Method of obtaining means for water purification, means and method of water purification
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of water purification. Method includes interaction of metal aluminium with hydrochloric acid solution, further introduction of additive into mixture and mixture exposure of with obtaining polymerisation product. Activated carbon with particle size 100-10000 nm is introduced into mixture as additive in amount 9-12 kg/ton. Polymerisation product contains polyaluminiumhydrochloride with polymerisation degree about 70% and index of basicity 5/6. Method of water purification with obtained means is realised in apparatus, which contains mixer, flocculator and flotator.
EFFECT: claimed is method of obtaining means for water purification based on chloroaluminium-containing coagulant.
3 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the field of water purification and can be used to improve the efficiency of water purification from organic substances of natural and anthropogenic origin.
Known coagulant the oxy-chloride of aluminum Aqua-Aurat manufactured by JSC "Aurat" (TU 2163-069-00205067-2007) used for purification and conditioning of drinking water, wastewater treatment in industry, agriculture, domestic purposes, for water treatment, power plant, power plant, boiler houses, in the paper industry for sizing paper, in perfumery, etc.
The closest analogue of the claimed invention is a means for water purification, as disclosed in the application for invention of the Russian Federation No. 2004104005 and represents the adsorption-coagulating the mixture, containing sorbents of the number of carbon (activated carbon, graphite, etc.) or aluminosilicate (e.g. bentonite), salts of alkaline metals (potassium, sodium, etc.) and a coagulant (ferric chloride (III), aluminum chloride, etc.).
The disadvantage of the closest analogue is the lack of efficiency of water treatment and the need for coagulant and adsorbent separately and their subsequent mixing, which complicates the technology.
The objective of the claimed invention is to provide a means for water treatment, which has a higher efficiency, but also simplifies�ood water purification technology, including the preparation of tools for cleaning.
The task is solved by the means for water purification, comprising a coagulant and adsorbent, characterized in that the coagulant is a polymer and particles of sorbent dispersed in the coagulant.
The technical result of the claimed invention is to improve the efficiency of water purification and simplification of the technology of water purification by eliminating the stage of mixing of the coagulant and the sorbent particles prior to contact with water. The tool represents a stable dispersion, thereby reducing the cost of maintaining the necessary contact of coagulant with water to be treated.
As coagulants in the invention may be used any polymer coagulant, for example inorganic polymer coagulants on the basis of the chlorides of iron and aluminum.
In a preferred embodiment is used polyaluminosilicate having the General formula Aln(OH)mCl3n-mwhere n and m are integers, wherein 0<m<3n.
The particle size of the sorbent is up to 10000 nm, preferably 100-10000 nm. In the most preferred embodiment, the particle size of the sorbent is 10-500 nm.
In a preferred embodiment, the basicity of the polymer is 5/6.
The degree of medium molecular polymerization is about 70%, preferably 70%.
Such a reagent in the water allows about�Asociate straight and branched chain, provides effective purification of water.
The tool can be obtained by adding particles of a sorbent polymer coagulant.
In a preferred embodiment, the particles of the sorbent is added in the polymerization process of coagulant.
Introduction of activated carbon with a particle size of up to 10,000 nm allows through electrostatic interaction to achieve the effect of stable dispersion, maintained at all stages of water treatment: dissolution of the reagent, mixing with the treated water, flocculation and flotation. This provides a significant synergistic effect in comparison with the use of the individual components.
The weight ratio of the sorbent to the polymer coagulant is from 1:20 to 1:40, preferably about 1:33.
The drawing shows the scheme of obtaining the claimed means for water treatment.
The cleaner water can be made of the following components:
- primary metal aluminum brand A7 in the amount of 90-110 kg/t;
- hydrochloric acid of food quality in the amount of 160-200 kg/t;
- activated carbon fractions 100-10000 nm in the amount of 9-12 kg/t;
- the rest of the water.
The composition constituting the claimed means for water purification, was obtained as follows. In the reactor 1 download primary aluminum and hydrochloric acid. The resulting mixture p�and a pump 2 is pumped through the heat exchanger 3 to the mixer 4, preferably, an ultrasonic mixer, where it is injected activated carbon fraction up to 10000 nm, and can be used ultrasound frequencies of 10-100 kHz. The resulting mixture was then fed back into the reactor.
The process of obtaining funds for the treatment of water is carried out for 24-36 hours at a temperature of 90-98°C. the degree of medium molecular polymerization is about 70%, preferably 70%, the basicity of the polymer is 5/6.
In the polymerization process, i.e., obtaining polyaluminosilicate, it is injected activated carbon fraction of 100-10000 nm. This can be used ultrasound frequencies of 10-100 kHz.
In the final product a weight ratio of activated carbon to the polymer is about 1:33.
Water purification is carried out in the apparatus, comprising a mixer, flocculation, flotation machine with following technical specifications:
- Dose agent for cleaning water - 1-20 mg/cubic DM water;
- The value of Camp (camp):
in the mixer: 30000-40000;
in the flocculators: 50000-100000.
- Specific hydraulic load in the flotation machine: 10-40 cubic meters/sq. meter/hour
The resulting product representing the claimed means for water purification, can be used in particular for the treatment of drinking and boiler water from organic substances of natural origin, and wastewater and con�of ensata from petroleum products.
1. The method of obtaining funds for water purification on the basis of chloroaluminium coagulant, including the interaction of metallic aluminum with hydrochloric acid, the subsequent introduction of additives in the mixture and the extract mixture to give product of polymerization, characterized in that as an additive mixture is introduced into the activated carbon with a particle size of 100-10000 nm in the amount of 9 to 12 kg/t, polymerization was carried out before the formation in a mixture of polyaluminosilicate with the degree of polymerization of about 70% and a basicity indicator 5/6.
2. A means for water obtained by the method according to claim 1.
3. The method of water treatment comprising the introduction of a means according to claim 2 in the apparatus containing the mixer, flocculation and flotation unit, where the amount is 1-20 mg/cubic DM water, the criterion of camp in the mixer is 30000-40000, the criterion of camp in the flocculators is 50000-100000 and specific hydraulic load in the flotator is 10-40 cubic m/sq. m/hour.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: system for conversion of hardness salts contains the housing 1 which contains the generator of non-sinusoidal electromagnetic oscillations of shaking frequency, to outphase outputs 2 of which the radiating wires 3, 4 are connected with a possibility of their winding in mutually opposite directions on the pipeline 10. In the housing 1 the unit of smart alerting mode 5 connected with the generator of non-sinusoidal electromagnetic oscillations of the shaking frequency and the independent power supply 6 are located. Indicator 7 is located on the housing 1. The alarm sensor 8 is connected with the housing 1. Couplers 9 are made of non-conducting material with a possibility of fixing of radiating wires 3, 4 and located on the pipeline 10.
EFFECT: invention allows to improve reliability of the system operation and to ensure its safety.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of disinfecting a well treatment fluid includes a step of mixing an aqueous solution containing two or more oxidants obtained via electrolysis of a salt solution with the well treatment fluid. The mixed oxidants can be produced on-site using a container system.
EFFECT: invention provides efficient treatment without repeated growth of bacteria in the well bore.
24 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filter is disclosed in two versions and comprises a filter element placed in a trough 2 with a protrusion 3, a recess 4 and a channel 5 at the bottom (first version) or a trough with a flat bottom (second version). The filter element consists of a supporting-clamping structure and a filter stack 6. The supporting-clamping structure prevents the filter stack from floating and sinking by fixing the edges thereof and prevents deformation of the working surface thereof. The supporting-clamping structure is made from a composite and includes vertical rods with an external thread anchored in the protrusion 3, a supporting lower grid 18 placed on the recess 4 while overlapping the channel 5, clamping 12 and 13 and supporting 14 and 15 beams, tubular compensating supports 16, a clamping upper grid 17, tension nuts 9 and 10. The beams, supports, upper grid and filter stack 6 by its edges sit on the rods 7. The filter stack 6 rests on the grid 18 by its working surface, and its edges are pressed by the beams 12 and 13 to the protrusion 3 and are fixed by nuts. The grid 17 lies on the filter stack 6 horizontally in a stable manner in order to be pressed between the beams 14 and 15, supported by the supports 16 which compensate excess difference in thickness of the filter stack 6 in the initial and pressed states, and fixed by nuts 9.
EFFECT: high efficiency and repairability of the filter, easy assembly and dismantling, easy maintenance.
14 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for water treatment comprises: water passage through the channel system in the water flow direction, each of which is integrated into the surface of magnetically penetrable microchannel plate 7, 8, made of alloy of rare earth metal; and creation of magnetic field by the arrangement of system of permanent magnets 10 so as to form the layer of permanent magnets 10, adjacent to the outer side of magnetically penetrable microchannel plate 7, 8, so that the magnetic field has direction perpendicular to the direction of indicated water flow, and destroy at least some hydrogen bonds by the magnetic field.
EFFECT: invention permits to destroy the hydrogen bonds in water, reduce the accumulation of scum sediments in steam pegs and remove the formed scum.
14 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating a closed water area in the form of a storage pond 8 with the area of accumulation of sludge from liquid flows. The storage pond 8 is a water area with a levee 12, in which body the inlet water intake hole is made, and the opposite - a water receiver 9 of the water intake pipeline 22. According to the first embodiment of the method, at the bottom of the storage pond 8 the closed air-injecting devices 14, 15 are mounted to form a number of beams diverging from the device as horizontal perforated pipelines 16 in the direction of the base of the upper slope of the dam 12. The perforated pipelines 16 end with a dead end. The air-injecting devices 14, 15 are connected to the central supply pipeline 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air. With the increase in the accumulation of sediment in the form of sludge in the zones of the storage pond 8 the air supply in portions into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is resumed with brief connection of the compressor 19 on the command of the time relay 20 on the air duct in the intake pipeline of the closed air-injecting device. Breaking through the holes of the perforated pipeline 16, the compressed air loosens and roils the sludge, with simultaneous saturation of manure flow with it, and transports it to the discharge water intake pipeline 22. As the reduction in the sludge layer in the storage pond 8 the air supply into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is stopped. According to the second embodiment of the method, in the storage pond a floating platform is placed, on which a compressor is located, connected to the pressure hose air duct. The nozzle of the pressure hose air duct is made in the form of a metal trunk with a perforation in its end part, attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the section of sludge residual accumulation, the end of which is inserted into the precipitate formation. The floating platform is attached on both sides of the dam using a rope and block system in the areas of erosion of the sediment of sludge precipitation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of transport capacity of roiled manure flow coming from the livestock complex, and increased in functional capabilities of the storage pond with possible disposal of flows on irrigated fields of reclamation.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: process can be used for preparation of said liquid wastes for irrigation and fertilising of agricultural lands. Effluents of pig-breeding farms are processed with the solution of silica-alumina coagulant based on nepheline in amount of 10-35 mg/dm3 by Al2O3. Note here that pH varies from 6.5 to 7.5. After treatment of the mix in exposed hydraulic cyclone, it is separated to transparent liquid fraction and precipitate, i.e. organic mineral fertilisers.
EFFECT: expanded range of processing of suspensions, simplified process, lower costs, complete decontamination of liquid and solid phases.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to purification of drainage and discharge water and can be used in irrigation farming when designing hydro-reclamation systems with a closed water circulation cycle. The method of preparing drainage and discharge water for crop irrigation includes removing mechanical impurities, organic substances, heavy metal ions and excess salts. The first step includes removing mechanical impurities and organic substances by treatment in a separator. The second step includes removing heavy metal ions and excess salts in a filter well, having filter elements based on coal production wastes, having a cylindrical shape with a cavity inside which is filled with a rice husk-based sorbent placed in pouches made of basalt fabric.
EFFECT: invention improves the quality of preparing drainage and discharge water for crop irrigation, widens the range of using drainage and discharge water having various chemical composition, and simplifies the process of mounting filter elements.
SUBSTANCE: water treatment plant of a combined heat and power plant includes water pre-cleaning unit I, reverse osmosis unit II, ion exchange unit III for deep water demineralisation and a unit for obtaining chemically treated make-up water IV for a heat network. The first deaerator 8 is connected to high-pressure steam boiler 9. Water pre-cleaning unit I includes in-series connected clarifier 2, coagulated water tank 3, mechanical filter 4, as well as washing solution tank 20. Reverse osmosis unit II includes reverse osmosis plant 5. Ion exchange unit III for deep water demineralisation includes in-series connected filter 6 for H-ionisation and filter 7 for OH-ionisation, as well as neutralising tank 17. Unit IV for obtaining chemically treated make-up water for the heat network includes in-series connected tank 18 for chemically cleaned water and the second deaerator 25. Clarifier 2 is connected to FeCl3 solution tank 27 and to NaOH solution tank 28.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing consumption of reagents and salt content of chemically treated water, as well as simplifying a process flow diagram.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorbents and use thereof. The sorbent for antimony anions comprises particles or granules of zirconium oxide and has a distribution coefficient for the antimony anions of at least 10000 ml/g at a pH in the range of 2 to 10. The sorbent comprises particles with an average particle size in the range of about 10 nm to 100 um and having a flow rate of 100 to 10000 bed volumes per hour; the granules with an average size of 0.1 to 2 mm and having a flow rate of 10 to 50 bed volumes per hour. Also claimed is a method for the novel sorbent preparation and a method for antimony and, potentially, technetium removal from aqueous solutions, specifically from nuclear waste effluents. The distribution coefficient is high, which makes the material suitable for industrial application.
EFFECT: preparation process is straightforward and the sorbent can be produced from readily available materials at moderate conditions.
20 cl, 5 dwg, 5 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of effluents. Proposed process comprises combining of heated gas and effluents to the make the mix thereof, separating of said effluents into drops to increase the area of interface between effluents and heated gas for accelerated heat and mass transfer between drops of said effluents and heated gas. Then, heat is transferred from heated gas to effluents for their partial evaporation, portion of effluents drops are removed from said mix for making of gas without fluid and concentrated fluid, and separation of suspended solids from concentrated fluid. Fluid concentration system comprises the concentrator unit. Note here that said concenytrator comprises gas inlet, gas outlet and mixing channel arranged there between. Note also that said mixing channel has contracted section for gas flow to up its rate at flowing from said inlet to said outlet. This system comprises fluid inlet pipe for liquid to be concentrated to be injected into mixing channel. Note here that said pipe is arranged in mixing channel between gas inlet and contracted section. Fog catcher is arranged downstream of concentrator unit and includes gas passage connected to gas outlet and including fluid collector to remove fluid from gas in fog catcher gas passage, and removed fluid connection vessel. Blower is connected to fog catcher to create gas flow to be forced to mixing channel and gas passage.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of treatment.
27 cl, 2 tbl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves boron industry waste (borogypsum) processing with the waste containing calcium sulphate dehydrate and amorphous silica. The waste is processed by means of a stoichiometric amount of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide in a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:(19-20).
EFFECT: producing the high-capacity sorbent in relation to heavy metal ions.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes coprecipitation at pH 8.9 of magnesium and aluminium hydroxides taken in molar ratio of 4:1, moulding the precipitate and granulating by drying. Successive modification with polyhexamethylene guanidine and 1,8-dioxynaphthalene-3,6-disulphonic acid is then carried out.
EFFECT: increased selectivity of the sorbent.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of producing a sorbent, which includes mixing sodium salt-preactivated bentonite clay and crushed paraffin. Mixing is carried out at 60-70°C for 20 minutes. Particles with size of 2-5 mm are moulded from the mixture. Moulding is carried out while stirring the mass with an anchor mixer rotating at 50-60 rpm.
EFFECT: low cost of the sorbent while preserving quality.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of obtaining ferromagnetic carbon sorbents, intended for water purification. Cellulose-containing raw material is impregnated with water solution of iron salt, moisture excess is separated and obtained mixture is subjected to pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is carried out in pyrolysis chamber at 400-500°C, realising a series of successive 0.1-1.0 s long heat impulses with 10 s interval between impulses. Mixture heating is realised by means of nichrome rods, connected with electric generator and placed in the volume of pyrolysis chamber with separation of chamber into locally heated cells.
EFFECT: invention provides reduction of energy consumption, time for the process realisation and its cheapening.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process of production of magnetic sorbents. The sorbent comprises humic acids as a polymeric binder and a magnetic filler comprising magnetite. The size of magnetite particles is 7-30 nm. The magnetite:humic acid ratio is from 1:4 to 4:1. The efficiency of aquatic environment decontamination by introducing the sorbent depends on the nature of contaminants and amounts to 97-100%.
EFFECT: product possesses magnetic properties and high sorption capacity.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of a sorbent for equipment for protecting respiratory organs. The method of producing a sorbent includes mixing powdered calcium hydroxide or oxide with water with weight ratio Ca2+/H2O of (0.70.3)/1 and adding a calculated amount of potassium orthophosphate having density of 1.41±0.05 g/cm3. The orthophosphate solution is prepared with molar ratio KOH/K2HPO4, of (0.9-1.1)/1, or molar ratio KOH/KH2PO4 of (1.9-2.1)/1. The obtained mixture is stirred, held and moulded. The granules are dried to residual moisture content of 16-21 wt %.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a sorbent having a high chemisorption rate, high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide and mechanical strength.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of sorbents for chromatographic separation of fullerenes. Sandwiched nanotubes are subjected to heat treatment at 800-1000°C and mixed with disperse Teflon. Said step are performed in the medium of nitrogen or inert gas.
EFFECT: simplified production of efficient sorbent.
2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of an adsorbent for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. Disclosed is an adsorbent which consists of a mixture of ferromanganese nodules, gamma aluminium oxide and polyvinyl alcohol. The gamma aluminium oxide source used is aluminium hydroxide obtained using an alcoholate technique and pretreated with an aqueous acid solution.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain an adsorbent in the form of high-strength granules with high adsorption capacity from readily available raw material.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed is BaKX zeolite adsorbent without binding agent. Adsorbent includes first zeolite X, which has molar ratio of silicon dioxide to aluminium oxide from 2.0 to 3.0, and second zeolite X, obtained from binding agent. Ratio of zeolite X, obtained from binding agent, to first zeolite X constitutes from 10:90 to 20:80 by weight. Adsorbent contains barium and potassium on cation-exchange parts of BaKX zeolite adsorbent. Potassium content constitutes from 0.9 to 1.5 wt %. Barium content constitutes from 30 to 34 wt %. Claimed is method of obtaining adsorbent, including formation of agglomerates from zeolite X, kaolin clay and carboxymethylcellulose, activation of agglomerates to convert kaolin clay into meta-kaolin clay, decomposition of carboxymethylcellulose, ionic exchange for barium and potassium, adsorbent drying. Separation of para-xylene with application of obtained adsorbent is claimed.
EFFECT: increased adsorbent efficiency in processes of separating hydrocarbons with preservation of its strength.
10 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: claimed is method of obtaining sorbent for gaschromographic separation of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Calcium aluminate is obtained by mixing in solution calcium nitrate, aluminium nitrate and crystalline citric acid at molar ratio of components 1:2:3. After mixing drying at 130°C and burning at 1000°C are carried out. Obtained product is mixed with solution of sodium chloride, evaporated on water bath until loose sample is obtained, dried at 120°C and incinerated at 900°C.
EFFECT: increase of sorbent selectivity.
3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to nanotechnology and may be used to manufacture catalysts and sorbents. Graphene pumice contains graphenes arranged in parallel at distances of more than 0.335 nm, and amorphous carbon as a binder at their edges, with the graphene-binder ratio from 1:0.1 to 1:1 by mass. The specific area of the surface is more than 1000 m2/g. The absolute hardness is 1 unit by the Mohs scale and less, specific density is 0.008-0.3 g/cm3 for solids, loose specific density of 0.005-0.25 g/cm3 for granules. The composition is produced by burning of a homogeneous powder mix of graphite oxide, unstable organic material and organic and inorganic metal salts with the moisture of all components of 10-15% in a heat-resistant open or tight mould. The source material for the binder is represented by chemical compounds capable of being in a liquid state up to 180°C, not soaking the graphite/graphene surface and damaged at a temperature of not more than 800°C. Graphene pumice is activated by restoration in hydrogen at 400-450°C and pressure of 0.05-0.11 MPa for 10-30 min or in methane at 800-950°C for at least 1 hour at atmospheric pressure with subsequent cooling.
EFFECT: produced sorbents make it possible to multiply increase the capacity of reservoirs for the storage and transportation of natural gas.
15 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex