device cover rigidly connected with casing and cartridges at spacer is installed. The buffer cylindrical part goes outside via the guide hole in the cover. End part of the buffer has boring, in which using the nut the cone billet is fixed, the billet is made out of wire material MR or tough rubber or tough polymer.
EFFECT: increased damping properties, decreasing of kickback and simplification of the buffer design.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: inventions group relates to machine building. The vibration isolator contains casing with flange with two cone resilient bushings out of the wire material "Metal rubber"; clamping sleeve with hole for securing of the vibration-isolated object to the vibration isolator; cone support installed on the clamping sleeve; base on which casing is installed. The radial cross-section of bushings is hexagon with sides, antisymmetric relatively to its main diagonal, and rounded peaks. On the clamping sleeve a flange is made, the cone support rests in its end face. The cone cover is installed on smooth cylindrical part of the clamping sleeve and is centred on it. On the outside surface of the cone support a flat support platform is made. The axial tension of the resilient bushings is provided by tightening of the round nut installed on the thread end of the clamping sleeve. The axial tension crated in the resilient bushings is controlled by size between the flat end face of the cover and flat belt made on the external surface of the cone support, and the vibro-isolated object is secured to the vibration isolator using the screw inserted in the clamping sleeve and resilient washer. On the support surface of the casing flange the centring collar is made, and in the base a ring groove is made, in which the collar is installed, and base is centred as per its outside diameter. Method of the vibration isolator assemblage means consequential pressing of the resilient bushings in casing of the vibration isolator, control of the axial tension and securing on the assembled base detail.
EFFECT: decreasing of the dynamic loads on the object both in resonance, and in above resonance zones, and increasing of the vibration isolator service life.
7 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building. The vibration isolator contains a base, elastic mesh elements, upper and lower press washers. The base is located in the middle part of the vibration isolator and is designed as a plate with fastening holes. The mesh elastic elements are rigidly connected to a foundation by means of backup rings. In the upper mesh elastic element at the centre the damper of dry abrasion is axisymmetrically located. The damper is designed as the upper press washer, rigidly joint with centred ring enclosed by the axially located ring, rigidly connected with the base.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of vibration isolation in resonance mode, simplified design and assembly.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building. Vibration isolator contains a base with a cover, with elastic mesh elements and inertial mass between them. The base is composed by a plate with mounting holes. The cover is designed with a central threaded hole for fastening of vibration isolated object. The inertial mass consists of opposed washers fastened to each other by vibration damping material. From above and from below of the inertial mass the mesh elastic elements with fastening washers are located. The fastening washers are rigidly connected to a base, cover and inertial mass.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of vibration isolation in resonance mode, simplified design and assembly.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to machine building. A vibration absorber comprises a hollow elastic hysteretic element from metal rubber wire material and fastening parts fixed in its central holes by shaped restriction washers and nuts. According to first version the fastening parts are made as two bolts with one of the bolts being fitted by a through central hole. According to the second version - as a bolt and a bush with a through threaded hole and a flange. A stud is screwed into the threaded hole of the bush. According to the third version - as two such bushes with studs screwed into them. The vibration absorber as per the second version is additionally reinforced by a harness of straight wire bundle braided with a wire spiral stretched with constant interval. The vibration absorber production method consists in the following. The fastening parts are installed on a closed and sealed cloth bag closely filled by sand. A globe-shaped workpiece is formed by winding of the stretched wire spiral. An elastic hysteretic element is produced by pressing in radial directions first and then in the axial direction. The bolts are fastened. A hole is made in the cloth bag and the sand is removed. The cloth is removed, or burnt, or left in the vibration absorber. The studs are screwed into the bushes and fixed.
EFFECT: improved elastic hysteretic properties at cyclic compression and simplified assembly process.
17 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: vibration isolator includes a base and elastic elements. The base is made in the form of vertical cylinder with fasteners located perpendicularly to the cylinder axis in its middle part. One of the fasteners is the bolt with washer, and another one, opposite located and connected with the bolt - thread sleeve with washer, which is a bearing element at a slant location of vibration isolated unit. In the cylinder top the elastic element from elastomer, for example rubber or polyurethane, and in the cylinder bottom - mesh elastic element is located.
EFFECT: efficient damping in resonance mode, simplified design and assembly.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a rubber mixture for tyres and a pneumatic tyre made using said mixture. The rubber mixture is obtained using a method which includes a step of mixing a rubber component, silicon dioxide, a silane binding agent and at least one component selected from a group consisting of oxyacid, itaconic acid and a salt thereof. The oxyacid, itaconic acid and salt thereof have average particle size of not more than 300 mcm. The rubber mixture is obtained by combining 5-150 pts.wt silicon dioxide per each 100 pts.wt rubber component and combining 0.1-20 pts.wt silane binding agent and 0.3-25 pts.wt oxyacid, itaconic acid and salt thereof per each 100 pts.wt silicon dioxide.
EFFECT: high rate of reaction of the silane binding agent and silicon dioxide, fuel saving and resistance to abrasive wear.
15 cl, 6 tbl, 111 ex