Method of washing storage pond of livestock wastes (versions)
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating a closed water area in the form of a storage pond 8 with the area of accumulation of sludge from liquid flows. The storage pond 8 is a water area with a levee 12, in which body the inlet water intake hole is made, and the opposite - a water receiver 9 of the water intake pipeline 22. According to the first embodiment of the method, at the bottom of the storage pond 8 the closed air-injecting devices 14, 15 are mounted to form a number of beams diverging from the device as horizontal perforated pipelines 16 in the direction of the base of the upper slope of the dam 12. The perforated pipelines 16 end with a dead end. The air-injecting devices 14, 15 are connected to the central supply pipeline 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air. With the increase in the accumulation of sediment in the form of sludge in the zones of the storage pond 8 the air supply in portions into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is resumed with brief connection of the compressor 19 on the command of the time relay 20 on the air duct in the intake pipeline of the closed air-injecting device. Breaking through the holes of the perforated pipeline 16, the compressed air loosens and roils the sludge, with simultaneous saturation of manure flow with it, and transports it to the discharge water intake pipeline 22. As the reduction in the sludge layer in the storage pond 8 the air supply into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is stopped. According to the second embodiment of the method, in the storage pond a floating platform is placed, on which a compressor is located, connected to the pressure hose air duct. The nozzle of the pressure hose air duct is made in the form of a metal trunk with a perforation in its end part, attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the section of sludge residual accumulation, the end of which is inserted into the precipitate formation. The floating platform is attached on both sides of the dam using a rope and block system in the areas of erosion of the sediment of sludge precipitation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of transport capacity of roiled manure flow coming from the livestock complex, and increased in functional capabilities of the storage pond with possible disposal of flows on irrigated fields of reclamation.
2 cl, 6 dwg
The invention relates to agriculture and is intended for removal of sludge from the storage ponds used for transportation of sludge in livestock effluents in the field of land reclamation, water protection activities, distribution of sewage and livestock waste in the sprinkler system of distribution pipes.
Manure waste is a hazardous product, therefore animal waste (e.g., swinestone) the first stage is subjected to biological treatment for industrial wastewater treatment plants (aeration), and in the second stage under natural conditions in the irrigation fields and represent a complex chemical-biological process.
On animal farms produce large quantities of liquid manure tanks. Only using high-performance hydro-mechanical equipment (pumps and pipelines), and means and methods of irrigation (sprinkler irrigation, surface irrigation), perhaps the rational use of liquid organic fertilizers in crop production. For environmentally safe disposal of liquid organic fertilizer (e.g. swinstall sludge and liquid) in the fields of irrigation necessary process calculations, which are in conducting of doses of nutrients, application rates for animal waste and liquid wasp�ka depending on the nutrient contents in liquid organic fertilizers and the removal of harmful substances with the crops.
Industrial treatment facilities even when good of their operation do not provide complete cleaning of livestock waste (swinstall) to environmentally friendly options. Therefore, after the first stage of wastewater treatment (solid fraction, active or etc.) exposed to industrial structures in biological ponds, possible targeted flow of effluent in the pond already considered for the subsequent cycle for soil purification of the liquid fraction of manure (livestock waste) and constructed irrigation and drainage irrigation system. Actually basically the liquid fraction manure contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
To ensure reliable operation of the irrigation equipment are built the pond for the accumulation of the remaining suspended solids in the liquid fraction of manure, the latter accumulates mainly during the winter period of their operation, and in summer - from ponds the sewage for irrigation disposal field (DRS).
Fertilizing, watering is a method of agrobiological disposal of livestock waste. Unlike conventional irrigation systems designed to water management, irrigation disposal fields, it is necessary to ensure the biological disposal of livestock waste, the possible Zelena�avennue regulation not only of water, but and nutrient status of soils.
Irrigation system consists of: ponds; inlet and outlet piping; Staropramen camera in front of the pump station; a stationary tubular network; hydrants with valves; sprinkler machines; closed drainage network; open drainage channels, also a network of observation hydrocontrolled wells. Therefore, these hydraulic systems were called "Irrigation disposal field" (ISP).
In the proposed invention proposes a flush pond sediment from livestock waste for safe exploitation, protection from the overflow it and, therefore, a new technical solution, in the storage pond and reliable environmental devices.
As a result of low efficiency of the aeration tanks the main burden of the maintenance of drains is necessary to ISP, where one of the intermediate and the main link is the storage pond.
A method of lightening the natural and wastewaters, including a pass of the flow of water with suspended particles in it through the open sump, in which cross-stream water provides a partitioning element, overlapping the upper part of the stream, wherein the depth of the water in the sump support is equal to the amount determined by the formula of hydraulics, and the lower edge lane�garibaldigo element bury under the water level in the sump by an amount greater than the thickness of the layer of wind movement and also hydraulics is defined by the formula (inventor's certificate SU # 1516571, CL E02B 8/02, 1989).
The disadvantages of this method:
- the inability of the automatic rising up compacted during the winter accumulation of sediment sludge in the sump, so the livestock farms operate year-round, animal feed, and waste after treatment in the first stage in the aeration tanks is then sent to the pond with a certain humidity of not less than 97%;
- the task of the analog - to make the clarified stream, so in the initial part of the sump accumulates a large amount of sediment, which then Deposit and collaterals. In this regard, it will be impossible to wash them out, as a result, the level of deposits reaches the top input of the headwall will be flooding. The mode of operation of the ponds livestock waste provides for the operation of the storage pond livestock waste so that there is free flow of effluent from the pipe, and the horizon should be lower than the drain pipe at the desired mark throughout the years of operation;
- there are no normal conditions and safety of all structures, ponds;
- limited use of his following, on the one hand, to fulfill the main task - clarification on�of an eye through a sump (which is why this building and not coincident with the term - the accumulation of livestock waste) and supply of clean water to the consumer and, on the other hand, the restriction of discharge of the water at the minimum level (as occurs backwater from waterproof dam and culvert openings only in its upper part). Thus, the speed of water movement in the sump pre-hydraulic calculation are assigned to the minimum in the direction of drainage of water or sewage.
In addition, a significant disadvantage of analogue is that it does not include the work of such structures (accumulation) in the winter period, namely, during the summer season there is an emptying of all the accumulated runoff from the necessity of flushing prism sediments of silt in suspension, then feed roiled effluent irrigation disposal field, and in the winter accumulation on the length and width of the pond, increasing the intake of effluent from livestock complex. Bringing the level of wastewater in ponds shall be provided in normal operation all year round.
It should be noted also that under the conditions of the pond, after it has been emptied in the autumn period (watering ends) and before the new filling is made of work: General maintenance of buildings fixtures dams; evaluation of the condition temporarily disabled facilities, if any: cleaning of culvert Tr�b from foreign objects, hamper the free pass effluent, and ultimately to complete all the work that could undermine the omission of drains, etc. This rule is required by the execution of tasks to ensure the environmental safety of such facilities for personnel engaged in the operation of facilities ponds.
Known protection system intake structures containing a closed area formed by the dike, in which body is arranged in the inlet water hole, and oppositely to the inlet of the intake duct, wherein the intake area of water placed in the reservoir with the formation along the shore of the transit channel, designed for unobstructed passage along shore currents, input intake hole arranged in the protective dike seaward side, and the inlet of the intake duct made in the form of a protective device with a vertical separation, including input photocopiers, work protective and water intake and outlet elements and is equipped with an additional floating device in the form of a horizontal perforated pipe, connected to the discharge duct, wherein the discharge element is connected to transit the canal and equipped node to create the directional flow of water, connected to the power n�spare pressure screen which water (patent RU №2237132, CL E02B 9/04, 2003).
The known system is basically designed to protect the intake from sediment, fish, plankton, floating waste and petroleum products during the ascent in the upper layers of the entire spectrum transported in stream water bodies.
The disadvantage of this system is that it is not associated with the removal of the slurry past the first phase of cleaning the aeration tanks of the livestock complex. After aeration, the liquid mixture in the form of liquid manure (97% humidity) with small suspended particles is supplied by pumping through a pipeline in the pond livestock waste throughout the year, where the effluent is upheld, then gravity comes in the discharge piping to the side Staropramen the camera to the pumping station. Pumping station with a given design takes the pressure of the effluent in the irrigation system via a conveying irrigation piping and hydrants for irrigation disposal field (ISP).
Supply the total volume of wastewater during the growing season, including not only the settled particles of silt at the bottom of the pond, also includes a number of chemical compounds (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc.), which together with liquid manure must be received by IPU to enhance crop production, mainly for perennial grasses and other crops, soglasovyvayuschey requirements for the safety of their cultivation, with the safety of environment around ISP.
The closest analogue is a water reclamation system that includes a river intake structure equipped with water regulating devices, drained network of drainage and irrigation with pressure and bypass the water lines and the storage pond, irrigation network is not above the drainage on the terrain in the area of their mutual influence, and the system is equipped located on the adjacent stretch of the river-inlet reservoir, wherein the reservoir is located above the storage pond on the river and is associated with water regulating device and the river-inlet - bypass channel below pond (inventor's certificate SU # 1425271, CL E02B 11/00 from 23.09.1988).
Known protection system is mainly designed to collect return water of irrigation system and drainage water drainage network via an open channel in the storage pond, which is then diluted with pure water reservoir is supplied to the storage pond using a water regulating device, and a pump station for pressure conduits is fed into the irrigation system, i.e. there is a cycle of water use after dilution with clean water. However, the pond cannot be completely freed from the accumulated runoff from the use�by admin on fertilizing, watering, however, as noted in the analogue part of the runoff may be discharged from pond in the river on technological parameters is not valid for use on livestock wastes, from the point of view of ecological safety of object reclamation. As a result of the known technical solution has a major drawback in the implementation of the method of regulation of liquid fertilizer to the irrigation disposal field, which is associated with the composition of the effluent on the complexes.
Thus, the known system cannot provide optimum overall fence all livestock runoff directly into a closed pipeline for disposal on fields without loss of liquid manure that can identify unfavorable conditions for crop production in agricultural use, i.e. during the growing season. In the first case it is necessary to maintain the full range of livestock waste composition, the second - siltation and stagnation of the whole area of the pond or its partial mudding (after the winter period, when there is no irrigation, but is the accumulation of flows); it will be necessary to produce the resuspension of sediments, sludge and drain all of the liquid to apply to ISP outside of a livestock breeding complex lossless preserving the environmental safety conditions. In this regard, so�e technical solution does not allow to ensure the intake along with the removal of the deposited manure to ISP, and therefore reduces the useful capacity of the water in the pond and can contribute to its refilling, and the hard work of the facilities of the disposal system effluent on the fields.
The main task, which directed the claimed method of flushing pond livestock waste is to increase the efficiency of the pond in terms of precipitating sludge sludge from wastewater while protecting it from silting.
The technical result achieved in the implementation of the claimed group of inventions is the expansion of technological capabilities, ensuring the fence effluent regardless of the horizons in the pond drive and its contamination (the presence of sedimentary silt), through the implementation of periodically rising up with possible utilization for irrigation disposal fields.
Said technical result is achieved in that a method of flushing pond livestock waste, creating a closed water area formed by the dike, in which body is arranged in the inlet water hole, and opposite to the inlet of the intake pipe, the water area is carried out in a pond with a zone of accumulation of sediment sludge from liquid effluent, in which establish a closed ventilation devices on�education in the form of a number of rays, radiating from the device horizontal perforated pipes at the base of the upland slope of the dam, thus increasing the accumulation of sediment in the form of silt in areas of the pond, feeding portions of the air blowing device resume with a short connection to the compressor relay team time in the duct into the intake pipe of the closed ventilation devices, and perforated piping end stub end.
According to another embodiment of the invention, the method of leaching pond livestock waste, which consists in the creation of the waters formed by the dike, in which body is arranged in the inlet water hole, and opposite to the inlet of the intake pipe, a compressor, pond drive place floating platform, a compressor connected to a pressure hose to the duct, the tip of which is made in the form of a metal barrel with a perforation in its end portion attached to the rod with graduations in height, and target sediments of silt, which is injected into the thickness of the precipitate, and produce it after the resuspension of the sediment depth, this floating platform is attached on both banks of the dam using troublecall system in areas of erosion, deposition osedc� sludge and the air supply resume.
This embodiment of the method of flushing pond livestock waste permits, in comparison with the prototype to automate the process of rising up the accumulated sediment silt in the ponds, and methods of sludge sludge is achieved by the distribution of compressed air short-acting stationary device. The resolution expressed the dam on the team time relay is made by briefly turning on the compressor and upon admission of compressed air across a number of rays of a perforated tubing in the irrigation period.
Thus, the distinctive features of the prototype are:
- within the zone of sedimentation and establish closed ventilation devices with the formation in the form of a number of rays radiating from the device horizontal perforated piping;
- periodically on team time relay compressor pump them in the air, providing education roiled flow over a large area of the pond at the same time;
- the stream rich suspended particles of silt, directly flows into the discharge pipe to the consumer.
Within the zone of influence of the intake install ventilation device consisting, for example, is a vicious circle that is connected to perfor�fixed pipelines, and during injection of air through the compressor, ensure its distribution over a large area, the mutual influence on the resuspension of sediment sludge in the transverse target pond. This allows the fence to the desired flow set concentration of the mixture in the discharge pipe to the ISP and depending on the area and depth of sludge increases or decreases (until the end) the intensity and frequency of supply air in the ventilation device.
Thus, a causal link together the distinctive features of the claimed invention and achievable technical result: regulation of liquid manure, mixed with water, is fed into the storage pond, in particular, the resuspension of precipitated sludge sludge and transport runoff to ISP through the outlet of the intake duct toward the intake pumping station, next to sprinkling machines. This allows due to the receipt of organic fertilisers, effluents to irrigate (hydration) and disposal in the fields of land reclamation.
Work produced during the irrigation period.
According to another embodiment of the invention, the method of flushing pond livestock waste in pond drive place floating platform equipped with a host of establishment of compressed air by the compressor, and production�a period of erosion of sediment silt over the cross section of the pond to mount on both banks of the dam using troublecall system floating platform, and after produce the resuspension of air supplied through the nozzle in the form of a metal barrel with a perforation in its end portion. The speed of movement of the floating platform depends on the extent of erosion of sediment sludge the size of the area of its deposition. The transport platform is moved towards the shore of the dam using a hand winch (not shown). The practical performance of the proposed method of flushing apparent and it fit in with the use of livestock waste to ISP.
This embodiment of the method of flushing pond livestock waste (one of the options) allows comparison with the prototype to ensure that through the consistency of the inlet pipeline when applying effluent to the pond-storage device and a source of compressed air, through laid on the bottom of the perforated pipes in the form of rays, diverging from the air distribution device. Multistage turbidity along the length and width of pond sludge sludge and the introduction of a saturation mass of water to the extent of transportation of the roiled mass in the discharge pipe (intake), i.e., there is a subsequent connection air distribution device with use of the volume of air produced by the compressor, by using a connection to the relay time�Yeni to bring in a cyclic filling air perforated pipes, the ends are plugged, the automatic functioning of the device, allowing you to use it in an ecologically safe area.
Such execution of a method, according to the author, was not previously known and meets the criterion of "substantial differences".
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 shows a General plan of flushing pond livestock waste, such as pig-breeding complex, a plan; Fig. 2 shows a diagram of the flushing pond with livestock waste devices; Fig. 3 - section a-A in Fig. 2, the cross section of ponds; Fig. 4 shows a diagram of the intake piping from the storage pond; Fig. 5 - section b-B in Fig. 4; Fig. 6 - according to another embodiment of the method with a floating platform.
The scheme of realization of the method of leaching pond livestock waste (Fig. 1) consists of a shop separate solids 1, concrete pad for the storage of solid fraction 2, vertical clarifiers 3, aerotank 4, secondary clarifiers 5, quarantine tanks 6, sludge beds 7, ponds effluent 8; inlet drains 9; Staropramen camera 10; a pumping station 11; the irrigation network irrigation plot connected with a pressure pump station 11. The storage pond 8 drains is the area with OGRA�ment dam 12, located at the exit of the transfer of the closed pipeline from the quarantine tank 6. On the bottom 13 of pond 8 (area) hosted a closed ventilation device 15, 14 with a horizontal perforated pipes 16 connected to the ventilation device 14, 15 in the form of a number of rays, diverging towards the base of the upland slope of the dam 12, providing below the deposited sediment sludge the flow of air into the thickness of the sediments. Perforated pipes 16 are connected to the input end with blowing devices 14, 15 which are connected with a Central supply conduit 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air, i.e., is filled with compressed air, which is injected, for example, with a compressor 19., depending on the time relay 20, to a predetermined pressure. Air pressure depends on accumulating on top of silt (sediment), and the second Central duct 18 is connected with blowing devices 14, 15, placed along the length of the pond (the number and volume of compressed air in them depends on the length and width of the pond and composition of perforated piping). The ends of the perforated piping perform a dead-end side of the dam 12. The storage pond by feeding livestock waste is connected via a water inlet t�of unaproved 21 and is 12 above the dam calculated level of slurry in the pond-drive 8. At the other end of pond 8 is placed on the bottom of the intake duct 22 with the receiving water flow 9 with the valve 23. The inlet outlet of the intake pipe 22 is covered with a protective grid 24. The inlet 9 is connected to a drain with gravity through the conduit 25, with Staropramen camera 10 connected to a pumping station 11 on field utilization 26.
Protection pond washing the precipitate with the precipitated sludge is one of the varieties of the method for solving a more General problem - keeping the horizon of wastewater in ponds 8 on set mark throughout the year, prolongation of life and the implementation of sanitary tolerances expenditure in the direction of the pumping station 11, namely pneumatic method, which consists in creating the specific conditions of the organization of the movement of sediment sludge.
According to another embodiment (Fig. 6) a floating platform 27 includes a compressor 19 air pressure in the hose 28 attached to a metal stem 29, which has openings 30 nozzle 31. The metal barrel 29 is attached measuring rod 32 with a pointed bottom end. Water metering rod 32 with the stem 29 may be located in the thick sludge of the sludge at the point of erosion, which is convenient to use and immersion of the barrel 29 with a perforated nozzle 31. Et� allows you to control erosion sediment sludge in the alignment of the pond and its volume. Extend the cable 33 is associated with a floating platform 27 and is fastened on the banks of the dams of 13 pond 8 by means of fixing devices (not shown).
The need way of washing pond livestock waste is manifested as follows.
In working process conditions of the animal breeding pond drive 8 provides a flow of wastewater for irrigation disposal field (ISP) together with fine particles of silt (with no discharge of wastewater outside the facility without flushing downstream facilities). In these conditions ensures environmental safety for disposal of liquid organic fertilizer on the fields of land reclamation, the need for technological calculations, i.e. in the conduct of doses of nutrients, application rates, is achieved by a method to cleanup the soil and carry them with crops that are safe for use in livestock in silage, silage, grass meal etc. of the feed to increase the yield of agricultural crops in two or more times.
The implementation of the method of washing pond livestock waste is as follows.
The incoming wastewater in the pond 8 in the winter accumulate in them and stored before the growing season to ISP (sometimes use those�min - agricultural irrigation fields - ZEP), the depth of which does not exceed four meters, the volume of which is calculated in advance from the number of animals on the property. The wastewater coming into the pond 8 through the inlet suction duct 21 is laid on top of the dam (above the pond bottom), i.e., there is free spout in the absence of flooding pond (in counterparts this as one of the signs of distinction - is absent). No spouts for backwater liquid manure to ensure its full performance with lower pressure losses along the length of the transit - the inlet pipeline 21. The mass movement of liquid manure has a heavier weight volume compared with pure water.
In working process conditions of the slurry in the supply of pond 8 in the outlet of the intake duct 22 with a valve 23, which is coupled to gravity through the conduit 25, Staropramen camera with 10 pumping station 11, the waste water, mixed with silt, initially received in the outlet of the intake duct 22. Accumulated during the winter period of operation of the storage pond 8 silt, and bringing it in suspension, by means of the compressor 19, are filled with compressed air blowing devices 14 and 15, the cavity of the perforated pipes 16 arranged on the bottom of the pond-acapital� 8. Due to this deposition of silt washed away and come in suspension over the entire area volume of effluent storage pond 8. As a result of the intake of effluent at the outlet of the intake duct 22, Il intensively moved to the tubing 22, then into the drain 9. The required air flow rate for rising up the accumulated sludge at the cross section of pond 8, captures the region just received liquid manure. Leads him to the translational motion in the water outlet pipe 22. This is because there is the elevation of the bottom of the intake duct 22 and the bottom of the gravity pipeline 25, the United length at the end with Staropramen chamber 10, forming, thus, the filling chamber 10 with slurry before pumping station 11, then the flow goes to ISP 26 to sprinkling machines (not shown).
Thus, escaping through the holes of the perforated pipe 16, the compressed air loosens and muddies the existing sludge with simultaneous saturation of them with manure runoff and transports it to the outlet of the intake duct 22.
The formation, development and transportation of sheet flow (flow) with silt occurs actively, throughout the length and width of pond 8, which leads to reduction of the time of drawdown of the pond-seq�the tell 8 during the growing season IPU 26, release and preparation of pond 8 to the winter period of operation in the mode of filling of livestock effluents. Resulting in continued environmental sustainability environment and safety facilities.
According to another embodiment (Fig. 6) with the use of a floating platform 27 can be installed in working position by a cable 33 to the winch (not shown). The breakdown of the plot of the waters of the produce of the bands. Laying hose and moving it occurs in the process of a floating platform. Thus, when sediment erosion of silt in the pond are made periodic measurements to determine the size of sediment of silt in this area. The breakdown of erosion zones area of pond (water area) on the strip is connected to chassis fixing Toros 33 is movable floating platform 27 along the seawall with the places of attachment to the cable 33 in the process of examination, inspection, determine the nature and position of the target suspension cable 33, due to the accumulation of sediment sludge. The frequency of the movement for erosion depends on the design of the barrel 29 with a tip 30. The compressor is located on a floating platform 27, is fixed to the shores of dams 12 cables. Loosening and resuspension of sediment of silt carried by the airflow through the perforated nozzle holes connected to the metal�m barrel 29, by connecting it to a pressure hose to the duct 28 (pressure of 0.3-0.5 MPa, i.e., 3-5 kg/cm2). Water metering rod 32 is installed near the place of work floating platform 27. The height of the prism sediments, deposited silt in the number of spots in the pond 8 define the divisions of the rail 32 relative to the top of the dam 12. By measuring the height of the deposited silt in some points of the bottom 13 of pond 8, it is possible to calculate its volume and the time required for leaching. Cleaning pressure hose 28 is produced upon completion of work. It also allows you to use this device for sediment sludge, although it increases the cost of operation of the facility and takes more time on the resuspension of sediment, sludge, mixing with the upper layers of manure effluent (water). This is due to the movement of the platform 27. This variant (Fig. 6) execution may be used in the case where an existing pond is already built and is in operation without considering the peculiarities of the preparation of liquid manure at the main complex, i.e. has not been considered in the design.
Thus, the construction of ponds for livestock waste by the proposed method will provide a fence effluent regardless of the horizons in the pond drive 8 and its contamination (the presence of sedimentary sludge), sludge periodically vspuchivaetsja possible utilitarian irrigation disposal fields with the use of sprinkling machines to increase crop yields, i.e. with the use of organic fertilizer for watering the livestock breeding complexes.
Evaluation (on the example of livestock farms) with the involvement of the sewage for irrigation, attach conditions to the lack of education of the dam with silt pond as a whole.
The efficiency of the construction is achieved in that in the intake piping of effluent from the storage pond living section it increases sharply for additional wastewater from livestock breeding complex with the use of increased speed and carrying capacity roiled manure runoff, which contributes to the reduction of flushing and feeding dozens of times. Productivity is increased not less than 10 times, and the cost of the cleanup will fall by at least 3-5 times. The pond is basically calculated on storage of effluent, in the absence of the irrigation season, during 7-8 months, the depth of the ponds reaches up to 4 m, i.e. depending on the volume of incoming sewage for a given period of time. The surface area of the ponds is also calculated at the design stage. The bottom and slopes of the ponds are covered with stable plastic wrap in two layers, and the top is protected from damage by a layer of soil with a minimum thickness of one meter. Areal drainage tube (Fig. 5) is placed on g�generally, provide dewatering of at least 0.5 m below the design level, the design of the bottom of the ponds. In addition, the water in the pond with external parties are observation wells (not shown) can be installed alarm devices that monitor the water level in ponds, for example a sound signal about the filling of the ponds, which takes a Manager at a livestock facility on the channelized line.
1. Method of leaching pond livestock waste, creating a closed water area formed by the dike, in which body is arranged in the inlet water hole, and opposite to the inlet of the intake pipe, characterized in that the water area is carried out in a pond with a zone of accumulation of sediment sludge from liquid effluent, inside of which a blowing device with the formation in the form of a number of rays radiating from the device horizontal perforated pipes at the base of the upland slope of the dam, thus increasing the accumulation of sediment in the form of silt in areas of the pond, feed portions of the air blowing device resume with a short connection to the compressor via the relay team's time on the air duct to the intake duct closed vozduhon�gnetales the device and perforated piping end stub end.
2. Method of leaching pond livestock waste, creating a closed water area formed by the dike, in which body is arranged in the inlet water hole, and opposite to the inlet of the intake pipe, a compressor, characterized in that pond drive place floating platform, a compressor connected to a pressure hose to the duct, the tip of which is made in the form of a metal barrel with a perforation in its end portion attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the target sediments of silt, which is injected into the thickness of the precipitate, and produce it after the resuspension of the sediment depth, this floating platform is attached on both banks of the dam using troublecall system in areas of erosion, deposition of sediment, sludge and air supply resume.
SUBSTANCE: water outlet comprises the inlet 1 and transit 2 channels, associated with water intake gallery, having the water inlet opening in the upper part, covered with grid 11. Grid 11 also covers the V-shaped threshold 10, which separates the sediments before the bottom slot of gallery into coarse fractions. The side walls of the supply channel 1 are provided with guide elements with possibility of their displacement towards the threshold. Guide elements are designed with L-shaped vertical walls 13 with shelves 14, placed above the bottom of the supply channel 1. The lower edges of vertical walls are installed relative to the bottom of the inlet channel 1 with gap. Gallery is made with intake portal in the form of tube, the upper part of the case of which with oblique cut 6 is located above the slotted hole of the gallery. Due to the fact that the cross-section portal of tube with the inlet portion 5 is located slightly above the bottom of the chamber, the water flow to the discharge pipeline is increased, and flow regime through the portal into the transit channel 2 occurs without splashing and all sediments go down. In the presence of bending, the flow speed profile is more uniform in the pipeline, which reduces the tendency of flow separation from the inner curved wall and reduces the energy losses along the length of the pipeline, caused by the vortex turbulence. Pressure losses in the inlet portion at the presence of tubular portion, curved in three dimensions, as in the outlet portion of the pipeline, are reduced.
EFFECT: construction of water outlet as a whole provides its protection against the sediments, as well as in case of the absence of water inlet and simplification of the design at the increased discharge capacity, besides the length of the discharge pipeline is reduced respectively.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: sand and grit catcher comprises a main receiving cylindrical container 1 installed within an additional container 2 of a larger volume. The main receiving container 1 houses a hollow cylinder 10, coupled to the supply water conduit 12. The cylinder 10 is divided by a horizontal partition wall 13 into two cavities 15 and 16. The horizontal partition wall 13 has a hole in the middle part. Water-discharge windows 20 are located in the walls of the cylinder 10 above the partition wall 13. Water-discharge orifices 6 are located in the walls of the sloping bottom 5 of the main container 1 relative to each other. Water discharge orifices 6 are equipped with sediment intercepting elements in the form of gates 7 with the possibility of vertical movement towards the hollow cylinder from the side of the main container 1. The bottom of the main container 1 and the additional container 2 is inclined at a various angles to the horizontal axis of the apparatus, secured in the base of the foundation 28. Wash pipeline 24 runs in the centre of the additional container 2. Container 2 in the top of its wall is connected with clean water discharge pipe 25. In this step-hydraulic water regime with sediment going through the cylinder 10, container 1 into the additional container 2 in the form of constricting or expanding areas, the sediment will flow into discharge manifold, being flushed from the inclined bottom walls, and clean water will flow from the upper layers of the additional container 2 into the discharge pipeline 25 and further to the consumer.
EFFECT: efficiency and reliability is improved in changing energy parameters of the incident flow with benthic and suspended sediment, and hydrodynamic impact on the bottom of the additional container is reduced.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: water intake purifying facility includes the receiving settling chamber 1 and additional settling chamber 2 between the supply 3 and outlet 4 water lines. The receiving settling chamber 1 for collecting sediments is designed with the inclined bottom and is divided by vertical separating wall 5 into two sections 6 and 7, unified by the window 8. Window 8 is designed in the lower part of separating wall 5. Chamber 1 has a flushing opening 9 with the collector 10. The second section 7 of chamber for collecting sediments is provided with vertical T-shaped wall 14 with horizontal brim 15 at the end of the inclined bottom. Wall 14 is secured to the bottom of pit 16, 20. Visor 15 by one end is mounted to the side of separating wall 5, and by the other - to the side of additional settling chamber 2. Receiving settling chamber 1 is provided by width with horizontal training walls 11, installed by height relative to each other with offset respectively to the separating wall 5. Training walls 11 are fixed from side of the second section 7 of chamber 1. Additional settling chamber 2 is located between the vertical T-shaped wall 14, wall 17 and threshold 18 of discharge section of water line 4. Bottom of chamber 2 is designed with inclination towards the pit 20 with flushing hole 21 with collector 22. Separating wall 5 from the inner side in its upper part is provided with the curved visor 12 with the slotted opening 13. During the facility operation, water containing sediments enters into the receiving settling chamber 1, where slows and sediments are concentrated in the lower part of section 7, and partial possibly suspended sediments enter along the inclined bottom of chamber 2 and drawn into the pit 20 near the flushing hole 21 with collector 22.
EFFECT: efficiency of continuous purification of water from the bottom and suspended sediments is improved, possibility to control the hydraulic flow structure in the additional sedimentation chamber is provided.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a shield controller 4 and a threshold in a channel. The shield controller 4 is installed at the outlet of a transition section 1, placed between supply 2 and transit 3 channels. In the lower part of the shield controller 4 there is a flush hole 5. At the inlet of the receiving chamber there is a flat shield in the form of an overflow threshold with a drive 14 with capability of vertical displacement. Flow energy redistribution is carried out by displacement of the flat shield. A jet-guiding threshold is made from two sections in the form of a curvilinear and rectilinear 18 one in the vertical direction of walls, providing for the jet-guiding system and kinematically connected with the overflow threshold. The curvilinear wall is installed on the axis 13 as capable of rotation. Installation of the jet-guiding system, movable in vertical and horizontal planes and connected with the movable overflow threshold, placed at the side of the lateral wall of the receiving chamber, provides for concentration of sediment flushing in direction of the flushing hole 5 of the shield controller 4 and further into the transit channel 3.
EFFECT: increased reliability in operation by means of lower impact at a control accessory of bottom and suspended sediments contained in water.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a settling chamber 1 with a flushing gallery placed between the supply 2 and drainage 3 sections of the channel. The chamber is made with rising side slopes 21, in the lower part of which there is an inlet hole 4 of the flushing gallery 5. The system also comprises a centrifugal clarifier made in the form of cylindrical chambers 6 and 7. The bottom of the chamber 6 is made as inclined towards the central flushing hole. The chamber 7 is placed inside the vertical chamber 6. At the inlet to the settling chamber 1 there is a flat sluice gate 23 with a curvilinear screen 24. The flushing gallery 5 adjoins with its inlet to the inlet at the outer side of the cylindrical chamber 6 and is placed inside the chamber 7, equipped by additional nozzles. The second nozzle 13 is made in the form of an attachment 12 with a flow swirler and with development of a directed water flow connected to a source of discharge water pipeline, and is placed as coaxial to the vertical axis of the flushing drainage pipeline. The lower edge of the internal cylindrical chamber 7 is arranged above the bottom of the external cylindrical chamber 6. The inlet end wall of the flushing gallery is equipped with a horizontal screen 20.
EFFECT: simplified design and higher efficiency of water intake protection against ingress of bottom sediments and floating debris.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes arrangement of a trench 7 between supply 24 and transit 18 channels, a lock 5 in the form of rigidly fixed webs with excitation of cross circulation of the flow, a sediment-diverting channel 6, a wash hole 4, which is arranged in an inclined manner in direction of the flow, and a rift. A drive is made in the form of a float, traction rods and a drain pipeline. The lock is made in the form of a vertical shield 1, the lower edge of which is arranged below the channel bottom. As water level increases upstream the vertical shield, which serves as a circulating rift, the shield 1 is moved in guides with the possibility of vertical displacement along the height of the trench 7, which is divided into two unequal parts. The lower edge of the vertical shield is equipped with two rigidly connected plates, placed in the bottom part of the trench, the upper (front) 2 of them has length larger than the horizontal lower plate 3. The upper plate 2 provides for the possibility of an inclined jet-directing element towards a sediment-washing opening 4, and the lower plate 3 provides for a protective screen.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of control by reduction of sediments feed into a transit channel and reduction of inefficient water discharge for washing of sediments, provides for the possibility to adjust a hydraulic structure of a flow in a draining trench.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises washout of sediments by water jets to carry fine fractions over by flow and strengthening waterway bottom by coarse fractions forming riprap. Velocities of washout and carryover sediments in continuous blow with stream are created by in-channel basin displacing in blow. Said in-channel basin is formed by device acting as water-retaining construction of variable geometry. Proposed method is implemented using the device composed of horizontal web with ballast arranged thereon connected with pressure web by ropes to make water passage there between and provided with balloons secured along said passage on said web and adjusted by filler. Opening of said passage is adjusted by moving web. The latter is secured by stabilising rings to ropes, pressure web and directly to balloon and horizontal web by ropes via said guide rings. Device displacement in blow direction id effected by varying balloon filler volume. Said balloon has inner rope diaphragm tightening it above central part and is installed on horizontal web at the point of fastening to control rope guys locating the device on waterway bed.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of washout.
4 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: water-intake device comprises a body 1 with inlet 2 and outlet 3 holes, where accordingly inlet 4 and outlet 5 membrane valves are inserted. In the body 1 there is a filtering element installed, made in the form of bell components. Components are installed on the axis 13 of square section. In the cylindrical part of the components there are half-openings made in the form of half-channels at the angle α of below 90° to the axis 13, forming filtering channels 14. There are springs 15 installed between components. There are slots 21 and ledges 22 for accurate fixation of bell components.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase reliability and quality of liquid treatment, for instance, from livestock drains of cattle complexes and pig complexes, from solid and fibrous structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention is aimed at increased survival rate of larvae and reduced labour intensity of works for growing fish. Device for growing fish consists of pond, pipe for water drain from pond, water line for supply of water into pond and filter. Device is provided with lantern having rigid frame, water drain nozzle and flexible hose, one end of which is connected to nozzle of lantern, and the second one - to nozzle of pipe for water drain. Filter is placed onto rigid frame of lantern to form side walls, bottom, and includes hole for lantern nozzle, which is arranged in lower part of lantern, and length of flexible hose is arranged as equal to 1.2-1.5 of maximum depth of water in pond. Filter may be made of mill screen or in the form of metal wire lattices, at the same time opening for nozzle of lantern will be located on side wall of lattice.
EFFECT: increased survival rate of larvae and reduced labour intensity of works for growing fish.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: water construction purification.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydromechanisation namely to technology of purification and restoration of biological ponds of purification plants. Method of purification and restoration of biological ponds of purification plants includes intake of silt sediments with suction dredge from the bottom of multi-sectional pond and their transportation to sedimentation tanks. Pond is divided into two working areas of treatment, the latter is connected by means of additional input collector with sewage-water supplying canal in direction of sewage water flow motion, the former is blanked off, and construction of ground dam in area of purification is carried out as protective means. After that step-by-step purification of area is performed, for this purpose trench in silt sediments layer is sucked off by suction dredge, after that clarified water is pumped out and discharged into diversion canal. Silt sediments are collected in flowing state and transported either to silt sites or to sedimentation tanks. After that compressed silt sediments are dried by means of active ventilation and removed layer by layer as upper layer dries. After complete removal of silt sediments, base, bed of purified pond section, is restored, and said procedures are step-by-step repeated in successive purification of all sections of first area. Before purification of second working area round dam is erected again in last section of first working area of treatment, separating it from second working area, which is blanked off. First working area is joined to additional output collector with branch duct and opened, after which purification and restoration of sections of second working area are carried out. After finishing purification works ground dam, which was re-erected between two working areas, additional input and output collectors are removed, and second working area of pond is opened for functioning.
EFFECT: ensuring possibility of functioning of purification plants biological ponds without stopping them for purification.
8 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises a collector 1 connected with the drains 2 entering into it, vertical tubes 3 and a device for flushing of sediments. The device for flushing is made of perforated pipes 4 in the form of air outlets 7 arranged inside the drains 2 attached to the upper part of the pipes above the bottom. The perforated pipe 4 by the metal barrel 6, placed in the tube 3 is connected to the pressure hose 8, which inlet is connected to the discharge pipe 9 with the valve 10 of the receiver 11. The receiver 11 is connected to the compressor 12 generating the compressed air. The compressor 12 is connected to the timing relay. The invention increases the transporting capacity of disturbance sediments and other compounds in the drain cavity and accelerates their removal into the open channel 17.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of flushing and increased drainage term by air exposure to sediments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the drain well 1 a chamber 11 is located, communicated with the outlet orifices 12 and 25, and a container 13. In the chamber 11 a float articulation linkage is placed, the rod 18 of which is passed through the orifice 12 into the container 13, in which the cone valve 14 with the load 15 is placed. The container 13 through the pipeline 16 is connected to the outlet drain 4. The bottom of the chamber 11 is communicated with the drain well 1 by the inlet opening 17 and is made in the form of a valve 23 and a float sensor 22 interconnected with the rod with the ability of axial displacement. The inlet opening 17 of the float sensor 22 is formed with projections-limiters 24 with windows. The housing 10 of the shut-off device has a recess in which a pipe 26 with a spring 27 with a screw 28 is placed. The spring 27 is placed in the cavity of the flexible sleeve 29, which serves as protection from clogging with debris and deposits. The sensing element in the form of a spring 27 supports the valve 3 in opening and closing the opening 9 in the seat of the housing 10, which eliminates the shock loading of the valve on the seat in the housing 10. Closing the opening of the shut-off device is carried out only after emptying of the float chamber. As a result of this the work of the float drive is balanced by moments of forces from the minimum to the maximum water level in the well 1.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the device, improved accuracy of regulation and enhanced range of technical means for regulation of the water level in the closed drainage systems.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: body of a water-diversion ditch comprises two substantially identically formed surface blocks, namely: a bottom block and a substantially identically formed cover block, which with the help of spacing elements are connected to each other at the mounting distance. Surface blocks are proposed to be made substantially as capable of engagement when laid into stacks, so that the mounting distance of the surface blocks is considerably more than their distance when laid into a stack. Spacing elements are substantially shaped in the form of a truncated cone or a truncated pyramid, with a limited surface of the cross section, which with increased distance from the surface blocks becomes less. The first alternative version may include placement of the spacing elements on the surface units so that bottom blocks and bottom covers are laid as overlapping each other according to the type of stonework tying. The second alternative version may provide for overlapping connection of the bottom blocks and the cover blocks to each other according to the type of stonework tying.
EFFECT: high stability simultaneously with the possibility to save area during storing and transportation.
14 cl, 23 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises twisting the device for drain formation in the ground or soil to the desired depth. The device consists of dual hollow tubes. The outer tube has uniformly spaced protrusions of constant rectangular section rigidly fixed on the lateral cylindrical surface along the helical line with a constant pitch. After reaching the desired depth by the device, the inner tube together with the cohesive soil is removed from the outer tube to form a hollow space. The soil is removed from the inner tube. Then the inner tube is wrapped with anti-suffusion material and placed back into the hollow space of the outer tube. Then filter material is poured. The dual outer and inner tubes as filled with the filter material are twisted using a handle.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and productivity in the construction of vertical drains in cohesive soils.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for horizontal draining of waterlogged structures on pile foundations relates to construction, namely to the construction of drainage systems for the protection of structures on pile foundations against ground water logging. As per the proposed method, dewatering of a waterlogged object is achieved due to the fact that from one radial drain well developed along the outer wall outside the structure normally to rows of the load-carrying piles and equipped with a filter there passed are additional side drain wells between the rows of piles. Drilling of additional shafts is performed by means of a downhole motor and diverting devices out of the above said radial well. The steadiness of walls of the additional wells at drilling is provided by the application of hydrolysed polyacrylonitrile or other self-decomposed drill fluids. After driving of the side additional shafts is completed, the drill tool is disconnected and used for the shutoff of the well bottom, and the motor together with drill pipes is removed through a filter pipe that was drawn by means of the downhole motor.
EFFECT: proposed drainage system allows solving a problem of protection against waterlogging of structures on pile foundations.
SUBSTANCE: mouth of the drain manifold comprises a shut-off valve 32 with the float drive 23 and the rod 31 mounted on the drain headwall, located in the drainage well 16. The mouth of the drain manifold comprises a plug-ended pipe 1 and is equipped with two chambers 10 and 11. The lower chamber 10 is connected to the upper chamber 11. The chambers 10, 11 through the inlet openings 12, 13 with the pipes 14, 15 are connected through the side wall 16 of the well mounted in the channel 17, and constitute a hydraulic switch, in which the water levels are recorded by the flap valves 19, 20. The upper chamber 11 is connected with a water-filled container 27 with a float 23 connected by the hinged-lever drive with a valve 19 and rigidly through the rod 31 with the shut-off valve 32. The lower chamber 10 is connected through the check valve 7 with the gate 6 with the drain tube 5 connected to the Venturi tube 4 of the drain 3. The outlet opening 18 at the bottom of the chamber 11 is provided with a flat flap valve 19, and the tube 14 - with the flap valve 20. The flap valve 20 through the hinges with the rod 21 is connected with the flap valve 19 which is connected by the hinged-lever drive through the fixed hinge 22 with a float 23. The water-filled container 27 with a calibrated water outlet opening 33 has a float movement limiter made in the form of the level retainers 24.
EFFECT: reliability of operation in transient conditions, depending on the position of water level in the channel is provided by the presence of hydraulic relay consisting of two chambers, interconnected by the valves, and the container, in particular the calibrated opening in it, calculated from the condition that the water level in the retainer of closing of the shut-off device is slower.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: previously they make a horizontal circular drainage 1 with a tubular drain having gravel fill and wrapped in geotextile. Then a bed drain 3 is arranged under the bottom of the basement with filtering fill from crushed stone. A sink 4 is equipped with fill from coarse-grained sand. Walls 6 and the bottom 7 of the basement are hydraulically insulated. Piles 8 are driven, and a groove-and-tongue wall 9 is arranged. Perpendicularly to the horizontal drains 1 tightly to the groove-and-tongue wall 9 at the rated distance they arrange vertical perforated plastic pipes 2. Vertical collectors 2 are wrapped by a protective filtering material and are combined into a single system. For quick reduction of ground water level they apply forced pumping of water by a pump 10 from vertical collectors 2 with its further discharge into the horizontal circular drainage 1.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of drainage operation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: drainage-humidification system comprises a supply 1 and a discharge 2 closed irrigation pipelines interconnected with water distribution executive unit. The water distribution executive unit consists of a vertical pipe 3 mounted on the supply pipeline 1 and the working chamber 4 of pressure with separation from it by the membrane 5 with the rod 6. The water distribution executive unit, the valve gear 19, the container 24 with the float 23, and the rotary valve 44 with the control pipeline are located in series. The cavity 11 of the chamber 4 is connected via the hydraulic pipeline 64 provided with a valve 65, with the switch 27, the shank of which is fixed pivotally with one end of the lever 50 to the rod 22. Movement of the upper lever 50 is limited by the upper stop 58, and the lower lever 51 - by the lower stop 59 above and below the threshold level in the storage container 24. The valve gear 19 is made in the form of a cylinder and has a double piston 20 which is pivotally coupled to the rod 22 of the float actuator. The valve gear 19 is connected to the supply irrigation pipeline 1 through the control pipeline 34 to the valve 35 and is respectively connected to the manifold 42 with drains-humidifiers 43. The storage container 24 with a siphon 28 communicates through the rotary valve 44 to the control pipelines 31, 34, respectively, with valves 32, 35 and with the supply pipeline 1.
EFFECT: system enables to create closed automated systems in land reclamation, to save water resources, to obtain the necessary productivity of agricultural products with the effective use of land.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of land reclamation and can be used for draining soils in heavy-textured soils, as well as in regulation of the water level in upper pools of bulkhead structures in irrigation and drainage-humidification channels. The system comprises an inlet 1 and an outlet 28 drains, a storage container 2 and a chamber 3 connected by the pipe 4. The chamber 3 is placed in an inspection manhole 5, in which a siphon is mounted. A float 18 is placed in an additional chamber 20 and is provided with a load 19 with a variable mass. The system comprises a three-port articulation linkage, the first port 8 of which is pivotally connected to the first horizontal axis of rotation 7. A shutter 6 is connected to the axis of rotation 7 with the ability of rotation and fixing the shutter in the end positions by means of clamps on the output head of the chamber 3 which is connected to the inlet pipe. The second port is made in the form of a rod 9 mounted on the second horizontal axis of rotation 11 and connected to a lever 10. The lever 10 is pivotally connected to a rod 12 rigidly connected to the float 18. The rod 9 by a lever 13 with a slider 14 is connected to a rack 15, on which a limiter 16 is secured using a retaining screw 17. In the bottom of the additional chamber 20 there is an inlet 23 with the located valve 24 connected to a float sensor 25. The inspection manhole 5 is equipped with a siphon made in the form of a vertically mounted cylindrical nozzle 29 connected to the outlet 28 drain, and a cap 30 located above it. The combination of the articulation linkage with the floating drive mounted on the wall of the chamber (well) with control elements enables to avoid imbalances by moving the shutter 6 on the axis 7, and the operation of the siphon also enables to adjust automatically water discharge to the outlet drain with the stable flow rate.
EFFECT: system is reliable and stable in operation, it has continuous monitoring of the water level and eliminates an emergency.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of biological purification of sewage water with active silt is realised with application of biologically active substance, which is represented by powder-like substance UWDM-1, containing rotaxane molecules and binuclear copper complex, in amount, providing its concentration in bioreactor, equal 10-6-1·10-10 mg/dm3. Device for method realisation consists of hermetic case (1) with branch pipes of input (2) of sewage water, discharge (3) of purified water, discharge of biogas (4), coaxially located in case hollow central tube (5) with branch pipes of supply (6) and discharge (7) of heat-carrier, means for supply of biologically active substance. Means for supply of biologically active substance is made in form of mixer with drive (8), provided with dosing devices (9) in upper part, and in lower part connected by means of pipeline (1) with upper part of case (1). Central tube (5) is separated by not less than two transverse nets (11), covered with porous material (12). Holes (13) of nets (11) are located with displacement relative to each other.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of purification.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex