Method and system for water treatment

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for water treatment comprises: water passage through the channel system in the water flow direction, each of which is integrated into the surface of magnetically penetrable microchannel plate 7, 8, made of alloy of rare earth metal; and creation of magnetic field by the arrangement of system of permanent magnets 10 so as to form the layer of permanent magnets 10, adjacent to the outer side of magnetically penetrable microchannel plate 7, 8, so that the magnetic field has direction perpendicular to the direction of indicated water flow, and destroy at least some hydrogen bonds by the magnetic field.

EFFECT: invention permits to destroy the hydrogen bonds in water, reduce the accumulation of scum sediments in steam pegs and remove the formed scum.

14 cl, 10 dwg

 

The SCOPE of the INVENTION

[02] the Invention relates to water treatment devices in General and to the water treatment devices based on the use of electric and magnetic fields, in particular.

DISADVANTAGES of EXISTING SOLUTIONS

[03] the water treatment Processes designed to make water more acceptable for a desired end use are well known and are used in many fields such as water treatment domestic wastewater, water treatment, agricultural wastewater and water treatment industrial wastewater. In General, the purpose of the water treatment process is to remove impurities or at least reducing the concentration of impurities contained in the water, making it suitable for the desired end use, such as, for example, the return of water back to nature without causing adverse environmental impacts.

[04] the Treatment of industrial waste water includes two main types of processes: water treatment boiler water and water treatment cooling water. Thorough treatment is very critical, not thoroughly water treatment may have an impact on different aspects of water treatment and use, ranging from public health issues (e.g. nicecast�enny dirty water can constitute a favorable environment for the development of bacteria, such as Legionella), to problems of efficiency and safety of industrial equipment.

[05] In particular, steam boilers can suffer from scale deposits deposited on the walls of a steam boiler or pipes, in the absence of specific quality requirements for water used in steam boilers. Coefficient of thermal conductivity of scale is a hundred times less than that of metals, and thermal stability of such deposits is very high. High temperature resistance and low coefficient of thermal conductivity are caused by heat loss, which leads to excessive fuel consumption. On the other side of metal walls, which are deposited on the scale, overheat, which can lead to deformation or even break pipes.

[06] Typically, the removal of scale deposits requires stopping the operation of steam boilers and related systems. In addition, the deposits are removed with sharp metal tools. As a result, the removal of scale deposits involves labor and material costs, and sometimes leads to mechanical damage and/or chemical erosion of steam boilers and pipes.

[07] Although the composition of deposits is complex and depends on the pollutants contained in the water, often at least part of the scale is formed from carbonaceous materials deposited on the walls of the boiler, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3and magnesium carbonate (MgCO 3). The deposits are often formed from the remnants of alkali metals in the existing sediments. The formation of scale deposits can be described with the following chemical equations:

[08] CA(HCO3)2→CaCO3(s)+H2O(1)+CO2(g)

[09] Mg(HCO3)2→MgCO3(s)+H2O(1)+CO2(g)

[010] MgHCO3(s)+H2O(1)→Mg(OH)2(s)+CO2(g)

[011] As can be seen from the equations, the chemical activity of water molecules affects the chemical equilibrium of the reaction. Thus, vysokobaricheskie active water can prevent the formation of scale and can even remove existing scale deposits from the walls of a steam boiler. However, natural water is not too reactive.

[012] the Clusters of water molecules are formed due to incomplete neutralization of negative charges in the atoms of oxygen when combined with hydrogen atoms in the process of bulk water molecules. As a result, water molecules in the sample will include a certain number of oxygen atoms that carry a negative charge. Such negatively charged oxygen atom attracts the hydrogen atoms of neighboring water molecules, forming hydrogen bonds with them. Water molecules that are associated through hydrogen bonds, forming clusters of water molecules and ODA�delaude the chemical formula (H 2O)n. Typically, clusters of water molecules, inertial physical properties and chemical activity, typically are not destroyed even when interacting with highly active substances in the nature. This feature saves water it is stable in the environment. Furthermore, the destruction of hydrogen bonds is vysokoenergeticheskie process requiring a large amount of heat that must be transferred to the water before the hydrogen bonds begin to break down, and the water becomes more reactive.

[013] as a result, there is a need for more energy efficient methods of destruction of water clusters, especially for use in water treatment facilities such as water treatment steam boilers. Although made many attempts to devise ways to improve the chemical activity of water molecules, all of they still require great amounts of energy from an external source and high power consumption.

[014] the Known method and water treatment system (CN 201660473 U, publ. 01.12.2010, selected as a prototype). The method comprises passing water through a system of channels and plates, made of an alloy of rare earth metals; and the creation of a magnetic field arrangement of the permanent magnets thus to form at least one layer of permanent magnets, prilegayushikh the outer side of at least one plate. Water treatment system contains: the canal system, at least one plate made of an alloy of rare earth metals, and a system of permanent magnets forming at least one layer of the permanent magnets adjacent to the outer side of at least one of the said plates.

The PURPOSE of the INVENTION AND BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[015] the Invention relates to water treatment devices in General and to the water treatment devices based on the use of electric and magnetic fields, in particular.

[016] In particular, the invention described here offers a technical solution to reduce the accumulation of scale deposits in steam boilers and removal of scale deposits from boilers without the use of harsh chemicals. In addition, the invention described here offers a way of breaking down the hydrogen bonds in the boiler water, thereby reducing energy costs for steam boilers.

[017] In accordance with aspects of the described method, the proposed water treatment system includes a system of pipes, each of which is made of an alloy of rare earth metals. The excitation of electrons of the alloy of rare earth metals, at least one pipe generates an electric field along the pipe surface directed perpendicular to the direction of flow�and water in that pipe.

[018] in addition, the system of permanent magnets arranged such that generated along the surface of the pipe, the magnetic field was directed perpendicular to the direction in which water flows through a pipe.

[019] the Result of the presence of an electric field and a magnetic field is the destruction of at least some hydrogen bonds between water molecules flowing through a pipe.

[020] In some embodiments, at least two pipes of a piping system must be parallel to each other.

[021] In some embodiments, at least one pipe from a piping system that includes a system of longitudinal segments having a first diameter. The segments are joined to each other with the help of the jumpers of the second diameter. The second diameter (the diameter of the jumpers) larger than the first diameter (the diameter of the segments). Thus at least one pipe of the pipe system has the shape of a bamboo stalk.

[022] In some embodiments, excitation of electrons in the alloy of rare earth metals is called a magnetic field and a force is applied to an alloy of rare earth metals. In some versions do not require the use of an external source of energy to excite electrons in the alloy of rare earth metals.

[023] In some embodiments, the implementation�Oia at least some water molecules are grouped in water clusters, having a first size prior to entering into the piping system. The destruction of at least some of the hydrogen bonds occurring within the system of pipes that leads to the fact that at least some molecules of water at the outlet of the pipe system will be grouped into water clusters having a second size that is smaller than the first size. In other words, the electric and magnetic forces applied to the water molecules in the flow through a system of pipes, ruin water clusters so that the water at the outlet of the pipe system, after exposure to electric and magnetic fields, has smaller clusters compared to clusters at the entrance to the pipe system.

[024] In some embodiments, exposure to electric and magnetic fields on water, when passing through a system of pipes increases the chemical activity of at least some of the water molecules. In some embodiments, the increased chemical activity of some water molecules leads to a decrease of the deposition of scale in steam boilers, in which water flows from a pipe system. In some embodiments, the increase in chemical activity of some molecules of water leads to the deposition removal of scale in steam boilers, in which water flows from a pipe system.

[025] In some embodiments, permanent MAGN�you are so what constitutes a permanent magnetic layer around each of the pipes.

[026] In some embodiments, permanent magnets are arranged in at least two layers of permanent magnets forming matrix. Each of the layers of permanent magnets of the matrix determines the magnetic field such that the magnetic field of the matrix, applying a force in opposite directions. In other words, the magnetic field generated by each pair of adjacent layers of permanent magnets of the matrix, applying a force in opposite directions.

BRIEF description of the DRAWINGS

[027] Fig. 1 presents a schematic depiction of one of the embodiments of the water treatment device, constructed and operating in accordance with one of the principles set out here.

[028] Fig. 2 shows a magnified image of region A of Fig. 1.

[029] Fig. 3 is an image of the incision is made along the line F-F in Fig. 2.

[030] Fig. 4 shows a reduced image of the slit is made along the line b-b In Fig. 1.

[031] Fig. 5 shows an image of the incision is made along the line D-D in Fig. 4.

[032] Fig. 6 shows a thumbnail image of the incision is made along the line C-C in Fig. 1.

[033] Fig. 7 shows an image of a cut made along line E-E in Fig. 6.

[034] Fig. 8 pre�inserted schematic representation in section of one of the embodiments of the base water system, used in the water treatment device shown in Fig. 1-7, constructed and operating in accordance with one of these principle.

[035] Fig. 9-10 presents a schematic depiction of one of the embodiments of the water treatment device based on three-dimensional magnetic plate, constructed and operating in accordance with the other principles set out here.

VARIANT IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION

[036] a Variant embodiment of the invention used in a water treatment device that uses electric and magnetic fields

[037] In accordance with aspects of the present principles of the proposed water treatment system includes:

[038] the system of pipes, each pipe system is made of an alloy of rare earth metals and has a structure for the passage of water flow, in which the excitation of electrons in the alloy of rare earth metals, at least one pipe from a piping system that forms an electric field along the surface of the pipe, having a direction perpendicular to the direction of water flow in at least one pipe, and

[039] the system of permanent magnets arranged to create a magnetic field along the entire surface of at least one tube having a direction perpendicular to the direction of water flow at IU�e one pipe,

[040] in which the electric and magnetic fields have a structure for the destruction of at least some hydrogen bonds between water molecules flowing in at least one pipe.

[041] In accordance with aspects of the present principles, a method of water treatment, based on:

[042] the passage of water through the system of pipes, each pipe systems made of an alloy of rare earth metals;

[043] the formation of the electric field along the entire surface of at least one pipe of the pipe system, causing the excitation of electrons in the alloy of rare earth metals, at least one pipe, the electric field has a direction perpendicular to the direction of flow of water at least one pipe; and

[044] the creation of a magnetic field arrangement of the permanent magnets along the entire surface of at least one pipe, having a direction perpendicular to the direction of flow of water at least one pipe;

[045] in which the electric and magnetic fields arranged for the destruction of at least some hydrogen bonds between water molecules flowing in at least one pipe.

[046] Refer to Fig. 1, which is a schematic depiction of one embodiment of a water treatment device designed � operating in accordance with one of these principle and Fig. 2, which is an enlarged image of region A of Fig. 1.

[047] As shown in Fig. 1, the water treatment device 4 includes components for water treatment 6, which are assembled together by means of connectors. Each component of the water treatment 6 contains a pair of single magnetophoretic microchannel plates 7 arranged respectively in the upper and lower parts of the water treatment component 6. Plate 7 attached to the respective ends of the separation of the two circuit boards 5, each includes an opening 14. It is clear that when assembling the edge of water treatment components 6 hole 14 of the dividing circuit boards 5 are on the same level.

[048] As can be seen from Fig. 2, each pair of plates 7 has a system of double magnetophoretic microchannel plates 8 arranged in them. The number of dual magnetophoretic microchannel plates 8 may be of any suitable number based on the size of the water treatment device 4. As can be seen, an implementation option, shown in Fig.1, contains five double magnetophoretic microchannel plates.

[049] Single magnetophoresis microchannel plate 7 and double magnetophoresis microchannel plate made of an alloy of rare earth metals typically include iron, which has excellent magnetic conductivity. Some examples of possible� the implementation of the alloy is formed by adding to every 100 pounds of iron (Fe) 24.52 grams of lanthanum (La), 0.96 grams of yttrium (Y), 58,16 grams of cerium (CE), 5,07 grams praseodymium (Pr), 11,85 grams of neodymium (Nd), 1,63 grams samarium (Sm), 0.12 grams of titanium (Ti), and 0.5 gram of zinc (Zn).

[050] it Should be understood that a single magnetophoresis microchannel plate 7 and double magnetophoresis microchannel plate 8 are in an oxygen-free environment, so the alloy used for plates 7 and 8, will not rust, as described below.

[051] As shown in Fig. 1, 2 and 3, between each pair of plates 8, and between the end of the microchannel plate 8 and the adjacent microchannel plates 7 is plastic groove 9 of prisoners in him permanent magnets. In particular, each plastic riveting actually formed from three identical heat-resistant plastic plates that are joined together to form the groove 9. Central plastic plates have a cavity for placement of the permanent magnets 10 so that the permanent magnets are sandwiched between two plastic sheets and surrounded by plastic on all sides. The gaps between the permanent magnets 10 and the groove 9 are usually small, approximately in the range of 10 to 12 mm.

[052] referring now to Fig. 4, which presents a thumbnail image of the incision is made along the line b-b In Fig. 1, Fig. 5, which presents the image of the cut made VD�l line D-D in Fig. 4, Fig. 6, which presents a thumbnail image of the incision is made along the line C-C in Fig. 1, Fig. 7, which presents the image of a cut made along line E-E in Fig. 6.

[053] As shown in Fig. 2, 4 and 5, the system of longitudinal pipes or water channels 11 are embedded in the inner surface of each single magnetoresitive microchannel plate 7. In addition, as can be seen from Fig. 2, 6 and 7, the system of longitudinal pipes or water channels 12 built-in to each of the surfaces of each double magnetoresitive microchannel plate 8. Along water channels 11, 12 and the plates 7, 8 form magnetoresitive the core of the split-flow water treatment plants.

[054] the Number of water channels 11 in each single magnetoresitive microchannel plate 7 may be of any suitable number and may vary for different plates 7. Similarly, the number of water channels 12 in each double magnetoresitive microchannel plate 8 may be of any suitable number and may vary for different plates 8. In some embodiments, the number of water channels 11 or 12 arranged in the surface of the plate 7 or 8 depends on the volume of water being treated. As can be seen from Fig. 4 - 7, in the illustrated embodiment, the implementation of the twelve water channels are located in the surface of each Board.

[055] Water channels 11 and 12 may be of any suitable form. However, in some embodiments, water channels 11 and/or 12 is formed of longitudinal segments having a first diameter, connected using jumper having a second diameter, much larger than the first diameter, thereby forming a shape similar to a bamboo stalk. The formation of water channels 11 and/or 12 in the form of a bamboo stalk is advantageous because bamboohouse (curved) channels define the trigger function (velocity and acceleration) of water in the channel. Slower water flow contributes to more effective cleansing than when the flow in the straight channel under the same conditions with a constant water flow.

[056] As shown in Fig. 2, the arrangement of the permanent magnets 10 in plastic troughs 9 corresponds to the arrangement of water channels 11 and 12. In particular, in some embodiments, the permanent magnets 10 are arranged in the cavity 13 along the water channels 11 and 12. In some embodiments, permanent magnets 10 arranged in the longitudinal direction in such a way that their directions alternate in pairs, for example N-S, S-N, N-S, S-N, etc.

[057] As shown in Fig. 1, single magnetophoresis microchannel plate 7, double magnetophoresis microchannel plate 8 and the plastic chute 9 is tightly fastened to each other by means of bolts 20 passing through the mounting �TVersity 22, located on the edges of the water treatment device 4, and nuts 24.

[058] Refer to Fig. 8, which presents the schematic representation in section of one embodiment of the flat plate of the water treatment system used in the water treatment device shown in Fig. 1-7, constructed and operating in accordance with one of these principle.

[059] the water treatment Device 4, as described above with reference to Fig. 1-7, is the Foundation of the water treatment system. As can be seen, the water purification device 4 is installed inside the tank body 32, as shown in Fig. 8. The reservoir 32 additionally includes an intake structure 1 is designed to supply water to the water treatment system, spillway, designed to drain water from the water treatment system 30, and a support 3.

[060] it Should be understood that the reservoir 32 may include one or more water treatment devices 4 and that each of these water treatment devices may include one or more water treatment components 6. However, as an example, Fig. presents an implementation option with one water treatment device 4 comprising two dividing boards 5 and two components water treatment 6.

[061] As shown in Fig. 1-8, in operation, water enters the tank 32 through the inlet 1. Water flows through each �W water channels 11 and 12 in the plates 7 and 8, and then flows out from the reservoir 32 through the spillway 2. Generally, water flows from the reservoir 32, by doing a steam boiler through the tube connecting the reservoir to the steam boiler.

[062] the Magnetic forces of the permanent magnets 10 is exposed on the outer shell electrons of the alloy forming magnetophoresis microchannel plates 7 and 8 and water channels 11 and 12 in it. Thus, the outer shell electrons are constantly moving from the excited state to the ground and back, thereby releasing energy that is used in the water treatment process.

[063] As mentioned above, the permanent magnets 10 are located in the cavities 13 of the grooves 9 so that their locations correspond to the water channels 11 and 12, and form a magnetic field in the vessel in a direction perpendicular to the direction of water flow. In addition, as mentioned above, the plates 7 and 8 and water channels 11 and 12, made of alloy, has excellent permeability as a result of energy release in the transition of electrons from the excited state to the ground state and back. Thus, an electric field formed in the water channels 11 and 12, snowspeeders, and the creation of an electric field does not require an external power source.

[064] the Energy released by the magnetic field and the resulting transition to electric�Ronov between States, affects the water clusters in the stream of water flowing through the channels 11 and 12, and destroys at least some hydrogen bonds in water clusters, thus reducing the size of water clusters. Destroyed water clusters do not recombine due to the polarization of the magnetic field formed by the permanent magnets 10.

[065] reducing the size of water clusters and the number of hydrogen bonds each water cluster increases physico-chemical activity of water clusters. Increased energy in the system causes an increase of the resonance of the internal energy of water molecules flowing through the system, resulting in water molecules begin to flow faster (increased thermal motion) and have higher chemical activity. Thus, the water flowing from the reservoir 32 and supplied to a steam boiler which has a high chemical activity and fewer water clusters.

[066] When considering chemical reactions in water, in the process of scaling:

[067] Mg(HCO3)2→MgCO3(s)+H2O(1)+CO2(g)

[068] MgHCO3(s)+H2O(1)→Mg(OH)2(s)+CO2(g)

[069] Water of high chemical activity causes faster reaction in the forward direction than in reverse, thereby shifting the chemical equilibrium and causing a reduction in the scale and entities, in�Sogno, the destruction of at least some formations limescale. In addition, in some embodiments, decreasing the concentration of sodium ions in the purified water.

[070] as a result, water and steam processed using the system and method described herein, cleaned, thereby reducing limescale and/or flow rate in steam boilers. The reduction of scale deposits significantly reduces the maintenance costs of steam boilers, since there is no need in removing old scale deposits in steam boilers, which can harm steam boilers, no need for chemical cleaning of steam boiler, prevents breakage, which can cause deposition, the working pressure of a steam boiler is reduced, thereby increasing the efficiency of the use of coal.

[071] in addition, the results of the experiments show that using the described water treatment system improves the operation and performance of a steam boiler. For example, coal consumption can be reduced by about 3 g/kW×h or 3%, the performance of the steam boiler can be improved by about 7%, the steam consumption can be reduced by 3-8%, and energy consumption can be reduced by 1%. Improvements can also be found in many other operating parameters of the steam boiler.

[072] referring now to Fig. 9-10, which is� presents a schematic representation of embodiment of a device for water treatment, based on three-dimensional magnetic plate, constructed and operating in accordance with one of the principles set out here.

[073] As can be seen, the magnetic array 100 contains a system of magnetic plates 102, each of the magnetic plates contain an array of permanent magnets 104. The magnets 104 in each plate 102 are arranged in an alternating N-S right in the rows and columns of the matrix. Thus, the magnetic array 100 generates an alternating three-dimensional magnetic field.

[074] When water molecules pass through the magnetic array 100, usually around the array, or between the magnets 104, forming an array of 100, they have mutations and/or chemical reaction as it happens with other molecules that pass through this type of magnetic environment. This feature of the magnetic array makes it useful for creating a magnetic field in water purification plants, described above with reference to Fig. 1-8.

[075] while the described invention is applicable to reservations to the above-described variants of implementation, the specialist who have sufficient expertise in this area, can make alterations in the variants of implementation without deviation from the described invention. The described variants of implementation given by way of example and are not final. All changes that fall within the range of equivalence formula, invent�Oia, should be included in its scope. Combinations of the various above-described methods, systems and devices are also considered within the described invention.

1. Method of water treatment, including:
the passage of water through the channel system in the direction of water flow, each of the channels are embedded in the surface of at least one magnetoresitive microchannel plate, made of an alloy of rare earth metal; and
the creation of a magnetic field arrangement of the permanent magnets thus to form at least one layer of the permanent magnets adjacent to the outer side of at least one magnetoresitive microchannel plate so that the magnetic field has a direction perpendicular to the direction of said flow of water flowing through at least one of the channels, said system channels;
the destruction of the magnetic field at least some hydrogen bonds between water molecules passing through at least one of the channels, said system of channels.

2. A method according to claim 1, also including before the specified flow of the water embedding at least two channels of said system of channels parallel to each other in one of the specified magnetoresitive microchannel plate.

3. �p on p. 1, characterized in that at least one of the channels specified in the channel system contains a system of longitudinal segments having a first diameter, the segments are linked via jumpers having a second diameter, wherein the specified second diameter greater than the first diameter.

4. A method according to claim 1, also including the increase in chemical activity of at least some molecules of water passing through at least one of the channels, said system of channels.

5. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the placement of at least one of the specified layer of the permanent magnets is formed on the outer surface of each of the channels, said system of channels.

6. A method according to claim 5, characterized by the fact that the placement of these systems permanent magnets are made in such a way as to form at least one layer of permanent magnets, which includes the permanent magnets placed in a magnetic cavities inside a plastic chute, and the placement of the aforementioned plastic troughs parallel to at least one magnetoresitive microchannel plate.

7. A method according to claim 1, also containing the specified system of permanent magnets at least in the form of two layers of permanent magnets forming a matrix, each �W specified at least two layers of permanent magnets includes some of the systems of permanent magnets with an arrangement of rows and columns in an alternating N-S order in which indicated at least two layers of permanent magnets arranged to generate magnetic fields between these layers of permanent magnets, where the magnetic fields created by at least two layers of permanent magnets exert forces in opposite directions.

8. Water treatment system, comprising: a system of canals, each of these systems of channels are embedded in the surface of at least one magnetoresitive microchannel plate, made of an alloy of rare earth metals, and arranged for the passage of water in the direction of the main stream; and a system of permanent magnets forming at least one layer of permanent magnets, said layer of permanent magnets attached to the outer side of at least one specified magnetoresitive microchannel plate, the above system of permanent magnets generates a magnetic field having a direction perpendicular to the direction of said flow of water flowing through at least one of the channels, said system of channels;
the magnetic field destroys the specified at least some hydrogen bonds between water molecules passing through at least one of the channels, said system of channels.

9. Water treatment system according to claim 8, characterized by the fact that h�on at least two channels in the specified channel system built into one specified magnitudinem microchannel plate and held it parallel to each other.

10. Water treatment system according to claim 8, characterized in that at least one of the ducts contains a system of longitudinal segments having a first diameter, the segments are linked via jumpers having a second diameter, the second diameter greater than the first diameter.

11. Water treatment system according to claim 8, characterized by the fact that the magnetic field increases the chemical activity of at least some molecules of water passing through at least one of the channels, said system of channels

12. Water treatment system according to claim 8, characterized in that at least one said layer of permanent magnets is formed on the outer surface of each of the channels, said system of channels.

13. Water treatment system according to claim 12, characterized by the fact that the system of permanent magnets arranged in the magnetic cavities inside a plastic chute for forming at least one specified magnetoresitive microchannel plate, and the placement of the aforementioned plastic troughs parallel to at least one magnetoresitive microchannel plate.

14. Water treatment system according to claim 8, characterized by the fact that the system of permanent magnets arranged in the form of at least two slo�in permanent magnets, forming a matrix, each of the at least two layers of permanent magnets includes some of the systems of permanent magnets with an arrangement of rows and columns in an alternating N-S the manner in which indicated at least two layers of permanent magnets arranged to generate magnetic fields between these layers of permanent magnets, where the magnetic fields created by at least two layers of permanent magnets exert forces in opposite directions.



 

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27 cl, 2 tbl, 17 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a hydrogen-containing product and one or more products in the form of liquid water using catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons. The invention relates to a method wherein part of feed water is heated by a reforming product and the other part of feed water is heated by gaseous combustion products before feeding the feed water into a deaerator. Water contained in the gaseous combustion products is condensed to obtain a product in the form of liquid water. The present method can be combined with a water thermal treatment process.

EFFECT: easier extraction of water from gaseous combustion products, availability of low-grade heat of the reforming product stream for the water thermal treatment process.

19 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of purifying waste water from hexavalent chromium compounds includes reaction thereof with an iron-containing dispersant with simultaneous exposure to a magnetic field generated by an electromagnet to obtain an insoluble precipitate. The iron-containing dispersant used is ground iron or steel chips. Exposure is carried out using a controlled magnetic field, the direction of the intensity vector of which is varied by periodically changing the polarity of current in the electromagnet windings, and the intensity value is controlled by varying the value of current in the windings. A chromium hydroxide Cr(OH)3 precipitate is obtained by neutralising the unreacted mixture with an alkali.

EFFECT: high degree of purity of waste water while cutting the duration of the process, easy implementation and high efficiency of the method.

1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment. Treatment of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor comprises the fed of water flow portion to aerator, to distiller and /or evaporator and therefrom to said aerator again. Note here that process gas is fed to said aerator to produce gaseous flow to be fed to the plant for production of synthesis gas.

EFFECT: possibility to use at least a portion of water flow fed from Fischer-Tropsch reactor as a process water for production of synthesis gas.

14 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: electrohydraulic water activation installation comprises a chamber filled with water and equipped by electrodes, a cover with a channel for water supply. The chamber is limited by a recess in the piston bottom, cylinder walls and the cover with a channel for water supply, a plug with an insulated positive electrode is screwed into the cover, a cylindrical electrically insulated spring-damper is installed between the bottom part of the cylinder additionally serving as a negative electrode and the piston, the lateral part of the cylinder is fitted by a hole to discharge water after electrohydraulic impact in the water-filled chamber from a corona discharge between the electrodes at switching on of a high-frequency generator of primary pulses.

EFFECT: improvement of electrohydraulic water activation efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: food and pharmaceutical industries; water filtration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of purification of liquids and is dealt with filtration, in particular with the methods of purification of liquids from impurities. It may be used in the systems of industrial and household water supply in food and pharmaceutical industries. The method of liquids purification includes a partial shutting off a trunk of the unpurified liquid, delivery of the unpurified liquid in a trunk of the unpurified liquid and to the filtration element - in a trunk of purified liquid. Before the unpurified liquid delivery into the trunks of the unpurified and purified liquids it is passing through an ejector. The technical result is an increased convenience in operation and productivity of purification due to simultaneous outflow of both purified and unpurified liquids without decrease of a flow area of the purified liquid trunk running cross-section.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of convenience in operation and productivity of purification of liquids without decrease of a flow area of the purified liquid trunk running cross-section.

6 dwg

FIELD: water-supply engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of removing hardness salts from regenerates and can be used in water treatment processes in heat-and-power engineering, chemical, petrochemical, food, and other industries provided with ion-exchange water-desalting filters. Method is accomplished by precipitation of hardness salts involving recycle of precipitate treated by alkali solution followed by passage of supernatant through H-cationite filter. Treated precipitate accumulated in preceding settling cycles is recycled into regenerate and settling-subjected solution is passed through cationite filter to produce purified sulfuric acid further used for regeneration of H-cationite filters in water-treatment cycle. Precipitate is treated with alkaline regenerate from OH-anionite filters or with alkali solution obtained from electrolysis of regenerates with pH not below 11. Amount of regenerate introduced into accumulator-settler should be at least 20 kg/m3.

EFFECT: excluded liming procedure, preserved initial (after regeneration of filters) content of sulfate ions in sulfuric acid, reduced consumption thereof during preparation of regeneration solution, and excluded discharge of sulfate ions unto water objects.

3 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: petrochemical and food and other processing industries.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a device for purification of sewage and is dealt with designs of sewage treatment plants for purification and averaging of consumption and composition of sewage and may be used for preliminary purification of sewage of the enterprises of processing industries from floating and settling insoluble impurities. The device contains a cylindrical body with a cone-shaped bottomed, a mounted along the axis of the body cylindrical partition, a located above the body reactive water distributor with branch-pipes, a floating device, a rotating rocker arm with a foam pushing plates mounted with the help of a half-coupling to the reactive water distributor at a maximum level of water in the device, a collecting tank mounted with possibility of delivery in it of the circulating water, a pump, a pressure tank-saturator linked by a pressure pipeline with the reactive water distributor. Inside the body there is a ring-type chute, in which the reactive water distributor branch-pipes supplied with diffusers on their ends are placed. The technical result is an increase of efficiency of sewage purification and realization of averaging of consumption and composition of sewage and its purification simultaneously.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of sewage purification and simultaneous realization of averaging of sewage consumption, composition and purification.

1 dwg

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

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